Front Page Titles (by Subject) SIXTH PRAŚNA - The Thirteen Principal Upanishads
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SIXTH PRAŚNA - Misc (Upanishads), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads 
The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, translated from the Sanskrit with an outline of the philosophy of the Upanishads and an annotated bibliography, by Robert Ernest Hume (Oxford University Press, 1921).
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Concerning the Person with sixteen parts1
1. Then Sukeśan Bhāradvāja asked him [i.e. Pippalāda]: ‘Sir, Hiraṇyanābha, a prince of the Kośalas, came to me and asked this question: “Bhāradvāja, do you know the Person with the sixteen parts?” I said to the youth: “I know him not. If I had known him, would I not have told you? Verily, he dries up even to the roots, who speaks untruth. Therefore it is not proper that I should speak untruth.” In silence he mounted his chariot and departed.
I ask it of you: “Where is that Person?” ’
2. To him he then said: ‘Even here within the body, O friend, is that Person in whom they say the sixteen parts arise.
3. He [i.e. the Person] thought to himself: “In whose departure shall I be departing? In whose resting firm, verily, shall I be resting firm?”
4. He created life (prāṇa); from life, faith (śraddhā), space (kha), wind, light, water, earth, sense-faculty (indriya), mind, food; from food, virility, austerity, sacred sayings (mantra), sacrifice, the worlds; and in the worlds, name [i. e. the individual].
5. As these flowing rivers that tend toward the ocean, on reaching the ocean, disappear, their name and form (nāma-rūpa) are destroyed, and it is called simply “the ocean”—even so of this spectator these sixteen parts that tend toward the Person, on reaching the Person, disappear, their name and form are destroyed, and it is called simply “the Person.” That one continues without parts, immortal! As to that there is this verse:—
Conclusion of the instruction
7. To them then he [i.e. Pippalāda] said: ‘Thus far, in truth, I know that supreme Brahma. There is naught higher than It.’
8. They praised him and said: ‘You truly are our father—you who lead us across to the shore beyond ignorance.’
Adoration to the supreme seers!
Adoration to the supreme seers!
The mystic symbolism of the word ‘Om’:
(a) identified with the fourfold, pantheistic time-Brahma
1.Om!—This syllable1 is this whole world.
Its further explanation is:—
The past, the present, the future—everything is just the word Om.
And whatever else that transcends threefold time2 —that, too, is just the word Om.
2. For truly, everything here is Brahma; this self (ātman) is Brahma. This same self has four fourths.
(b) representing in its phonetic elements the four states of the Self
4. The dreaming state (svapna-sthāna), inwardly cognitive, having seven limbs, having nineteen mouths, enjoying the exquisite (pravivikta-bhuj), the Brilliant (taijasa), is the second fourth.
5. If one asleep desires no desire whatsoever, sees no dream whatsoever,1 that is deep sleep (suṣupta).
The deep-sleep state (suṣupta-sthāna), unified (ekī-bhūta),2 just (eva) a cognition-mass (prajñāna-ghana),3 consisting of bliss (ānanda-maya),4 enjoying bliss (ānanda-bhuj), whose mouth is thought (cetas-), the Cognitional (prājña), is the third fourth.
6. This is the lord of all (sarveśvara).5 This is the all-knowing (sarva-jña).6 This is the inner controller (antar-yāmin).7 This is the source (yoni)8 of all, for this is the origin and the end (prabhavāpyayau)9 of beings.
7. Not inwardly cognitive (antaḥ-prajña), not outwardly cognitive (bahiḥ-prajña), not both-wise cognitive (ubhayataḥ-prajña), not a cognition-mass (prajñāna-ghana), not cognitive (prajña), not non-cognitive (a-prajña), unseen (a-dṛṣṭa), with which there can be no dealing (a-vyavahārya), ungraspable (a-grāhya), having no distinctive mark (a-lakṣaṇa), non-thinkable (a-cintya), that cannot be designated (a-vyapadeśya), the essence of the assurance of which is the state of being one with the Self10 (ekātmya-pratyaya-sāra), the cessation of development (prapañcopaśama), tranquil (śānta), benign (śiva), without a second (a-dvaita)—[such] they think is the fourth.11 He is the Self (Ātman). He should be discerned.
8. This is the Self with regard to the word Om, with regard to its elements. The elements (mātra) are the fourths; the fourths, the elements: the letter a, the letter u, the letter m.1
9. The waking state, the Common-to-all-men, is the letter a, the first element, from āpti (‘obtaining’) or from ādimatvā (‘being first’).
