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PART I: ADDENDA AND ERRATA - Johann Sebastian Bach, Bach’s Chorals, vol. 2 The Hymns and Hymn Melodies of the Cantatas and Motetts 
Bach’s Chorals. Part I: 2 The Hymns and Hymn Melodies of the Cantatas and Motetts, by Charles Sanford Terry (Cambridge University Press, 1915-1921). 3 vols. Vol. 2.
Part of: Bach’s Chorals, 3 vols.
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ADDENDA AND ERRATA
There is early and adequate authority for the belief that Bach wrote five complete “year books” of Church Cantatas, i.e. five Cantatas for every one of the Sundays and Festivals of the ecclesiastical year. At Leipzig fifty-nine Cantatas were required annually1 . Consequently, Bach must have written two hundred and ninety-five Cantatas. Of that number certainly thirty were written before he was inducted at Leipzig as successor to Johann Kuhnau (1667-1722) on May 31, 1723. Bach did not write Cantatas during the last years of his life: the latest that can be dated is “Du Friedefürst, Herr Jesu Christ” (No. 116), written for the Twenty-fifth Sunday after Trinity, November 15, 17442 . It is therefore reasonable to limit his activity as a composer at Leipzig to twenty-one years. On that hypothesis, he must have written twelve or thirteen Church Cantatas every year, or at the rate of one every month1 . If it be remembered that during the same period Bach’s genius was exceedingly productive in other forms of musical expression, the conclusion that he was a rapid writer hardly can be challenged, though Spitta disputes it2 .
Less than seventy per cent. of Bach’s Church Cantatas survive. The set of five is complete only for Christmas Day, New Year’s Day (Feast of the Circumcision), Whit Sunday (though one of the five is of doubtful authenticity), Feast of the Purification of the B. V. M., and the Feast of St Michael the Archangel (one of which is of doubtful authenticity). There are four Cantatas in every case for the Third Sunday after Epiphany, Quinquagesima, Easter Day, Ascension Day, Sixteenth Sunday after Trinity, and the Twenty-first Sunday after Trinity. For no other Festival or Sunday have more than three Cantatas survived, and most of them have less1 .
Without reckoning the six Cantatas which form the “Christmas Oratorio2 ,” there survive two hundred and six Church Cantatas composed by Bach, or attributed to him, all of which are published by the Bachgesellschaft. Nos. 1-190 bear the numbers assigned to them in the volumes of the Bachgesellschaft. Nos. 191-198, which are not grouped in a single volume of the B. G. edition, bear the distinguishing numbers attached to them in vol. xx of Breitkopf & Haertel’s vocal scores of the Church Cantatas. No. 199 is published by the Neue Bachgesellschaft. There remain three Cantatas which are incomplete: in the following pages they are designated U 1, U 2, U 3. Finally, there are four Cantatas of doubtful authenticity (B. G. xli): they are here indicated as D 1, D 2, D 3, D 4.
Four of the Church Cantatas (Nos. D 1, D 2, D 3, D 4) were written at dates which are not ascertained.
The remaining 202 Cantatas are distributed between the five periods of Bach’s career:
I. (1704-1708). Arnstadt and Mühlhausen Cantatas (3). Nos. 15, 71, 131.
II. (1708-1717.) Weimar Cantatas (23). Nos. 18, 21, 31, 59, 61, 70, 106, 132, 142, 147, 150, 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 182, 185, 189, 196, 199.
III. (1718-1722.) Cöthen Cantatas (4). Nos. 47, 134, 141, 1731 .
IV. (1723-1734.) Leipzig Cantatas (100). Nos. 4, 8, 9, 12, 16, 19, 20, 22, 232 , 24, 25, 27, 283 , 29, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42, 44, 46, 49, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 60, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 724 , 73, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 93, 95, 97, 98, 99, 102, 104, 105, 107, 109, 112, 117, 119, 120, 129, 136, 137, 140, 144, 145, 148, 149, 153, 154, 156, 157, 159, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 177, 179, 181, 184, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195, 198, U 1, U 2, U 35 .
V. (1735-1750.) Leipzig Cantatas (72). Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 26, 30, 32, 33, 34, 38, 39, 41, 43, 45, 48, 50, 53, 54, 57, 62, 68, 746 , 78, 79, 85, 87, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96, 100, 101, 103, 108, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 133, 135, 138, 139, 143, 146, 151, 175, 176, 178, 180, 183, 193, 197.
It will be convenient to group the Church Cantatas according to the seasons of the Church’s year1 :
Sundays in Advent.
First (Epistle Rom. xiii. 11-14. Gospel St Matt xxi. 1-11).
Second. See No. 70. (E. Rom. xv. 4-13. G. St Luke xxi. 25-36.)
Third (E. 1 Cor. iv. 1-5. G. St Matt. xi. 2-10).
Fourth5 (E. Phil. iv. 4-7. G. St John i. 19-28).
Christmas Day (E. Titus ii. 11-14 or Isaiah ix. 2-7. G. St Luke ii. 1-14).
Feast of St Stephen (E. Titus iii. 4-7 or Acts vi. 8-15, vii. 51-59. G. St Luke ii. 15-20).
Feast of St John the Evangelist (E. Heb. i. 1-12 or 1 John. G. St John i. 1-14).
Sunday after Christmas (E. Gal. iv. 1-7. G. St Luke ii. 33-40).
Feast of the Circumcision (New Year’s Day) (E. Gal. iii. 23-29. G. St Luke ii. 21).
Sunday after the Circumcision (E. 1 Peter iv. 12-19. G. St Matt. ii. 13-23).
Feast of the Epiphany (E. Isaiah lx. 1-6. G. St Matt. ii. 1-12).
Sundays after the Epiphany
First (E. Rom. xii. 1-6. G. St Luke ii. 41-52).
Second (E. Rom. xii. 7-16. G. St John ii. 1-11).
Third (E. Rom. xii. 17-21. G. St Matt. viii. 1-13).
Fourth (E. Rom. xiii. 8-10. G. St Matt. viii. 23-27).
Septuagesima Sunday (E. 1 Cor. ix. 24—x. 5. G. St Matt. xx. 1-16).
Sexagesima Sunday (E. 2 Cor. xi. 19—xii. 9. G. St Luke viii. 4-15).
Quinquagesima (“Esto Mihi”) (E. 1 Cor. xiii. G. St Luke xviii. 31-43).
Palm Sunday (E. Phil. ii. 5-11 or 1 Cor. xi. 23-32. G. St Matt. xxi. 1-9).
Easter Day (E. 1 Cor. v. 6-8. G. St Mark xvi. 1-8).
Easter Monday (E. Acts x. 34-41. G. St Luke xxiv. 13-35).
Easter Tuesday (E. Acts xiii. 26-33. G. St Luke xxiv. 36-47).
Sundays after Easter.
First (“Quasimodo geniti”) (E. 1 John v. 4-10. G. St John xx. 19-31).
Second (“Misericordias Domini”) (E. 1 Peter ii. 21-25. G. St John x. 12-16).
Third (“Jubilate”) (E. 1 Peter ii. 11-20. G. St John xvi. 16-23).
Fourth (“Cantate”) (E. James i. 16-21. G. St John xvi. 5-15).
Fifth (“Rogate”) (E. James i. 22-27. G. St John xvi. 23-30 or 33).
Sixth (“Exaudi6 ”) (E. 1 Peter iv. 8-11. G. St John xv. 26—xvi. 4).
Ascension Day (E. Acts i. 1-11. G. St Mark xvi. 14-20).
Whit Sunday (E. Acts ii. 1-13. G. St John xiv. 23-31).
Whit Monday (E. Acts x. 42-48. G. St John iii. 16-21).
Whit Tuesday (E. Acts viii. 14-17 or ii. 29-36. G. St John x. 1-11).
Trinity Sunday1 (E. Rom. xi. 33-36. G. St John iii. 1-15).
Sundays after Trinity.
First (E. 1 John iv. 16-21. G. St Luke xvi. 19-31).
Second (E. 1 John iii. 13-18. G. St Luke xiv. 16-24).
Third11 (E. 1 Peter v. 6-11. G. St Luke xv. 1-10).
Fourth (E. Rom. viii. 18-23. G. St Luke vi. 36-42).
Fifth (E. 1 Peter iii. 8-15. G. St Luke v. 1-11).
Sixth (E. Rom. vi. 3-11. G. St Matt. v. 20-26).
Seventh (E. Rom. vi. 19-23. G. St Mark viii. 1-9).
Eighth (E. Rom. viii. 12-17. G. St Matt. vii. 15-23).
Ninth (E. 1 Cor. x. 6-13. G. St Luke xvi. 1-9).
Tenth (E. 1 Cor. xii. 1-11. G. St Luke xix. 41-48).
Eleventh (E. 1 Cor. xv. 1-10. G. St Luke xviii. 9-14).
Twelfth (E. 2 Cor. iii. 4-11. G. St Mark vii. 31-37).
Thirteenth (E. Gal. iii. 15-22. G. St Luke x. 23-37).
Fourteenth (E. Gal. v. 16-24. G. St Luke xvii. 11-19).
Fifteenth9 (E. Gal. v. 25-26, x. G. St Matt. vi. 24-34).
Sixteenth (E. Eph. iii. 13-21. G. St Luke vii. 11-17)12 .
Seventeenth (E. Eph. iv. 1-6. G. St Luke xiv. 1-11).
Eighteenth (E. 1 Cor. i. 4-9. G. St Matt. xxii. 34-46).
Nineteenth (E. Eph. iv. 22-28. G. St Matt. ix. 1-8).
Twentieth (E. Eph. v. 15-21. G. St Matt. xxii. 1-14).
Twenty-first (E. Eph. vi. 10-17. G. St John iv. 47-54).
Twenty-second (E. Phil. i. 3-11. G. St Matt. xviii. 23-35).
Twenty-third (E. Phil. iii. 17-21. G. St Matt. xxii. 15-22).
Twenty-fourth (E. Coloss. i. 9-14. G. St Matt. ix. 18-26).
