Front Page Titles (by Subject) FIRST VALLĪ (Śikshā Vallī, 'Chapter concerning Instruction') - The Thirteen Principal Upanishads
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FIRST VALLĪ (Śikshā Vallī, ‘Chapter concerning Instruction’) - Misc (Upanishads), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads 
The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, translated from the Sanskrit with an outline of the philosophy of the Upanishads and an annotated bibliography, by Robert Ernest Hume (Oxford University Press, 1921).
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Invocation, adoration, and supplication
Adoration to Brahma! Adoration to thee, Vāyu!
Thou, indeed, art the perceptible Brahma. Of thee, indeed, the perceptible Brahma, will I speak. I will speak of the right (ṛta). I will speak of the true. Let that favor me! Let that favor the speaker! Let it favor me! Let it favor the speaker!
Om! Peace! Peace! Peace!
Lesson on Pronunciation
Om! We will expound Pronunciation2 :
—Thus has been declared the lesson on Pronunciation.2
The mystic significance of combinations
1. Glory (yaśas) be with us two1 !
Pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasa) be with us two1 !
Now next, we will expound the mystic meaning (upaniṣad) of combination (saṁhitā) in five heads:
Now, with regard to the world.—
The earth is the prior form; the heaven, the latter form. Space is their conjunction;  wind, the connection.—Thus with regard to the world.
Now, with regard to the luminaries.—
Fire is the prior form; the sun, the latter form. Water is their conjunction; lightning, the connection.—Thus with regard to the luminaries.
Now, with regard to knowledge.—
The teacher is the prior form;  the pupil, the latter form. Knowledge is their conjunction; instruction, the connection.—Thus with regard to knowledge.
Now, with regard to progeny.—
The mother is the prior form; the father, the latter form. Progeny is their conjunction; procreation, the connection.—Thus with regard to progeny.
4. Now, with regard to oneself.—
The lower jaw is the prior form; the upper jaw, the latter form. Speech is their conjunction; the tongue, the connection.—Thus with regard to oneself.
These are the great combinations. He who knows these combinations thus expounded, becomes conjoined with offspring, with cattle, with pre-eminence in sacred knowledge, with food, with the heavenly world.
A teacher’s prayer
1. He who is pre-eminent among the Vedic hymns (chandas), who is the all-formed (viśva-rūpa),
Who has sprung into being from immortality above the Vedic hymns—
Let this India save (√spṛ) me with intelligence!
O God (deva), I would become possessor of immortality!
 And long1 makes her own—
May students of sacred knowledge (bralimacārin) come unto me! Hail!
May students of sacred knowledge come apart unto me! Hail!
May students of sacred knowledge come forth unto me! Hail!
May students of sacred knowledge subdue themselves! Hail!
May students of sacred knowledge tranquillize themselves! Hail!
3. May I become glorious among men! Hail!
May I be better than the very rich! Hail!
Into thee thyself, O Gracious Lord (bhaga), may I enter! Hail!
Do thou thyself, O Gracious Lord, enter into me! Hail!
In such a one, a thousandfold ramified—O Gracious Lord, in thee I am cleansed! Hail!
As waters run downward, as months into the year, so, O Establisher (dhātṛ), may students of sacred knowledge run unto me from all sides! Hail!
Thou art a refuge! Shine upon me! Come unto me!
The fourfold mystic Utterances
1.Bhūr! Bhuvas! Suvar! Verily, these are the three Utterances (vyāhṛti). And beside these, too, Māhācamasya made known a fourth, namely Mahas (Greatness)! That is Brahma. That is the body (ātman); other divinities are the limbs.
Bhūr, verily, is this world; Bhuvas, the atmosphere; Suvar, yonder world;  Mahas, the sun. Verily, all worlds are made greater (mahīyante) by the sun.
Bhūr, verily, is Agni (Fire); Bhuvas, Vāyu (Wind); Suvar, Āditya (Sun); Mahas, the moon. Verily, all lights are made greater by the moon.