He obtains, verily, indeed, all desires, he becomes first—he who knows this.
10. The sleeping state, the Brilliant, is the letter u, the second element, from utkarṣa (‘exaltation’) or from ubhayatvā (‘intermediateness’).
He exalts, verily, indeed, the continuity of knowledge; and he becomes equal2 (samāna); no one ignorant of Brahma is born in the family of him who knows this.
11. The deep-sleep state, the Cognitional, is the letter m, the third element, from miti (‘erecting’) or from apīti3 (‘immerging’).
He, verily, indeed, erects (minoti) this whole world,4 and he becomes its immerging—he who knows this.
12. The fourth is without an element, with which there can be no dealing, the cessation of development, benign, without a second.
Thus Om is the Self (Ātman) indeed.
He who knows this, with his self enters the Self5 —yea, he who knows this!
[1 ]In VS. 8. 36 Prajāpati, ‘Lord of Creation,’ is addressed as ṣoḍaśin, ‘with sixteen parts.’ In Bṛih. 1. 5. 14 the year is identified with Prajāpati and explained as having sixteen parts because its component half-months each consist of fifteen days and a turning-point. According to Bṛih. 1. 5. 15 the human person who understands this fact becomes similarly characterized. A practical proof of a person’s sixteenfoldness is adduced at Chānd. 6. 7, and an etymological proof at Śat. Br. 10. 4. 1. 17.
[1 ]Inasmuch as akṣaraṁ means also ‘imperishable,’ the word may in this connection be used with a double significance, namely, ‘This imperishable syllable . . .’
[2 ]A similar phrase occurs at Śvet. 6. 5 b.
[3 ]Śaṅkara refers to the enumeration of the several parts of the universal (vaiśvānara) Self at Chānd. 5. 18. 2; there, however, the list is longer than seven. The exact significance of the number here is uncertain.
[4 ]Śaṅkara explains this to mean: the five organs of sense (buddhīndriya), namely those of hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell, the five organs of action (karmendriya), namely those of speech, handling, locomotion, generation, and excretion, the five vital breaths (prāṇa), the sensorium (manas), the intellect (buddhi), egoism (ahaṁkāra), and thinking (citta).
[1 ]The part of the sentence up to this point has occurred already in Bṛih. 4. 3. 19.
[2 ]A detailed description of the condition of being ‘unified’ occurs at Bṛih. 4. 4. 2.
[3 ]This compound has already occurred in Bṛih. 4. 5. 13.
[4 ]A description of the self ‘consisting of bliss’ occurs in Tait. 2. 5. It is declared to be the acme of attainment over every other form of self at Tait. 2. 8. 1 and 3. 10. 5.
[5 ]A phrase in Bṛih. 4. 4. 22.
[6 ]A phrase in Muṇḍ. 1. 1. 9; 2. 2. 7.
[7 ]The subject of discourse in Bṛih. 3. 7.
[8 ]Literally, ‘womb.’
[9 ]A phrase in Kaṭha 6. 11.
[10 ]Or, according to the reading ekātma-, ‘the oneness of the Self’ or ‘one’s own self.’
[11 ]The designation here used for the ‘fourth,’ or super-conscious, state is caturtha the usual and regular form of the ordinal numeral adjective. In Bṛih. (at 5. 14. 3, 4, 6, 7) it is named turīya, and in Maitri (at 6. 19; 7. 11. 7) turya—variant forms of the same ordinal. All later philosophical treatises have the form turīya, which came to be the accepted technical term.
[1 ]In Sanskrit the vowel o is constitutionally a diphthong, contracted from a + u. Om therefore may be analyzed into the elements a + u + m.
[2 ]Either (1) in the sense of ‘equable,’ i. e. unaffected in the midst of the pairs of opposites (dvandva); or (2) in the sense of ‘equitable,’ i. e. impartial, alike, indifferent to both friend and foe; or (3) in the sense of ‘equalized,’ i. e. with the universe, which a knower understands exists only as his Self’s consciousness; or even (4) in the very common sense of ‘same,’ i. e. the same as that which he knows.
[3 ]Possibly as a synonym for another meaning of miti (derived from √mi, mināti), ‘destroying’ or ‘perishing.’
[4 ]That is, out of his own consciousness—according to the philosophic theory of subjective idealism expounded in the Upanishads.
[5 ]This is a phrase which has previously occurred at VS. 32. 11.