Twenty-fifth (E. 1 Thess. iv. 13-18. G. St Matt. xxiv. 15-28).
Twenty-sixth (E. 2 Peter iii. 3-14 or 2 Thess. i. 3-10. G. St Matt. xxv. 31-46).
Twenty-seventh (E. 1 Thess. v. 1-11, or one of the two Epistles for the Twenty-sixth Sunday. G. St Matt. xxv. 1-13 or xxiv. 37-51 or v. 1-12).
Feast of the Purification of the B.V.M. (E. Mal. iii. 1-4. G. St Luke ii. 22-32).
Feast of the Annunciation of the B.V.M. (E. Is. vii. 10-16. G. St Luke i. 26-38).
Feast of the Visitation of the B.V.M. (E. Rom. xii. 9-16 or Is. xi. 1-5 or Song of Solomon ii. 8-17. G. St Luke i. 39-56).
Feast of St John Baptist (E. Is. xl. 1-5. G. St Luke i. 57-80).
Feast of St Michael the Archangel1 (E. Rev. xii. 7-12. G. St Matt. xviii. 1-11).
For General or Unspecified Use8 .
For a Wedding3 .
For a Funeral7 .
For a Public Fast.
For the Reformation Festival.
For the Inauguration of the Town Council5 .
For the Opening of an Organ.
The Choral Cantatas
So intimate is the association between the Cantata, as it developed in Bach’s hands, and the congregational Hymns and Hymn melodies of the Lutheran Church, that the latter are absent only from twenty-two of the two hundred and six Cantatas1 . The one hundred and eighty-four Cantatas that include Hymn stanzas or melodies fall into three groups. The largest, containing one hundred and eighteen Cantatas, includes those in which Bach introduces Chorals, almost invariably as the concluding movement2 , occasionally in the middle movements, very rarely in the opening movement3 , but always without permitting them to dominate the Cantata4 . The second, and smallest, group consists of twelve Cantatas which bear the name of a congregational Hymn, whose text and melody are introduced into their opening movements, but are not permitted to close the Cantata, and therefore do not leave a vivid impression of the Choral as the key to the whole composition1 .
The third category contains the Cantatas which are distinguished preeminently as “Choral Cantatas.” They number fifty-four and fall into two divisions, the first, which contains fifteen Cantatas, coinciding with the Leipzig period 1723-34; the second, which contains thirty-nine, coinciding with the later Leipzig period 1735-50.
Choral Cantatas, 1723-34 (15).
Choral Cantatas, 1735-50 (39).
The Choral Cantata as we have it after 1734 is the supreme expression of Bach’s art in that form. He was led to it by the inadequacy of the texts with which Picander provided him, and by the failure of his earlier experiments in building a Cantata upon a congregational Hymn. The Choral Cantata united the best features of both forms. Briefly its essentials are these: (1) The text of the Cantata is based upon that of a congregational Hymn, the Cantata in effect being an elaborate setting of its stanzas. (2) The middle movements are not necessarily set to actual words of the Hymn, all of whose stanzas are not invariably used. If the Hymn is too short, as for instance No. 140, additional stanzas are inserted. But whether the stanzas be reconstructed or extended, the spirit of the original Hymn is preserved, and in the case of reconstructed stanzas the actual words of the original text are preserved so far as is convenient. (3) Whatever liberties are taken with the intermediate stanzas, the words of the first and last movements of the Cantata invariably1 are stanzas of the original Hymn, and are, in both movements, wedded to its proper or customary tune1 .
As Spitta comments, the Choral Cantatas assume that the hearer held constantly in mind the Hymn in its original form. “The church-goer of those days could compare the printed text of the Cantata with the version in his Hymn book; or he could even dispense with this material aid, since those Hymns were in every heart as a possession common to all. He had sung them times without number in church, had taken them as his guide in daily life, and had drawn consolation and edification from isolated verses under various experiences. This was the audience to which Bach addressed himself, and such an audience do these compositions still require, for to such alone will they reveal all their meaning and fulness2 .”
It was in the early thirties, or after 1728, that Bach, dissatisfied with the Cantata texts which he had used for so many years, turned to the Hymns of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. At Weimar he had been so fortunate as to find in Salomo Franck a man of his own temperament. Erdmann Neumeister also provided him with texts, though in lesser number. Later, at Leipzig, Bach used the Cantata texts of Marianne von Ziegler1 . But almost from the moment of his arrival at Leipzig, he entered into a literary partnership with Christian Friedrich Henrici, or Picander2 , which lasted for twenty years. Bach’s exclusive dependence on Picander is proved, perhaps, by the fact that, excepting Marianne von Ziegler, he seems to have made no effort to secure another librettist. Yet Picander hardly can have satisfied Bach, though he accepted from him and set many texts which are wanting in taste and fine feeling. Picander began his literary career as a lampoonist, a form of expression for which he was better fitted. Cantata work was quite foreign to his character, and he seems to have attempted it at Bach’s instigation, under his direction, and subject to his suggestion and correction. It is probable that the texts of the Choral Cantatas also were arranged by Picander under similar conditions. It is to be assumed, therefore, that Bach originated the Choral Cantata, and guided it to its final form in the Cantatas of the post 1734 period.
An examination of the earlier group of Choral Cantatas, while it reveals contrast, brings out their essential agreement with the later. The first and last movements are stanzas of the same Hymn, set to its proper or customary melody. In every case the first movement is in the form of a Choral Fantasia. In every case the final movement is a simple Hymn setting, except in Nos. 97, 112, 137, where the simple setting is embellished by orchestral detail1 , and Nos. 129, 192, where it is Extended or a Fantasia in form. In eight of the fifteen Cantatas (1723-34) the Hymn and its melody are associated only in the first and last movements. They are Nos. 8, 9, 97, 99, 112, 129, 177, 192.
Of greater importance is the structure of the early Choral Cantata libretti. More than half (eight) are the unaltered text of a congregational Hymn: they are Nos. 4, 97, 112, 117, 129, 137, 177, 192. The text of four Cantatas consists partly of actual and partly of paraphrased Hymn stanzas: they are Nos. 8, 9, 20, 99. In two Cantatas movements are included which are neither actual nor paraphrased stanzas of the Hymn: they are Nos. 80, 140. In a single Cantata, No. 93, in addition to actual and paraphrased stanzas of the Hymn, the libretto adds to the former a commentary of Recitativo. As a whole, therefore, the early Choral Cantata group exhibits no uniform treatment of the Hymn libretto. The composer is generally content with the actual text of the Hymn without attempting to mould it to a more plastic form.
But Bach soon discovered that a uniform stanza, particularly a stanza lavishly rhymed, was not as appropriate to Recitativo and Aria as it was, for instance, to the Simple Choral and more elaborate Fantasia. Rhythmical uniformity impeded his musical utterance. He therefore invented the paraphrase of the Hymn stanza, of which he had made trial already in Cantata No. 93. Hence, the libretti of the later Choral Cantatas display a textual uniformity that is lacking in the earlier ones. Only two of them, Nos. 100, 107, are set to the unaltered text of the Hymn. In all the others the libretto is made up of actual and paraphrased Hymn stanzas. Twelve of the thirty-nine Cantatas, however, contain paragraphs foreign to the original Hymn text. Nos. 3, 91, 92, 94, 101, 113, 125, 126, 138, and 178 include movements described as “Recitativ und Choral” which associate actual stanzas of the Hymn with a concurrent commentary. In No. 122 a similar form is found in the fourth movement, “Choral und Arie.” The preceding Recitativo of that Cantata (No. 122) is not a stanza of the Hymn, and the penultimate number of No. 38 is based upon the Gospel for the Day.
The Choral Cantatas of the post 1734 period, written for the most part, as Spitta shows1 , on paper having the same watermark, exhibit the final and perfected type of libretto. In all, the first and last movements are Choruses upon the words and melody of the Hymn. In all, the opening movement is a Choral Fantasia2 . In all but eight, the last movement is a Simple Choral—Nos. 41, 100, 107 are Extended, Nos. 1, 91, 101, 130 are Embellished, and No. 138 is a Choral of the Fantasia type. As in the Choral Cantatas of the earlier group, Bach comparatively rarely brings the Hymn and melody together between the first and last Choruses, the two “pillars” of the Choral Cantata. He does so only in Nos. 3, 91, 92, 94, 101, 113, 114, 122, 125, 126, 138, 178, and 1803 .
The Choral forms which Bach employs in the Cantatas must now be considered.
The Choral Fantasia
The Leipzig Cantatas are distinguished generally from those of the earlier periods of Bach’s activity by the magnificent Choral Fantasias which he introduced into them, generally as their opening movement. With the exceptions to which attention already has been drawn, the Choral Cantatas invariably are opened by a Chorus of this type.
The Choral Fantasia, the logical outcome of Bach’s experiments in organ and orchestral form, was essential to the structure of the Church Cantata, as he conceived it. The Choral Fantasia was evolved from the Organ Choral Prelude, a fact which is patent when Bach’s treatment of the tune “Ach wie flüchtig” in the Orgelbuchlein is compared with his Choral Fantasia on the melody in Cantata 26. The Organ Choral Prelude did not merely evolve the form of the Choral Fantasia itself. Bach’s orchestral sense ordained, upon the analogy of the Concerto, the relation of the Choral Fantasia to the Choral Cantata, of which it is at once a part and the key. Like the first movement of the Concerto, the Choral Fantasia colours and defines the whole Cantata. Its grand purpose was, in Spitta’s words1 , “the perfect poetic and musical developement of a particular Hymn by means of all the artistic material which Bach had assimilated by a thorough study of the art of his own and former times.” In the Choral Fantasia the Hymn, words and melody, is presented with all the technique of Bach’s mature genius. It is perfect and complete in itself, and yet a detail in an ordered whole.