Bhūr, verily, is the Rig verses; Bhuvas, the Sāman chants; Suvar, the Yajus formulas;  Mahas, sacred knowledge (brahma). Verily, all the Vedas are made greater by sacred knowledge.
Bhūr, verily, is the in-breath (prāṇa); Bhuvas, the outbreath (apāna); Suvar, the diffused breath (vyāna); Mahas, food (anna). Verily, all the vital breaths (prāṇa) are made greater by food.
Verily, these four are fourfold. The Utterances are four and four. He who knows these, knows Brahma; to him all the gods bring strength.
A departing person’s attainment with the four Utterances
1. This space that is within the heart—therein is the person, consisting of mind (mano-maya), immortal, resplendent. That which hangs down between the palates like a nipple—that is Indra’s1 place of exit.
Piercing the head at the point where is the edge of the hair, with the word Bhūr he stands upon Agni (Fire); with the word Bhuvas, upon Vāyu (Wind);  with the word Suvar, upon Āditya (the Sun); with the word Mahas, upon Brahma. He obtains self-rule (svā-rājya). He obtains the lord of the mind Lord of the voice, lord of the eye, lord of the ear, lord of the understanding—this and more he becomes, even Brahma, whose body is space (ākāśa-śarīra), whose soul is the real (satyātman), whose pleasure-ground is the breathing spirit, whose mind is bliss (mana-ānanda), abounding in tranquillity (śānti-samṛddha), immortal.—Thus, O Prācĩnayogya (Man of the Ancient Yoga), worship.1
The fivefoldness of the world and of the individual
—Thus with regard to material existence (adhi-bhūta).
Now with regard to oneself (adhy-ātma).—
Having analyzed in this manner, a seer has said: ‘Fivefold, verily, is this whole world. With the fivefold, indeed, one wins the fivefold.’2
Glorification of the sacred word ‘Om’
Om is brahma.3
Om is this whole world.
Om—that is compliance. As also, verily, it is well known—upon the words ‘O! Call forth!’1 they call forth.
With ‘Om’ they sing the Sāman chants.
With ‘Om! Śom!’ they recite the Invocations of Praise (śāstra).
With ‘Om’ the Adhvaryu priest utters the Response.
With ‘Om’ the Brahman priest (brahma) utters the Introductory Eulogy (pra + √stu).
With ‘Om’ one2 assents to the Agni-oblation (agnihotra).
‘Om,’ says a Brahman (brāhmaṇa) about to recite, ‘may I get the sacred word (brahma)!’ He does get the sacred word.3
Study of the sacred word the most important of all duties
The right (ṛta), and also study and teaching.4
The true (satya), and also study and teaching.
Austerity (tapas), and also study and teaching.
Self-control (dama), and also study and teaching.
Tranquillity (śama), and also study and teaching.
The [sacrificial] fires, and also study and teaching.
The Agnihotra sacrifice, and also study and teaching.
Guests, and also study and teaching.
Humanity (mānuṣa), and also study and teaching.
Offspring, and also study and teaching.
Begetting, and also study and teaching.
Procreation, and also study and teaching.
‘The true!’—says Satyavacas (‘Truthful’) Rathītara.
‘Austerity!’—says Taponitya (‘Devoted-to-austerity’) Pauruśishti.
‘Just study and teaching!’—says Nāka (‘Painless’) Maudgalya, ‘for that is austerity—for that is austerity.’
The excellence of Veda-knowledge—a meditation
Exaltedly pure, like the excellent nectar in the sun,2
This is Triśaṅku’s recitation on Veda-knowledge.4
Practical precepts to a student
1. Having taught the Veda, a teacher further instructs a pupil:—
Having brought an acceptable gift to the teacher, cut not off the line of progeny.
2. One should not be negligent of duties to the gods and to the fathers.
Those acts which are irreproachable should be practised, and no others.
Those things which among us are good deeds should be revered by you,  and no others.
