Front Page Titles (by Subject) SCHEME WHICH WAS LAID BEFORE GENERAL VON GAUDY - On War, vol. 3
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SCHEME WHICH WAS LAID BEFORE GENERAL VON GAUDY - Carl von Clausewitz, On War, vol. 3 
On War, trans. Col. J.J. Graham. New and Revised edition with Introduction and Notes by Col. F.N. Maude, in Three Volumes (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & C., 1918). Vol. 3.
Part of: On War
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SCHEME WHICH WAS LAID BEFORE GENERAL VON GAUDY
Presuming that it is only a preliminary knowledge of the Art of War which His Royal Highness the Crown Prince is to receive from me, with a view to His Royal Highness being enabled to understand modern military history, it is of the first importance that I should give the Prince a clear idea of War, and that I should do so in such a manner as to avoid diffuseness, or taxing the Prince’s faculties too much.
In order to acquire a thorough knowledge of a science, it is necessary to apply one’s mind chiefly to the study of it for some time, and it appears to be too soon for the Prince to do this.
For these reasons I have adopted the following course, which appears to me most in accordance with the natural direction of the ideas of a young man.
In carrying it out my chief endeavour will be, in the first place, to make myself always intelligible to the Prince, as otherwise the most attentive pupil must soon become wearied, confused and disgusted; secondly, in every case to avoid giving any erroneous ideas, through which his further instruction or the progress of his own studies might be impeded or interfered with.
For the sake of the first of these objects, I shall endeavour to keep the subject always in correspondence with the natural understanding as much as possible, and in this effort shall often deviate from the scientific spirit and scholastic forms.
I now submit to your Excellency the plan I have sketched hastily, and beg you will do me the favour to correct my view in any points in which it may not be in accordance with your own.
Next to a preparatory knowledge of weapons and the different kinds of troops, some conception of applied or higher tactics, as they are called, and Strategy, is principally necessary in order to comprehend military history. Tactics, or the theory of fighting, is in reality the principal thing, partly because battles are decisive, partly because it comprises the most of what can be taught. Strategy, or the theory of the combination of separate battles towards the object of the campaign, is a subject more of natural and matured power of judgment; still, we must at least point out clearly the subjects which are therein to be found, and show their mutual connection and relation to the whole.
Field fortification in such a synoptical course will be most suitably placed with the theory of the defensive in tactics, permanent fortification in or after Strategy.
Tactics itself comprises two different classes of subjects. One class may be understood without having an acquaintance with the strategic relations of the whole; to this belong the formation for tactical purposes, and the mode of fighting of all the smaller parts, from the Company or Squadron up to a Brigade of all arms, and in all kinds of country. Those of the other class are in intimate connection with strategic conceptions; to this class belong the usual action of whole Corps and Armies in battle, outpost services, and the minor operations of War, &c. &c., because in such there are introduced conceptions of position, battle, march, &c., which cannot be understood without previous conceptions of the combination of the whole campaign.
I shall, therefore, separate the two classes of subjects; begin with a concise and very general description of War, pass on to tactics, or the action of the smaller divisions in battle, and then stop short when I reach the position (order of battle) of whole Corps or Armies, in order to return to the general view of the campaign, and to explain more in detail the connection of things; then the remaining chapters on tactics will follow.
Lastly, I shall begin Strategy again, with the idea of the course of a campaign, in order to consider the subject from this new point of view.
From this now follows the arrangement as under:
Powder, small arms, rifles, cannon, and all appertaining thereto
Theory of charges for horizontal and vertical firing.
Service of cannon of all kinds.
Organisation of a Battery.
Expense of guns and ammunition, &c.
Effect of artillery—ranges—probability of hitting.
Other kinds of Troops
Applied or Higher Tactics.
A general conception of War—battles. Position of smaller divisions, and their mode of fighting.
A Company of Infantry with or without Artillery on all kinds of ground.
A Squadron of Cavalry the same.
The two together.
Ditto in different kinds of ground.
Order of battle for a Corps of several Brigades.
Ditto of an Army of several Corps.
The two last sections without relation to ground, because otherwise the idea of position would be introduced.
More detailed explanation of a campaign.
Organisation of Army at the commencement of a campaign.
Whilst it marches, and takes up positions, it requires measures of security—outposts—patrols—reconnaissances—detachments—minor warfare.
When an Army chooses a position, such arrangements must be made that the Army can defend itself in the same—tactical defensive—field fortification.
Attack of the enemy in such positions—conduct to be observed in the combat itself—battle—retreat—pursuit.
Marches—defence of rivers—passage of rivers—lines of posts—cantonments.
View of a campaign and of a whole War in Strategy respects.
What determines the result in War.
Plan of operations.
Plan of operations—arrangements for subsistence.
Positions—lines of posts—battles—marches—defence and passage of rivers.
System of War, &c. &c.
Permanent fortification and siege operations either precede Strategy or form a conclusion to the whole.