The Cantatas contain seventy-eight movements of the Choral Fantasia form2 . They are as follows: Nos. 1 a, 2 a3 , 3 a, 4 a, 4 d , 5 a, 7 a, 8 a, 9 a, 10 a, 11 b, 14 a, 16 a, 20 a, 21 , 23, 26 a, 27 a4 , 28 a , 33 a, 38 a , 41 a, 61 a, 61 b, 62 a, 68, 73 a , 77 a, 78 a, 80 a, 80 c5 , 91 a, 92 a, 93 a, 94 a, 95 a6 , 96 a, 97 a, 98, 99 a, 100 a, 101 a, 106 c, 107 a, 109, 111 a, 112 a, 113 a, 114 a, 115 a, 116 a, 117 a, 1187 , 121 a , 122 a, 123 a, 124 a, 125 a, 126 a, 127 a, 128 a, 129 a, 130 a, 133 a, 135 a, 137 a, 138 a ,8 , 138 b , 138 c, 139 a, 140 a, 143 b, 177 a, 178 a, 180 a, 182, 192 a, 192 b. With few exceptions all the foregoing are the opening movement of a Cantata. The exceptions are: No. 28 a, which is the second movement; No. 138 b, which is the third movement; No. 4 d, which is the fourth movement; No. 80 c, which is the fifth movement; No. 182, which is the seventh movement; No. 21, which is the ninth movement; Nos. 11 b, 23, 61 b, 106 c, 109, 138 c, 143 b, 192 b, which are the concluding movement1 .
The Simple Choral
The majority of the Choral movements in the Cantatas, as in the “Passions” and Oratorios, are in simple Hymn form, i.e. suitable for congregational use, but not necessarily so used. While a Choral Fantasia as a general rule begins a Cantata, a Simple Choral, almost invariably, brings it to a close. Only in three instances—Nos. 145 a, 153 a, D 4—does a Simple Choral begin a Cantata2 .
It is remarkable that Bach generally preferred to bring his Cantatas to an end in a simple and unpretentious form. That he did so with the reverent purpose of rivetting a last impression of the Hymn in its most arresting form cannot be doubted. The following are the one hundred and thirty-four Simple Chorals in the Cantatas: Nos. 2 b, 3 c, 4 g, 5 b, 6 b, 7 b, 8 b, 9 b, 10 b, 11 a, 13 b, 14 b, 16 b, 17, 18, 20 b, 20 c, 25, 26 b, 27 b, 28 b, 30, 32, 33 b, 36 b, 36 d, 37 b, 38 b, 39, 40 a, 40 b, 40 c, 42 b, 43, 44 b, 45, 47, 48 a, 48 b, 55, 56, 57, 60 b, 62 b, 64 a, 64 c, 65 b, 66, 67 a, 67 b, 70 a, 72, 73 b, 74, 77 b, 78 b, 80 d, 81, 83, 84, 85 b, 86 b, 87, 88, 89, 90, 92 e, 93 g, 94 d, 96 b, 99 b, 102, 103, 108, 110, 111 b, 113 e, 114 c, 115 b, 116 b, 117 b, 117 c, 119, 120, 121 b, 122 c, 123 b, 124 b, 125 c, 126 c, 127 b, 132, 133 b, 135 b, 139 b, 140 c, 144 a, 144 b, 145 a, 145 b, 146, 148, 151, 153 a, 153 b, 153 c, 154 a, 154 b, 155, 156 b, 157, 158 b, 159 b, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166 b, 168, 169, 176, 177 b, 178 e, 179, 180 c, 183, 184, 187, 188, 194 a, 197 a, 197 b, U 1, D 4.
The Embellished Choral
Closely related to the Simple Choral is the Embellished, or decorated Simple, form, of which there are thirty-five examples in the Cantatas: Nos. 1 b, 12, 19, 29, 31, 52, 59, 64 b, 65 a, 69 a, 69 b, 70 b, 79 b, 91 c, 95 c, 97 b, 101 f, 104, 112 b, 128 b, 130 b, 136, 137 d, 149, 161, 172, 174, 175, 185, 190 b, 194 b, 195, U 3, D 2, D 3. Excepting Nos. 59, 64 b, 65 a, these Chorals conclude the Cantata. Bach’s purpose in regard to them therefore is obvious. In form they are identical with the Simple Choral. They differ in that, while in the Simple Choral the orchestra merely doubles the voice parts, in the Embellished form certain instruments have independent parts, giving brilliance or adding an ornament to the final statement of the tune. In Nos. 19, 29, 69 a, 130 b, 137 e, 149, 190 b, and U 3, Bach secures an impressive ending by adding Trumpets and Timpani. In No. D 3 he uses two Trumpets obbligati1 . In Nos. 79 b, 91 c, and 195, Horns and Timpani are employed in a similar manner, while in Nos. 1 b, 52, 112 b, 128 b, D 2, Horns emphasise or support the melody2 . In No. 65 a the Flutes in octave accentuate, and in No. 161 weave an arabesque round the melody3 . In No. 175 the Strings and Flutes are in unison4 . In Nos. 59, 70 b, 95 c, 97 b, 136, 172, 185, the Violins are obbligati or the Strings support the inner parts of the vocal harmony5 . In No. 31 the First Violins and Trumpet are obbligati, and No. 12 provides a similar part for the Oboe or Trumpet1 . In No. 64 b Bach adds an Organ pedal2 . Nos. 69 b, 101 f, 104, 174, and 194 b contain unimportant additions to the inner vocal parts3 .
In a large number of cases a Simple Choral is strengthened by the addition of octaves in the Continuo.
The Extended Choral
The Extended Choral, familiar in the “Christmas Oratorio4 ,” presents the melody in Simple four-part form, but the lines of the Hymn are separated by orchestral interludes which, with the addition of an introduction, give the movement in some cases almost the proportions and character of a Choral Fantasia5 . There are twenty-three Chorals of this kind in the Cantatas: Nos. 3 b6 , 15, 22, 24, 41 b, 46, 75 a (c), 76 a, 76 b, 79 a, 92 d , 100 b, 105, 107 b, 129 b, 142, 147 a, 147 b, 167, 171, 178 d , 186, 190 a . All of them are the final movements of a Cantata, or of the first Part of a Cantata, except Nos. 3 b, 79 a, 92 d, 147 a, 178 d, and 190 a. In the Cantatas, therefore, as in the “Christmas Oratorio,” Bach’s purpose in regard to the Extended Choral is clear.
The Unison Choral
Among the Choral movements for individual voices the Unison Chorals are the most numerous. They number twenty-one, and are as follows, the voice to which the melody is given being stated in the bracket: Nos. 4 c (T.), 4 e (B.), 6 a (S.), 13 a (A.), 36 c (T.), 44 a (T.), 51 (S.), 85 a (S.), 86 a (S.), 92 c (A.), 95 b (S.), 113 b (A.), 114 b (S.), 137 b (A.), 140 b (T.), 143 a (S.), 166 a (S.), 178 c (T.), 180 b (S.)1 , 199 (S.). In this group also must be included No. 80 c, which is a Unison Choral Fantasia for S.A.T.B.
As Schweitzer points out2 , most of these Unison Chorals are exceedingly appropriate for use in liturgical services; the Soprano Chorals especially would be effective with instrumental or Organ accompaniment.
The Aria Choral
The term Aria, as Bach used it, connotes a song in rhythmical proportions for one or more voices. In the Cantatas the term is applied to movements for one, two, and three voices. It will be convenient to set them out in three categories under the designations Solo, Duetto, Terzetto.
There are three Solo Arias, Nos. 93 c, 93 f, and 101 c, the first for Tenor, the second for Soprano, the third for Bass. In all of them only snatches of the Choral melody are introduced.
The Duetto movements are variously described in Bach’s score as “Choral,” “Arie,” “Arie und Choral,” “Arie (Duett).” The following are the fifteen examples of this form: Nos. 4 f (S.T.), 36 a (S.A.), 37 a (S.A.), treat the cantus in canon. In Nos. 4 b (S.A.), 71 (S.T.), 80 b (S.B.), 131 a (S.B.), 131 b (A.T.), 156 a (S.T.), 158 a (S.B.), and 159 a (S.A.), the cantus is given in every case to one of two voices, the first stated in the bracket. In No. 93 d (S.A.), marked “Arie (Duett) und Choral,” the cantus is played by the Strings; in No. 137 c (T.) by the Tromba. In Nos. 101 e (S.A.) and 113 d (S.A.), the cantus is only suggested.
The single example of the Terzetto form is No. 122 b (S.A.T.), where the Alto, with the Violins and Viola, has the cantus.
The Dialogus Choral
Into the Cantata “Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid” (No. 58), for the Sunday after the Circumcision, 1733, Bach introduced two numbers in which Soprano and Bass voices converse, the former to the melody of the Choral, the latter in Recitativo. At about the same time, in “O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort” (No. 60), for the Twenty-fourth Sunday after Trinity, Bach wrote another Cantata which is also in the form of a conversation between two characters. Hence their designation as a “Dialogus” in the score.
Besides these two “Dialogus” Cantatas, there are twenty-six movements in the Cantatas which are in the nature of a conversation between the Choral cantus and a voice or voices speaking in Recitativo1 . Bach marks them indifferently, “Recitativ,” or “Recitativ und Choral.” But they can be sub-divided into three classes. In the first, the conversation is between two voices of contrasted calibre: their numbers are Nos. 49 (S.B.), 58 a (S.B.), 58 b (S.B.), 60 a (A.T.), 106 b (A.B.), 126 b (A.T.), the Choral cantus in every case being allotted to the first of the two voices stated in the bracket, except in the case of the last, where both voices share the cantus. A larger number are movements for a single voice, though improbably for the same individual voice. They are Nos. 91 b (S.), 92 b (B.), 93 b (B.), 93 e (T.), 94 b (T.), 94 c (B.), 101 b (S.), 101 d (T.), 113 c (B.), 125 b (B.), and 178 b (A.). The third class of Dialogue Chorals consists of Choruses which have been classified already, but belong also to the class under discussion. They exhibit the same determining characteristic, in that they consist of alternating periods of the Choral (S.A.T.B.) and Recitativo for one or more voices of the chorus. They are Nos. 3 b, 27 a, 73 a, 92 d, 95 a, 138 a, 138 b, 178 d, and 190 a.