Whatever Brahmans (brāhmaṇa) are superior to us, for them refreshment should be procured by you with a seat.1
Now, if you should have doubt concerning an act, or doubt concerning conduct,  if there should be there Brahmans competent to judge, apt, devoted, not harsh, lovers of virtue (dharma)—as they may behave themselves in such a case, so should you behave yourself in such a case.
Now, with regard to [people] spoken against, if there should be there Brahmans competent to judge, apt, devoted, not harsh, lovers of virtue—as they may behave themselves with regard to such, so should you behave yourself with regard to such.
This is the teaching. This is the admonition. This is the secret doctrine of the Veda (veda-upaniṣad). This is the instruction. Thus should one worship. Thus, indeed, should one worship.
Invocation, adoration, and acknowledgment
Adoration to Brahma! Adoration to thee, Vāyu!
Thou, indeed, art the perceptible Brahma. Of thee, indeed, the perceptible Brahma, have I spoken. I have spoken of the right. I have spoken of the true. That has favored me. That has favored the speaker. It has favored me. It has favored the speaker.
Om! Peace! Peace! Peace!
[1 ]This stanza=RV. 1. 90. 9, a hymn to the All-Gods.
[2 ]In the summary title of the chapter, which includes various instructions, the word śikṣā probably has its general meaning of ‘Instruction.’ But here—as also in Muṇḍ. 1. 1. 5—it has a specialized, technical meaning, ‘the Science of Pronunciation.’ As the first stage in the ‘instruction’ concerning the Vedas, this is elaborated as the formal discipline named Śikshā, the first of the six Vedāṅgas (‘Limbs of the Veda’).
[1 ]That is, the teacher and the pupil.
[1 ]If the reading should be ’ciram instead of ciram, then ‘shortly.’ The two following lines, whose grammatical structure is not evident, seem to interrupt this sentence.
[1 ]A name for the individual soul, as in Ait. 1. 3. 12, 14.
[1 ]That is, the conditioned (sa-guṇa) Brahma, who may be worshiped. The absolute, unconditioned Brahma is the object of intellectual appreciation, i.e. of knowledge, not of worship.
[2 ]A similar theory is expressed at Bṛih. 1. 4. 17.
[3 ]Perhaps with a double meaning: both ‘sacred word’ and the philosophical ‘Brahma.’
[1 ]In the ritual, the signal from the Adhvaryu priest for a response from the sacrificer.
[2 ]That is, the person instituting the sacrifice.
[3 ]That is, the Veda.—Com.
[4 ]That is, of the Veda.—Com.
[1 ]That is, ‘I am the feller of the tree of world-delusion (saṁsāra)’ according to Śaṅkara. He also proposes, as a synonym for ‘mover,’ antaryāmin, ‘inner controller’—which suggests to Deussen the (less likely) interpretation. ‘I am the moving (or, animating) spirit of the tree of life.’
[2 ]Literally ‘courser’; a reference here perhaps to the ‘honey in the sun’ of Chānd. 3. 1.—So Śaṅkara divides the words, vājinī ’va sv-amrtaṁ. But if vājinīvasv amṛtaṁ, as BR. suggest, then ‘the Immortal, possessing [possibly, ‘bestowing’—according to BR.] power.’
[3 ]amṛto ’kṣitaḥ. If amṛtokṣitaḥ, then ‘sprinkled with immortality (or, with nectar).’
[4 ]Or, ‘Veda-repetition’ (veda-anuvacana). The whole paragraph is an obscure, mystical meditation, either a preparatory invocation for the study of the Vedas, or a summary praise of its exalting and enlightening effect.
[1 ]Or, ‘in their presence not a word should be breathed by you.’
[2 ]Or, ‘according to one’s plenty.’ BR. and MW.; hardly ‘with grace.’
[3 ]With these exhortations on giving compare the ‘Ode on Liberality,’ RV. 10. 117.
[4 ]Identical with the First Anuvāka, except for certain changes of tense which are appropriate here in the conclusion.