It was the custom at Leipzig, both in St Thomas’ and St Nicholas’ Churches, for Motetts to be sung, usually in Latin, at the morning and evening service; also, during the communion office, occasionally on the high festivals, and always on Palm Sunday and Holy Thursday. Special occasions, and particularly funerals, also were marked by their performance. Hence Bach had large opportunity to write in this form. Yet, no Latin Motetts of his are extant, though there is evidence suggesting the conclusion that he wrote one. Of the Motetts with German texts that have come to us under Bach’s name only six are by him. His barrenness in this form is explained by the fact that, in common with the musicians of his period, he held the Motett of little importance beside the Cantata, the “principal music” of the Church service, and in general was content to perform other composers’ works1 .
The following six Motetts indubitably are Bach’s:
Of the six Motetts only the last is without Choral movements. In form the latter for the most part are Simple (Motetts 2, 3, 5). A single example of the Extended form is found in Motett 1, and of the Choral Fantasia or Motett form in Motett 3 (verse 5) and Motett 42 .
The Hymns of the “Passions,” Oratorios, Cantatas, and Motetts
Bach employs 154 congregational Hymns in his choral works, of which two (“O Gott, der du aus Herzensgrund,” and “Komm, Gott Schopfer, heiliger Geist”) occur in Cantatas of doubtful authenticity, and one (“Wenn einer alle Ding verstünd”) cannot be regarded positively as Bach’s selection. The source whence Bach drew so large a supply of Hymn texts can be indicated readily. Spitta prints3 a “Specification of the property belonging to and left by Herr Johann Sebastian Bach, deceased July 28, 1750, late Cantor to the school of St Thomas, in Leipzig.” Under the heading “Theological books in octavo,” there is the entry, “Wagner, Leipziger Gesangbuch, 8 vols.” It was valued at one thaler, and was the only Hymn book in Bach’s possession at the time of his death.
Paul Wagner’s “Andachtiger Seelen geistliches Brand- und Gantz-Opfer. Das ist: vollstandiges Gesangbuch in acht unterschiedlichen Theilen” was published at Leipzig in 1697. Of the 154 Hymns used by Bach all but eleven are found there1 . Of the eleven, all but two (Neander’s “Lobe den Herren, den machtigen Konig der Ehren” and Neumann’s “Auf, mein Herz”) are found in the 1708 edition of Crüger’s Praxis Pietatis Melica. The choice of Hymn texts therefore need not have occasioned Bach much research. The following are the 154 Hymns, tabulated under the names of their authors:
Johannes Agricola (1492-1566).
Ich ruf’ zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ.
Johann Georg Albinus (1624-79).
Albrecht Margrave of Brandenburg-Culmbach (1522-57).
Was mein Gott will, das g’scheh’ allzeit.
Johann Michael Altenburg (1584-1640).
Verzage nicht, du Häuflein klein.
Anark of Wildenfels (d. 1539).
†O Herre Gott, dein gottlich Wort.
Matthäus Avenarius (1625-92).
O Jesu, meine Lust.
Cornelius Becker (1561-1604).
Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt.
Martin Behm (1557-1622).
O Jesu Christ, mein’s Lebens Licht.
Caspar Bienemann (1540-91).
Herr, wie du willt, so schick’s mit mir.
Franz Joachim Burmeister (1633?-72).
Es ist genug: so nimm, Herr, meinen Geist.
Elisabethe Cruciger (d. 1535).
Herr Christ, der einig’ Gott’s Sohn.
Nicolaus Decius (d. 1541).
O Lamm Gottes unschuldig.
David Denicke (1603-80).
Paul Eber (1511-69).
Jakob Ebert (1549-1614).
Du Friedefürst, Herr Jesu Christ.
Emilie Juliane Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1637-1706).
*Wer weiss, wie nahe mir mein Ende.
Paul Flemming (1609-40).
In allen meinen Thaten.
Johann Franck (1618-77).
Michael Franck (1609-67).
Ach wie fluchtig.
Johann Burchard Freystein (1671-1718).
Mache dich, mein Geist, bereit.
Ahashuerus Fritsch (1629-1701).
Caspar Fuger (d. c. 1592).
Paul Gerhardt (1607-76).
Justus Gesenius (1601-73).
†O Gott, der du aus Herzensgrund2 .
Johannes G. Gigas (1514-81).
Ach, lieben Christen, seid getrost.
Johann Graumann (1487-1541).
Nun lob’, mein’ Seel’, den Herren.
Georg Gruenwald (d. 1530).
Kommt hei zu mir, spricht Gottes Sohn.
Johann Heermann (1585-1647).
Ludwig Helmbold (1532-98).
Valerius Herberger (1562-1627).
Valet will ich dir geben.
Nicolaus Herman (c. 1485-1561).
Johann Hermann (fl. ? 1548-63).
Jesu, nun sei gepreiset.
Sebald Heyden (1494-1561).
O Mensch, bewein’ dein’ Sunde gross.
Ernst Christoph Homburg (1605-81).
Ist Gott mein Schild und Helfersmann.
Martin Janus (c. 1620-82).
Jesu, meiner Seelen Wonne.
Justus Jonas (1493-1555).
Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt.
Christian Keimann (1607-62).
Christoph Knoll (1563-1650).
Herzlich thut mich verlangen.
Johann Kolross (d. c. 1558).
Ich dank’ dir, lieber Herre.
Salomo Liscow (1640-89).
Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt.
Martin Luther (1483-1546).
Wolfgang Meusel (1497-1563).
Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt.
Martin Moller (1547-1606).
Heinrich Müller (1631-75).
Selig ist die Seele.
Joachim Neander (1650-80).
*Lobe den Herren, den machtigen König der Ehren.
Caspar Neumann (1648-1715).
Georg Neumark (1621-81).
Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten.
Philipp Nicolai (1556-1608).
Johannes Olearius (1611-84).
Georg Michael Pfefferkorn (1645-1732).
*Was frag ich nach der Welt1 .
Symphorianus Pollio (fl. 1507-33).
Meine Seel’ erhebt den Herren.
Adam Reissner (1496-c. 1575).
In dich hab’ ich gehoffet, Herr.
Bartholomaus Ringwaldt (1532-c. 1600).
Martin Rinkart (1586-1649).
Nun danket alle Gott.
Johann Rist (1607-67).
Samuel Rodigast (1649-1708).
Was Gott thut, das ist wohlgethan.
Johann Christoph Rube (1665-1746).
Wohl dem, der sich auf seinen Gott.
Christoph Runge (1619-81).
Lasst Furcht und Pein.
Gottfried Wilhelm Sacer (1635-99).
Gott fahret auf gen Himmel.
Hans Sachs (1494-1576).
†Warum betrübst du dich, mein Herz.
Martin Schalling (1532-1608).
Herzlich lieb hab’ ich dich, O Herr.
Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630).
Mach’s mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Gut’.
Cyriacus, Schneegass (1546-97).
Johannes Schneesing (d. 1567).
Allein zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ.
Balthasar Schnurr (1572-1644).
O grosser Gott von Macht.
Johann Jakob Schütz (1640-90).
*Sei Lob und Ehr’ dem hochsten Gut.
Nicolaus Selnecker (1532-92).
Ach bleib’ bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ.
Lazarus Spengler (1479-1534).
Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt.
Paul Speratus (1484-1551).
Es ist das Heil uns kommen her.
Paul Stockmann (1602?-36).
Jesu Leiden, Pein und Tod.
Christoph Tietze (1641-1703).
Ich armer Mensch, ich armer Sunder.
Josua Wegelin (1604-40).
Auf Christi Himmelfahrt allein.
Sigismund Weingartner (fl. 1607).
† Auf meinen lieben Gott.
Michael Weisse (1480?-1534).
Christus, der uns selig macht.
Georg Weissel (1590-1635).
Nun liebe Seel’, nun ist es Zeit.
Georg Werner (1589-1643).
* Ihr Christen auserkoren.
Caspar Ziegler (1621-90).
Ich freue mich in dir.
The Hymn Tunes used by Bach
During his Cantorship at Leipzig Bach systematically collected, harmonised, and in some cases refashioned, Hymn tunes whose qualities attracted him. At the time of his death he had brought together about two hundred and forty melodies in a manuscript which unfortunately has disappeared. In 1764 it was in the possession of the Leipzig music seller, Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf, into whose hands it passed, presumably, in the lean years that befell Bach’s widow after his death in 1750. In Breitkopf’s catalogue (1764) the work is described as “Bachs, J. S. Vollständiges Choralbuch mit in Noten aufgesetzten Generalbasse an 240 in Leipzig gewöhnlichen Melodien.” Copies of it were offered at the price of ten thalers1 . But, as none exist, it is doubtful whether the “Choralbuch” in fact was published in that form and year.
It would appear, however, that the greater part of Bach’s collection was published in different works before and after his death. In 1736 Georg Christian Schemelli, “Schloss-Cantor” at Naumburg-Zeitz, in Saxony, published a “Musicalisches Gesang-Buch, Darinnen 954 geistreiche, sowohl alte als neue Lieder und Arien, mit wohlgesetzten Melodien, in Discant und Bass, befindlich sind” (Breitkopf, Leipzig, 1736). Bach was invited to prepare the collection for the press. Its tunes, the Preface declared, were either “ganz neu” composed by him, or had been supplied by him with a Bass. The 954 Hymns share between them no more than sixty-nine melodies, about a quarter of which are Bach’s own compositions1 . The Preface announced that about two hundred more melodies were ready for a second edition, should one be called for, as unhappily was not the case. It would seem, therefore, that Bach proposed to place his whole collection at Schemelli’s service.
Bach continued his collection of Hymn tunes, in spite of the cold reception given to Schemelli’s volume. To his own copy of the book he added eighty-eight harmonised Chorals. Among the effects of Philipp Emmanuel Bach in 1790 appears “The Naumburg Hymn book, containing printed Chorals and also eighty-eight Chorals written out in parts.” Unhappily, it cannot be traced. Meanwhile in 1764 Breitkopf of Leipzig acquired a ms. containing one hundred and fifty four-part Hymn tunes harmonised by Bach. Simultaneously, the Berlin printer Friedrich Wilhelm Birnstiel resolved to issue a printed edition of Bach’s Chorals. He invited Philipp Emmanuel Bach to edit and preface it with an Introduction. In 1765 the book was issued. It numbered fifty pages containing one hundred Hymn tunes, and bore the title: “Johann Sebastian Bachs vierstimmige Choralgesänge gesammlet von Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach” (Berlin & Leipzig, 1765). A second Part, with which Philipp Emmanuel was not associated, was published in 1769. It contained one hundred more Hymn tunes, among them, “O Herzensangst, O Bangigkeit,” “Gottlob, es geht nunmehr zum Ende,” and “Nicht so traurig, nicht so sehr.”
Twenty years followed the publication of the first Part of Birnstiel’s edition before Breitkopf issued a completer collection of Bach’s Chorals in four Parts between the years 1784 and 1787. Philipp Emmanuel edited this collection also. Its first Part, published at Leipzig in 1784, bore the title: “Johann Sebastian Bachs vierstimmige Choralgesänge, Erster Theil. Leipzig bey Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf.” The second, third, and fourth Parts were issued in 1785, 1786, and 1787 respectively, the whole collection containing three hundred and seventy1 Chorals, including a large number from Bach’s extant Church compositions. Finally, in 1843, Carl Ferdinand Becker (1804-77), Organist of St Nicholas’ Church, Leipzig, issued a collection of two hundred and ten four-part Hymn settings, under the title “Joh. Seb. Bachs vierstimmige Kirchengesange” (Leipzig: Robert Friese).
Two more recent collections of Bach’s Chorals are accessible and inexpensive. The earlier, Ludwig Erk’s “Johann Sebastian Bach’s mehrstimmige Choralgesänge und geistliche Arien,” is published by C. F. Peters, Leipzig, in two volumes (Prefaces dated 1850 and 1865) which contain three hundred and nineteen Choral settings. Erk gives some of the longer as well as the simple Hymn settings, besides some tunes drawn from other sources than those which the second of the two collections explores. The latter, “Johann Sebastian Bach’s Werke. Für Gesang. Gesammtausgabe fur den praktischen Gebrauch. vii. Choralgesange” (Leipzig, 1898), edited by Bernhard Friedrich Richter, contains three hundred and eighty-nine Chorals, including one hundred and eighty-five edited by Philipp Emmanuel Bach 1784-87 which were not used in Bach’s extant Cantatas. They are printed from B. G. xxxix (“Arien und Lieder”), which contains them all. Richter’s edition also includes a complete collection of the Simple Chorals used in Bach’s Oratorios, “Passions,” Cantatas, and Motetts. Reference is made to it throughout the following pages, and to Erk in cases where he prints a setting not found in Richter’s “Choralgesänge.”
Of this great corpus of Choral music Bach introduces into his concerted Church works—the “Passions,” Oratorios, Cantatas, Motetts—one hundred and four Hymn tunes, including, however, one which occurs in a Cantata of doubtful authenticity. Besides these one hundred and four melodies, Bach uses twenty-eight in his Organ works that are not found elsewhere in his music. Therefore, excluding his own compositions, it appears that he introduced into the works that have come down to us the following one hundred and thirty-two Hymn tunes:
Johann Rodolf Ahle (1625-73).
Heinrich Albert (1604-51).
Gott des Himmels und der Erden.
Johann Michael Altenburg (1584-1640).
Herr Gott, nun schleuss den Himmel auf.
Louis Bourgeois (fl. 1541-61).
Seth Calvisius (1556-1615).
In dich hab’ ich gehoffet, Herr.
Johann Crüger (1598-1662).
Wolfgang Dachstein (d. c. 1561).
An Wasserflussen Babylon .
Nicolaus Decius (d. 1541).
Johann Georg Ebeling (1637-76).
Warum sollt’ ich mich denn grämen.
Wolfgang Figulus (c. 1520-91).
Helft mir Gott’s Gute preisen (second melody).
Melchior Franck (d. 1639).
O grosser Gott von Macht .
Michael Franck (1609-67).
Ach wie fluchtig.
Caspar Fuger (d. 1617).
Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi (1556?-1622).
In dir ist Freude.
Bartholomaus Gesius (1555?—1613-4).
Matthaus Greitter (d. 1550 or 1552).
Es sind doch selig alle1 .
Andreas Hammerschmidt (1612-75).
Hans Leo Hassler (1564-1612).
Herzlich thut mich verlangen3 .
Bartholomaus Helder (1585?-1635).
Das Jesulein soll doch mein Trost.
Nicolaus Herman (1485?-1561).
Heinrich Isaak (b. c. 1440).
O Welt, ich muss dich lassen4 .
Johann Kugelmann (d. 1542).
Nun lob’, mein’ Seel’, den Herren .
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Georg Neumark (1621-81).
Wer nur den lieben Gott lasst walten.
Philipp Nicolai (1556-1608).
Johann Rosenmüller (1619-84).
Welt, ade! ich bin dein mude.
Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630).
Mach’s mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Gut’.
Johann Schop (d. c. 1665).
Johann Steurlein (1546-1613)
Das alte Jahr vergangen ist2 .
Caspar Stieler (1679).
Wo soll ich fliehen hin .
Melchior Teschner (1614).
Valet will ich dir geben.
Daniel Vetter (d. 1721).
Liebster Gott, wann werd’ ich sterben?
Gottfried Vopelius (1645-1715).
Melchior Vulpius (1560?-1615).
Johann Walther (1496-1570).
Bach’s Original Hymn Tunes
Though the topic is engrossing, little effort has been made to identify Bach’s original Hymn tunes and to sift those which unquestionably are his from others attributed to him wrongly. Carl von Winterfeld, who first gave the subject critical examination, left a heavy legacy of error, which Ludwig Erk did somewhat to lighten. Spitta3 devotes a few pages to the subject, but they are disfigured by very serious mistakes. Schweitzer carries the investigation no farther and merely records the conjectures of others. It will be useful, therefore, though the enquiry is not directly relative to the Cantatas and Motetts, to explore the subject in the light of information which Spitta did not possess.
At the outset, it is advisable to clear the ground by eliminating tunes which have been or are asserted to be by Bach and demonstrably are not. Spitta names1 ten Hymn tunes which are stated to be Bach’s by Winterfeld or others. In fact not one of them is by him. They are as follows:
(1) Alles ist an Gottes Segen (Choralgesänge, No. 19). Zahn, Nos. 3839-3842 b, prints five settings of the Hymn from German Hymn books between 1731 and Bach’s death in 1750. Their common source appears to be G. Voigtländer’s secular tune (1647), “Fillis sass an einem Böttgen” (Zahn, No. 3838). Bach’s is a variation of the original tune. König has two settings closely cognate to Bach’s (Zahn, Nos. 3841, 3842 a).
(2) Auf, auf, mein Herz, und du mein ganzer Sinn (Erk, No. 162; Choralgesange, No. 24). The melody (Zahn, No. 824) is by Johann Staden (1581-1634).
(3) Dank sei Gott in der Hohe (Choralgesange, No. 54). The tune was published by Bartholomäus Gesius in 1605 (Zahn, No. 5391) to the anonymous Hymn, “Jesus Christ, unser Herre,” and perhaps is his own composition.
(4) Das walt’ Gott Vater und Gott Sohn (Choralgesänge, No. 58; Erk, No. 182). The tune was published by Daniel Vetter in 1713 (Zahn, No. 673).
(5) Herr, nun lass’ in Friede (Choralgesänge, No. 148; Erk, No. 227). The tune is found in the Hymn book of the Bohemian Brethren in 1694 (Zahn, No. 3302).
(6) Ist Gott mein Schild und Helfersmann (Choralgesange, No. 216; Erk, No. 78). The tune is printed in a Dresden collection of 1694 (Zahn, No. 2542. See Cantata 85).
(7) Meinen Jesum lass’ ich nicht. There are two tunes to this Hymn in Bach’s collections. One, which Bach uses in several Cantatas (see Cantata 70), is perhaps by Andreas Hammerschmidt and dates from 1658 (Zahn, No. 3449; Choralgesange, No. 242; Erk, No. 88). The second (Choralgesange, No. 241) dates from 1686 (Zahn, No. 3448 a).
(8) O Jesu, du mein Bräutigam (Choralgesange, No. 145). The melody is the old tune “Rex Christe factor omnium,” and is found in print in 1527 (Zahn, No. 314 a).
(9) O Mensch, schau Jesum Christum an (Choralgesänge, No. 287; Erk, No. 282). The melody is as old as 1555, when it appears in association with Triller’s Hymn, “Der Herr Gott sei gepreiset” (Zahn, Nos. 3984, 3994 a). It is found also in a collection dated 1603, to which the Choralgesänge refers it.
(10) Schwing dich auf zu deinem Gott (Choralgesänge, No. 305; Erk, No. 114). The tune is as old as 1680 (Zahn, No. 4870). See Cantata 40.
Spitta himself attributes the following melodies to Bach, inaccurately in every case:
(1) Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt (it is neither in the Choralgesänge nor Erk). The tune is by Gottfried Vopelius and dates from 1682 (Zahn, No. 5920). See Cantata 68.
(2) Alle Menschen müssen sterben. There are two tunes to this Hymn in Bach’s collections. One (Choralgesänge, No. 17; Erk, No. 158) is by Jakob Hintze (1622-1702) (Zahn, No. 6778). It is in Hymns A. & M., No. 127 (“At the Lamb’s high feast we sing”). The second melody (Choralgesänge, No. 18; Erk, No. 159) demands a more intricate examination. It occurs in Cantata 162 and is discussed there infra at length.
(3) Da der Herr Christ zu Tische sass (Choralgesänge, No. 52; Erk, No. 178). The tune dates from 1611 (Zahn, No. 2503).
(4) Für Freuden lasst uns springen (Choralgesänge, No. 106). The tune occurs in 1648 (Zahn, No. 2339).
(5) Herr Jesu Christ, du hast bereit (Choralgesänge, No. 140; Erk, No. 222). The tune is found in a Silesian ms. collection dated 1742 as well as in Reimann’s collection in 1747 (Zahn, No. 4711). Bach’s version differs slightly from both.
(6) Ich freue mich in dir (Choralgesänge, No. 181; Erk, No. 64). The melody occurs in Cantata 133 and is there discussed. The balance of probability is against Bach’s authorship.
(7) Meines Lebens letzte Zeit (Choralgesänge, No. 248). The tune is found in a Gotha Psalter of 1726 (Zahn, No. 6380).
(8) So giebst du nun, mein Jesu, gute Nacht (Choralgesange, No. 310). The tune dates from 1694 (Zahn, No. 849).
We can pass now to a number of tunes which are found for the first time in one or other of the Bach collections and, for that reason, establish a presumptive right to be regarded as his compositions. They number forty-two.
In the Notenbüchlein vor Anna Magdalena Bach, which bears the date 1725 on the cover, there are seven Choral tunes which are not found in print before that date:
In Schemelli’s Hymn book of 1736 there are twenty-one tunes not found in any earlier collection:
In the second Part (1769) of F. W. Birnstiel’s Choralgesänge there are three new Choral tunes:
In the third Part of Carl Philipp Emmanuel’s Choralgesänge (1786) there is one new melody:
In Becker’s collection (1843) there are two Choral tunes attributed to Bach by Zahn:
Spitta prints1 five Choral tunes which have come down to us through Bach’s pupil, Johann Ludwig Krebs:
Finally there are two Choral Arias in the “Christmas Oratorio,” Nos. 38-40, 42:
And another in the fifth Motett:
The last three are the only tunes of his own composition which Bach has wedded to the stanzas of a congregational Hymn in the whole range of his concerted Church music2 .
Zahn, No. 6721, regards the above melody as “probably,” and the Bass as “certainly,” by Bach. The melody is not found in any other Hymn book. It has the characteristics of Bach’s Hymn tunes, and may be attributed to him.
Zahn, No. 705, regards this melody as “perhaps” by Bach. It is not found elsewhere. Apart from that circumstance the tune does not suggest Bach’s authorship. The repeated concluding phrase is not required by Martin Optiz’ Hymn, which is one of four lines. As is so often the case where Bach’s Hymn tunes are in question, Johann Balthasar König (1691-1758) has a melody on the Hymn in his Harmonischer Lieder-Schatz (1738). As the Hymn practically had been neglected since Jakob Hintze gave it a melody in 1666, it is curious that Bach and Konig, the one at Leipzig and the other at Frankfurt a. Main, should have turned their attention to it simultaneously.
Zahn, No. 7765, attributes the above melody to Bach without qualification. Indeed, it declares his authorship unmistakeably. It is not found in any other Hymn book.
The Hymn’s earliest tune is found in the Gotha Cantional of 1648. Zahn (No. 4217) conjectures that it was derived from a secular source. It had a wide vogue in Hymn books of the second half of the seventeenth and first half of the eighteenth century. Jakob Hintze in 1690 wrote a minor melody indirectly based upon it, the last phrase of which is identical with Krebs’ ms. The latter cannot be regarded as an original tune, and is not at all in Bach’s idiom.
Zahn, No. 2437, attributes the above melody to Bach without qualification. It is characteristic of his Aria form and is certainly his. It is not found elsewhere.
Bach’s authorship of the tune is vouched for by Philipp Emmanuel Bach. On p. 50 of the Notenbüchlein1 the tune is also printed in four-part harmony over the same Bass (Erk, No. 19; Choralgesänge, No. 67). Zahn, No. 3068, prints the melody only, from Schemelli, No. 397. Erk, No. 20, adds the figured Bass from the latter book. It differs from the Notenbuchlein. The tune is not found in other Hymn books.
The groundwork of the customary melody of the above Hymn is Joachim Neander’s “Grosser Prophete, mein Herze begehret,” published in 1680 (Zahn, No. 3947). A large number of variations of that tune exist, one of which (Zahn, No. 7127) is set to the Hymn “Eins ist noth” in Freylinghausen’s Hymn book (1704). That Bach was familiar with the tune appears from the fact that, with an altered first part, it is among the Choralgesange of 1769, set to the same Hymn (Erk, No. 193; Choralgesänge, No. 77). The Schemelli tune, though modelled on the Neander-Freylinghausen form, is a new melody. Zahn, No. 7129, attributes it to Bach without qualification, and certainly correctly. It is not found in any other eighteenth century Hymn book.
The melody is an Aria—it is so called in the ms.—rather than a Hymn tune. It is copied in Anna Magdalena’s hand1 and indubitably is by Bach.
The melody and Bass are by Bach. Spitta1 draws attention to the “lofty and individual beauty” of the tune. The Bass is unfigured.
On the same page of the Notenbüchlein the melody, with a slightly altered Bass, is given in E minor (Choralgesange, No. 111). Erk, Nos. 43 and 208, gives both forms. Zahn, No. 7417a, and Erk, No. 44, give the E mi. version in a somewhat different form.
Spitta remarks1 of the melody, that it “leaves us in doubt as to its composer; it is strikingly simple for a composition of Bach’s; but at all events it is new.” König prints an almost identical melody to the same Hymn in 1738 (Zahn, No. 7419). Probably the parent of the Bach-König melody is Johann Georg Ebeling’s setting of the Hymn in a minor key published in 1666 (Zahn, No. 7414). The opening phrases of all three are identical, as are the closing cadence of Ebeling’s and König’s settings. Had Konig received the tune as Bach’s it is difficult to suppose that he would have altered it. Moreover, he uses it in a much more changed form for another Hymn (Zahn, No. 1815). Bach’s authorship therefore is improbable.
The melody has the Bach Aria character, and may be regarded as by him. Spitta’s notes upon the tune1 are not very intelligible in the translation. It is sufficient to remark that both of the Hymns to which he alludes are by the Countess Emilie Juliane, and that neither possessed a proper melody of its own until Bach wrote “Gott, mein Herz” for one of them.
* Zahn, No. 7937, attributes the melody and Bass to Bach without qualification. The character of the tune and the fact that the words of the Hymn are by Schemelli establish the conclusion. The tune is not found elsewhere.
Erk, No. 212, and Choralgesange, No. 118, print the harmonised melody. The former follows Winterfeld in attributing it to Bach without qualification; the latter regards it as “wahrscheinlich” his. There seems to be no ground on which to base either conclusion. The tune is without distinction, and is not in the least possessed of Bach’s characteristics. It is included in some nineteenth century Hymn books, and seems to be another form of a tune, to the same Hymn, found in various versions (Zahn, Nos. 2852-2857).
The melody is not found elsewhere. It has an unmistakeable Bach curve. Spitta1 points out that the Hymn “Hier lieg ich nun, O Vater” was not given a tune of its own in Schemelli’s Hymn book, nor, in fact, did it possess one. Meanwhile the Hymn, “Hier lieg ich nun, mein Gott, zu deinen Füssen,” had been rendered popular by Freylinghausen’s Hymn book (1704). Spitta hazards the suggestion that Krebs’ melody was written by Bach in anticipation of a demand for a new edition of Schemelli’s book. Spitta’s guess is supported by an interesting fact. Zahn, Nos. 953-954, prints two forms of the tune “Hier lieg ich nun, mein Gott,” dated respectively 1708 and 1719. In the latter the opening phrase is identical with Bach’s opening phrase, and its general character leaves little doubt that in writing a melody for “Hier lieg ich nun, O Vater,” Bach had in his mind that of “Hier lieg ich nun, mein Gott.”
Zahn, No. 5878 a, remarks, “Mel. bei (von?) J. S. Bach.” Erk, No. 236, and Choralgesange, No. 174, suggest, without endorsing, Bach’s authorship. Spitta1 attributes the tune to Bach without qualification. It bears the stamp of Bach’s workmanship and is not found in the Hymn books.
The melody is not found elsewhere. Its form is compatible with Bach’s authorship. Spitta1 points out that in Schemelli’s Hymn book (1736) the Hymn “Ich gnuge mich” was sung to the tune “Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten.” In fact it possessed no melody of its own. As in the case of “Hier lieg ich nun, O Vater,” the Krebs melody therefore may have been composed by Bach in preparation for a revised edition of the Schemelli Hymn book. But the compass of the tune is incompatible with congregational use.
Zahn, No. 5082, attributes the melody to Bach without qualification. Its opening phrase is reminiscent of “O Gott, du frommer Gott” (see Cantata 45), but Bach’s hand is unmistakeable. The tune is not found in any of the regular Hymn books.
Zahn, No. 4732, remarks, “Mel. und Bass von (?) S. Bach.” The Hymn had its own melody (1693). Schemelli’s tune improbably is by Bach. It is not found elsewhere.
Zahn, No. 4663, attributes the melody to Bach without qualification. There was in existence already, but not in very general use, a melody to the Hymn by Johann Georg Ebeling (1667). Another, in the Dresden Hymn book, 1694, has an opening phrase, but in a major key, to which Bach’s opening line bears a close resemblance (Zahn, Nos. 4659, 4661). It is worth noticing that when Bach used the words in the “Christmas Oratorio,” No. 59, he set them to Luther’s “Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g’mein.” That he should have given the Hymn a distinctive melody of its own two years later is explicable from that circumstance. The tune itself establishes a conviction that Bach composed it. It is not found in the regular Hymn books.
Zahn, No. 1302, regards the melody as “probably” by Bach. The probable author of the Hymn, Christoph Wegleiter, died in 1706. Since it had no distinctive melody of its own, its inclusion in Schemelli’s collection suggested the provision of one. Whether Bach was the author the tune does not help to decide. It bears a very close resemblance to an anonymous melody (1729) to the Hymn “Sollt es gleich bisweilen scheinen” (Zahn, No. 1356), and is not found elsewhere. König also appears to have drawn upon the 1729 melody in 1738 to set the Hymn “Sollt es gleich” (Zahn, No. 1360).
Zahn, No. 6446, and Choralgesange, No. 191, concur in regarding the tune as probably by Bach. Spitta1 expresses himself positively to that effect. The Hymn was wedded to a proper melody of its own since 1687, and Zahn reveals the existence of four others. But none of them had much vogue, and on that ground, perhaps, Bach provided a new one for Schemelli’s Hymn book. It is not found in any other eighteenth century collection, and its Aria character seems to justify a positive ascription of it to Bach. König (1738) has a tune to the same Hymn which, greatly inferior to Bach’s, has the appearance of being a melody evolved out of it (Zahn, No. 6447).
Erk, No. 82, and Zahn, No. 4400, attribute the melody to Bach without qualification. It is characteristic of his Aria type, and indubitably is his. The anonymous Hymn has no earlier melody, but König (?) set it again in 1738 (Zahn, No. 4401). Bach’s tune does not occur in any Hymn book but Schemelli’s.
Zahn, No. 5185, attributes the melody to Bach without qualification. It is in the form of a Gigue and is his unmistakeably. It is not found elsewhere.
The stamp of Bach’s authorship is upon the melody, and Zahn, No. 4709, attributes it to him without qualification. It is not found in other Hymn books than Schemelli’s.
Zahn, No. 3969, attributes the melody to Bach without qualification. The Hymn had a melody of its own (1676), which Konig uses, and another more recent (1711). But neither had much vogue in the Hymn books, and Bach’s provision of a new melody is intelligible. If the pauses be neglected the Aria form of the melody appears, and justifies the ascription of the tune to Bach. It is not found elsewhere.
Zahn, No. 8383, attributes the melody and Bass to Bach without qualification. The assumption is confirmed by the fact that the words probably are by Schemelli himself, and that the tune is in Bach’s Aria form. It is not found elsewhere.
The melody, which is not found elsewhere, reads like Bach. That he should have prepared an original tune for a future edition of Schemelli is explicable in view of the fact that the Hymn had no distinctive melody of its own; the one in moderately general use was a reconstruction (1715) of “Meine Hoffnung stehet feste” (see Cantata 40). König (1738) adapted another well-known tune to the Hymn. In Schemelli, 1736, it was directed to be sung to the tune, “Herr, ich habe missgehandelt” (see Cantata 162).
Zahn, No. 3355, remarks, “Mel. bei (von?) Seb. Bach.” Elsewhere he speaks of it as “vermutlich von Bach1 .” Erk, No. 268, queries, and Choralgesänge, No. 253, accepts Bach’s authorship. Spitta2 attributes the tune to Bach without qualification. It is not found in any other Hymn book, and Bach’s authorship may be admitted. See also B.G. xxxix. No. 53.
The melody is not found in any other Hymn book. The Hymn had been set by Johann Ludwig Steiner in 1723, but his tune was little known. That Bach should have provided one for the Hymn in Schemelli’s Hymn book therefore is intelligible. Zahn, No. 6171, regards the melody as “probably” by Bach. It is so distinctive of his style that his authorship may be accepted.
Zahn, No. 1003, regards the melody as “probably” Bach’s. Choralgesänge, No. 284, holds it “very probably” his. It differs greatly in character from earlier tunes in the same metre (11. 11. 11. 5), and its quasi Aria form perhaps justifies the conclusion that Bach composed it. It is not found in any Hymn book earlier than the nineteenth century.
Zahn, No. 7787, attributes the melody to Bach without qualification. It is, in fact, unmistakeably his, and is not found in any of the regular Hymn books.
Erk, No. 111, regards the melody, in form a Minuet, as “wahrscheinlich” Bach’s. Zahn, No. 2883, expresses no opinion; he quotes the melody, slightly altered, from a later text (1780). Spitta1 regards it as exhibiting “plainer tokens” of Bach’s style. It certainly has Bach’s characteristics, and having regard to where it occurs can hardly be other than his composition. It is found in a few modern Hymn books.
Zahn, No. 4846, attributes the melody to Bach without qualification. Its intrinsic qualities do not justify his confidence. The Bass unquestionably is Bach’s. The tune is not found elsewhere.
Zahn, No. 6267, regards the melody as “probably” by Bach. In fact it was composed by Apelles von Lowenstern, and was published in 1644, to his own Hymn, “Singt dem Herrn ein neues Lied,” as the Choralgesange, No. 309, points out.
The melody is not found elsewhere. Zahn, No. 5892, regards it as “probably,” and the Bass as certainly by Bach. The opening phrase of the tune is reminiscent of “Was Gott thut, das ist wohlgethan” (see Cantata 12). That fact, and especially its general atmosphere, rouse a conviction that the melody is of earlier date than 1736 and that Bach was not the author of it.
The melody is headed: “Aria adag. di S. Bach D. M. Lips.,” and is the only one in Schemelli’s book thus distinguished. It is unfigured.
The tune, an obvious Bach Aria, is unfigured.
Zahn, No. 6830, remarks, “Mel. bei (von?) Seb. Bach.” Choralgesänge, No. 334, holds it “wahrscheinlich” his. Spitta1 attributes the melody to Bach without qualification. The Hymn, by Zacharias Hermann (1643-1716), was published in 1690, without a melody. Possibly Becker’s tune is one of those prepared by Bach for Schemelli. The tune occurs in a single, nineteenth century, Hymn book, and may be accepted as Bach’s.
Perhaps this unfigured Aria may have been designed by Bach for a future edition of Schemelli’s Hymn book. The melody obviously is Bach’s.
From the foregoing examination the following tunes emerge as being either positively or with practical certainty Bach’s original compositions:
As Schweitzer points out1 , Bach’s Hymn tunes are sacred Arias rather than Chorals. “Their peculiar loveliness comes from the fact that they are the work of an artist brought up on the German Choral, writing under the influence of the formally perfect Italian melodic form.” They are not appropriate to congregational singing, and in fact have been used very little for that purpose1 . “Their charm,” Spitta remarks2 , “is like that of a pious family circle, musically cultured, and we may delight to fancy that these touching hymns, so delicately worked out in their small limits, were sung, at the master’s household devotions, by one or other of the members of his family.”
[1 ] Concerted music was not sung at Leipzig during the six Sundays of Lent and the last three of Advent. Cantatas were required on forty-three Sundays and sixteen weekday Festivals.
[2 ]Johann Sebastian Bach: His Work and Influence on the Music of Germany, 1685-1750. By Philipp Spitta. Translated from the German by Clara Bell and J. A. Fuller Maitland (3 vols., London, 1897-99), iii. 91.
[1 ] During his first eighteen months at Leipzig Bach wrote more than twenty Sunday Cantatas, besides two sacred Cantatas for special occasions. See Albert Schweitzer, J. S. Bach (translated by Ernest Newman, 2 vols., London, 1911), ii. 164. Bach wrote about seventy Cantatas after 1734 (see list infra, p. 4), very nearly half of which are assigned to the years 1735-36 (Schweitzer, ii. 328). In 1735 alone no less than twenty Cantatas were composed by him (Spitta, iii. 68). With the exception, perhaps, of a single Sunday, he wrote a new Cantata for every Sunday and Festival between Easter and Whitsuntide in that year (Ibid.iii. 70).
[2 ]Ibid.ii. 349.
[1 ] See infra, p. 5.
[2 ] The Oratorio consists of six Cantatas designed respectively for (i) Christmas Day, (ii) Feast of St Stephen, (iii) Feast of St John the Evangelist, (iv) New Year’s Day (Circumcision), (v) Sunday after New Year’s Day, (vi) Feast of the Epiphany.
[1 ] As a Cantata c. 1730.
[2 ] Or late Cothen period. See Wustmann (infra, p. 5, note 1), p. 279.
[3 ] But see Ibid. p. 275.
[4 ] But see Ibid. p. 277.
[5 ] But see Ibid. p. 298.
[6 ] But see Ibid. p. 284.
[1 ] A useful publication is Rudolf Wustmann’s Joh. Seb. Bachs Kantatentexte im Auftrage der Neuen Bachgesellschaft (Leipzig, 1913).
[5 ] See also No. 147.
[6 ] The Sixth Sunday after Easter is the Sunday after Ascension Day.
[1 ] See also No. 194.
[11 ] See also No. 21.
[9 ] See also No. 100.
[12 ] See also No. 161.
[1 ] See also No. 51, and Spitta, ii. 473.
[8 ] See also Nos. 50 and 51.
[3 ] See Spitta, ii. 632-637, for three secular Wedding Cantatas by Bach. See also Nos. 97, 100.
[7 ] See also No. 157, and Spitta, ii. 412.
[5 ] For a secular Cantata in praise of the Leipzig Town Council, see Spitta, ii. 634. See also No. 69.
[1 ] They are the following: Nos. 34, 35, 50, 53, 54, 63, 82, 134, 141, 150, 152, 160, 170, 173, 181, 189, 191, 193, 196, 198, U 2, D 1.
[2 ] The only exceptions to the rule are Nos. 21, 30, 51, 59, 71, 182, 184, 186 (?), 199.
[3 ] See Nos. 77, 106, 131, 145, 153, D 4. They are the only exceptions.
[4 ] The complete list of this group is as follows: Nos. 6, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 59, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 119, 120, 131, 132, 136, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 174, 175, 176, 179, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 190, 194, 195, 197, 199, U 1, U 3, D 2, D 3, D 4.
[1 ] The following Cantatas form this group: Nos. 16, 27, 58, 60, 61, 68, 73, 95, 98, 118, 128, 153.
[1 ] But see No. 107.
[1 ] Particular care has been taken to discover, in all cases in which a Hymn is set to a tune other than its proper melody, whether the association was usual in the Hymn books of Bach’s period. Clearly the devotional purpose Bach had in view would not be served by severing a Hymn from the tune to which it usually was sung. In the Choral Cantatas it is possible to state positively of all, that Bach always associated the Hymn with the tune by which it was known.
[2 ]Op. cit.iii. 107.
[1 ] See notes pp. 6, 12 supra.
[2 ] See p. 5, note 4, supra.
[1 ] Chorals of this kind are here designated “Embellished.” It is very rare for any of the instruments to receive an independent part in the final Simple Chorals. Where it does occur it usually is for the purpose of bringing out the melody prominently and so of emphasising the idea which the melody represented to the congregation. See infra for a list of the Embellished Chorals.
[1 ]Op. cit.iii. 285.
[2 ] Nos. 2, 14, 38, and 121 are in Motett form. The only other Motett Choral Choruses in the Cantatas are Nos. 4 d, 21, 28 a, and 118. Motett Choruses are also found in Cantatas 64, 68, and 108.
[3 ] It must be remembered that this analysis is directed only upon the movements in which a Hymn text or paraphrase and its melody are associated, or where the melody is introduced by itself to suggest or recall the spirit of the Hymn.
[1 ]Op. cit.iii. 104.
[2 ] See also No. 186.
[3 ] A Choral Motett.
[4 ] See also the Dialogus group.
[5 ] Also under Unison Choral.
[6 ] See also the Dialogus group.
[7 ] A Choral Motett.
[8 ] See note on this movement in Cantata 138.
[1 ] Spitta, iii. 101, regards the following movements as transitional towards the perfect Choral Fantasia: Nos. 1 a, 5 a, 41 a, 61 a, 94 a, 126 a, 127 a, 135 a, 139 a. The following Extended Chorals approach the dimensions of a Choral Fantasia: Nos. 100 b, 129 b, 147 a, 147 b, 167, 186.
[2 ] With the rarest exceptions, the Simple and Embellished Chorals are printed in Bernhard Friedrich Richter’s edition of Bach’s Choralgesange (Breitkopf & Haertel, 1898). Some of the Extended and more elaborate movements are given by Ludwig Erk in his Johann Sebastian Bach’s Choralgesange und geistliche Arien (2 vols., Peters, 1850-65). The Chorals which are thus rendered accessible are indicated in the following pages.
[1 ] The Trumpet and Timpani group of Embellished Chorals will be found in Richter’s Choralgesange, in the order in which their numbers are stated above, as Nos. 99, 272, 97, 131, 230, 155, 205, 230, 387.
[2 ] For this group see the Choralgesange, Nos. 267, 109, 236, 378, 212, 14, 279, 219.
[3 ]Choralgesange, Nos. 302, 161.
[4 ]Ibid. No. 220.
[5 ]Ibid. Nos. 220, 243, 356, 297, 27, 376, 184.
[1 ]Choralgesange, Nos. 357, 340.
[2 ]Ibid. No. 280.
[3 ] Erk, No. 301; Choralgesange, Nos. 318, 13, 153, 268.
[4 ] Nos. 9, 23, 42, 64. Spitta, ii. 457, finds this type of Choral reminiscent of Georg Bohm (1661-1733), whose influence upon Bach was considerable. See Schweitzer, i. 45.
[5 ] The following movements approach the dimensions of a Choral Fantasia: Nos. 100 b, 129 b, 147 a, 147 b, 167, 186.
[6 ] The Choral is also included in the Dialogus group.
[1 ] The movement actually is marked “Recitatif.” See Cantata 180.
[2 ]Op. cit.ii. 465.
[1 ] The term does not imply that the literary text invariably is a dialogue, but that the movement is cast in the form of a musical conversation between the cantus and Recitativo. Frequently the latter is a commentary rather than a reply.
[1 ] See Spitta, ii. chap. ix; Schweitzer, ii. chap. xxxi; Pariy, J. S. Bach (New York, 1909), ch. vii.
[2 ] Psalms cxlix. 1-3; cl. 2, 6. Spitta, ii. 603, suggests that the Motett was composed for New Year’s Day.
[3 ] Romans viii. 26, 27. The Motett was composed for and performed at the funeral of the Leipzig Professor and Rector, Johann Heinrich Ernesti, October 16, 1729. The concluding Whitsuntide Choral is an addition and suggests that Bach made use of the Motett for that season, to which the original words are congruous.
[4 ] The text of the Motett is Johann Franck’s Hymn, “Jesu, meme Freude” (see Cantata 64), and Romans viii. 1, 2, 9, 10, 11. The work was composed for and performed at the funeral of Frau Reese in 1723. She probably was the wife of a member of the Prince’s Court band at Cothen. As the Bible text is relative to and in context with the Epistle for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity, it is possible that Bach used the Motett for that Sunday.
[5 ] Isaiah xli. 10, and xliii. 1. The date of the Motett is not ascertained. It was composed for the funeral of Frau Winkler, wife of the deputy Mayor of Leipzig.
[6 ] The Motett consists of two stanzas of an Aria text. Neither the date nor the occasion of the Motett is ascertained.
[2 ] In Motetts for single chorus the sections or lines of the thematic text were worked out fugato. For examples of this form in the Cantatas see note, p. 34 supra. The so-called Motett, “Sei Lob und Preis mit Ehren” (B. G. xxxix. 167), is, with slight alterations, the second movement of Cantata 28.
[3 ]Op. cit.iii. 351-356.
[1 ] It contains no tunes.
[1 ] See Cantata 77.
[1 ] Wagner’s version begins, “O seht was ist fur Wunder dar.”
[2 ] The Hymn occurs in a Cantata of doubtful authenticity.
[1 ] The Hymn occurs in one of the Cantatas of doubtful authenticity.
[1 ] Wagner has a different text.
[† ] The authorship of these Hymns is doubtful.
[* ] The eleven Hymns marked with an asterisk are not in Paul Wagner’s Hymn book.
[1 ] See Spitta, iii. chap. iv.
[1 ] Spitta follows C. F. Becker’s edition of the “Kirchengesange” in supposing that Bach wrote twenty-nine tunes for Schemelli (iii. 111 n.). Zahn, however, vi. 316, accounts positively for forty-eight tunes. Twenty-one remain. Not all of them are Bach’s. On the whole question of Bach’s original Hymn tunes see infra, p. 67.
[1 ] A 3rd edition, dated 1831, contains three hundred and seventy-one.
[1 ] Originally (1664) set to “Ja, er ists, das Heil der Welt.” The melodies in italic type occur only in the Organ works.
[2 ] Also known as “Freu’ dich sehr, O meine Seele,” and “Wie nach einer Wasserquelle.”
[3 ] In Bach, “Wenn wir in hochsten Nöthen sein.”
[1 ] In Bach, “Herr Jesu Christ, wahr’r Mensch und Gott.”
[2 ] In Bach, “Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir.”
[3 ] Authorship doubtful.
[4 ] A reconstruction of Johann Schop’s “Wach auf, mein Geist.”
[1 ] Better known as “O Mensch, bewein’ dein’ Sunde gross.”
[2 ] Authorship doubtful.
[3 ] Also known as “O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden,” and “Ach Herr, mich armen Sunder.”
[4 ] Also sung to “Nun ruhen alle Walder.”
[1 ] Authorship doubtful.
[2 ] Originally set to Herman’s “Gott Vater, der du deine Sonn.”
[1 ] Authorship doubtful.
[2 ] Or “Wo soll ich fliehen hin.”
[3 ] Or “Was furcht’st du, Feind, Herodes, sehr.”
[4 ] Originally set to “In dich hab’ ich gehoffet, Herr.”
[1 ] Also sung to “Ach bleib’ bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ.”
[2 ] Also known as “Vom Himmel kam der Engel Schaar.”
[3 ] Originally “Ave ierarchia Celestis et pia.” Also known as “Gott, durch deine Gute.”
[4 ] Also sung to Selnecker’s “Herr Gott, nun sei gepreiset.”
[5 ] Also known as “Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid.”
[1 ] The tune occurs in a Cantata of doubtful authenticity.
[2 ] Included in this title are the second and third stanzas: “Christe, aller Welt Trost,” and “Kyrie, Gott heiliger Geist.”
[3 ] Originally “Conditor alme siderum.”
[4 ] Or “Kommst du nun, Jesu, vom Himmel herunter,” or “Hast du denn, Jesu, dein Angesicht gantzlich verborgen.”
[5 ] Also known as “Es ist gewisslich an der Zeit.”
[6 ] Originally “Gross ist, O grosser Gott.”
[7 ] Also known as “Die Wollust dieser Welt.”
[8 ] Also known as “Da Christus geboren war.”
[9 ] Also known as “Mache dich, mein Geist, bereit.”
[10 ] Also known as “Helft mir Gott’s Gute preisen.”
[1 ] Also known as “Ach lieben Christen, seid getrost.”
[2 ] Attributed doubtfully to Johann Eccard (1553-1611). Originally “Herr Jesu Christ, wahr’r Mensch und Gott.”
[3 ] Vol. iii. 111-115. Schweitzer, ii. 300, gives a list of Hymn tunes “supposed to be by Bach” but does not determine their genuineness. In addition to those discussed below he includes “Ich lass dich nicht,” a melody (Zahn, No. 7455) first printed in a Leipzig collection in 1727 and without any indication of Bach’s style.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 115 n.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 401-403.
[2 ] See Bach’s Chorals, Part I, 53, 54.
[1 ] B. G. xliii (ii).
[1 ] Spitta, ii. 150.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 113.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 113.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 288.
[* ] Schemelli has E flat.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 288.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 115 n.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 288.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 113.
[1 ] Vol. vi. 347.
[2 ] Vol. iii. 115 n.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 113.
[1 ] The text has been copied from B.G. xxxix. 267.
[1 ] Vol. iii. 115 n.
[1 ] Vol. i. 22.
[1 ] All the Schemelli melodies and those in the Notenbuchlein, except the one at page 86 supra, are included by Ernst Naumann in a volume of “Lieder und Arien. Fur eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte (Orgel oder Harmonium),” Leipzig, 1901. The Schemelli tunes are arranged by Franz Wullner in another volume, published, like Naumann’s, for the New Bach Society. The Editors do not attempt to distinguish Bach’s melodies from the others.
[2 ] Vol. iii. 112.