Front Page Titles (by Subject) SKETCH III: Plan for improving and preserving in order the Highways in Scotland - Sketches of the History of Man, vol. 3
SKETCH III: Plan for improving and preserving in order the Highways in Scotland - Henry Home, Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man, vol. 3 
Sketches of the History of Man Considerably enlarged by the last additions and corrections of the author, edited and with an Introduction by James A. Harris (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007). 3 Vols. Vol. 3.
About Liberty Fund:
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals.
The copyright to this edition, in both print and electronic forms, is held by Liberty Fund, Inc.
Fair use statement:
This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.
Plan for improving and preserving in order the Highways in Scotland
Highways have in Scotland become a capital object of police, by the increase of inland commerce, upon which bad roads are a heavy tax. Happily for our country, no person is ignorant of this truth; and we see with pleasure the fruits of their conviction in various attempts, public and private, to establish this valuable branch of police upon the best footing. As this is no easy task, it may reasonably be hoped, that men interested will seriously apply to it, and will freely produce such hints as occur to them. In the latter view, the following plan is offered to the public: and if, from the various proposals that have been or shall be published, an effective plan can be framed, such as completely to answer its purpose, it may safely be pronounced, that it will produce more benefit to this country, than has been produced by any other single improvement since the union of the two kingdoms.
1. The justices of peace, commissioners of supply, the sheriff or stewart depute, and the first magistrate of royal boroughs, shall be commissioners for making and repairing highways, bridges, and ferries, in the several shires and stewartries. All the powers given by law to the justices of peace, and commissioners of supply, with respect to highways, bridges, and ferries, shall be transferred to them; and any two shall be a quorum, except where a greater number is required by this act.
2. The sheriff or stewart depute shall appoint the first day of meeting of the said commissioners, as soon as may conveniently be after the date of the act, by an intimation at each parish-church upon a Sunday, at the close of the forenoon service. And the last Tuesday of March shall yearly thereafter be a day of meeting at the head borough of the shire or stewartry, in place of the first or third Tuesday of May appointed by former acts. The commissioners shall appoint a preses, convener, and clerk: and they shall be impowered to adjourn themselves from time to time.
3. The commissioners, at their first meeting, shall divide the shire or stewartry into two or more districts, as they see convenient. And if they cannot overtake this work at that meeting, they shall appoint proper persons to form a plan of the intended divisions, which plan shall be reported to the commissioners at their next meeting, in order to be approved or altered by them. This being settled, the commissioners shall appoint the heritors in these several districts, or any three of them, to meet on a certain day and place, to make lists of the whole public roads within their respective districts, and to settle the order of reparation, beginning with those that are the most frequented. The proceedings of these district meetings must be reported to the commissioners at their next meeting; who are empowered to settle the order of reparation, in case of variance among the heritors; and also to add any road that may have been omitted. And they shall record a scheme or plan of the whole roads in the shire, thus enlisted, with their resolutions thereupon, to be seen in the clerk’s hands gratis. But upon any just cause appearing in the course of administration, the commissioners shall be empowered to alter or vary this plan, provided it be at a meeting previously appointed for that purpose, and where three fifths at least of the commissioners are present.
4. If the sheriff or stewart neglect to appoint the first meeting of the commissioners, he shall incur a penalty of L. 100, upon a summary complaint to the court of session by any one heritor of the shire, with costs of suit; the one half of the penalty to the plaintiff, and the other half to be applied by the commissioners for the purposes of this act. If the commissioners fail to meet at the day appointed by the sheriff or stewart, or fail to divide the shire or stewartry into districts, within six months of their first meeting, the sheriff or stewart depute, under the foresaid penalty, shall be bound to do that work himself; and also to appoint the heritors in the several districts, or any three of them, to make lists of the public roads as above mentioned, and to report their resolutions to him; and he is empowered to settle the order of reparation, in case of variance among the heritors. If the heritors fail to meet, and to make a list of the roads as aforesaid, this work shall be performed by the sheriff or stewart depute himself. And he shall be indemnified of whatever expences he is at in prosecuting the said work, out of the sums that are to be levied by authority of this act, in manner after mentioned, with an additional sum for his own trouble, to be named by the circuit judges.
5. No person shall act as a commissioner upon this statute, but who has an estate within the county of L. 200 Scots valuation, or is heir-presumptive to such an estate, or is named a commissioner virtute officii, under the penalty of L. 20 Sterling toties quoties, to be prosecuted before any competent court, by a popular action, with costs of suit; the one half to the plaintiff, the other half to the purposes of this act.
6. Whereas the sum of 10 d. directed by the act 1669 to be imposed upon each L. 100 of valued rent, is insufficient for the purposes therein expressed; and whereas the six days statute-work for repairing the highways is in many respects inconvenient; therefore, instead of the 10 d. and instead of the statute-work, the commissioners, together with the heritors possessed of L. 200 Scots of valued rent, five, whether commissioners or heritors, making a quorum, shall annually, upon the said last Tuesday of March, assess each heritor in a sum not exceedingNA upon each L. 100 valued rent; the assessment imposed on the heritors to be levied by the collector of supply, along with the cess, and by the same legal remedies. The heritors are entitled to relieve themselves of the one half of the said assessment, by laying the same upon their tenants, in proportion to the rent they pay; an heritor being always considered as a tenant of the land he has in his natural possession.
7. With respect to boroughs of royalty, regality, and barony, and large trading villages, the commissioners are empowered to levy from each householder, a sum not exceeding 2 s. yearly, more or less in proportion to the assessment of the shire, to be paid within forty days after notice given, under the penalty of double, besides expence of process. Provided, that any of these householders who have country-farms, by which they contribute to relieve their landlords as above mentioned, shall be exempted from this part of the assessment.
8. If the commissioners and heritors neglect to assess their shire, or name so small a sum as to be an elusory assessment, insufficient to answer the purposes of this act, the court of justiciary, or the circuit-judges, are in that case empowered and required to lay on the highest assessment that is made lawful by this act. In case of a total omission, the commissioners and heritors who, by neglecting to convene without a good cause of absence, have occasioned the said omission, shall be subjected each of them to a penalty of L. 20 Sterling. And to make these penalties effectual, the trustees for fisheries and manufactures are appointed to sue for the same before the court of session, and to apply the same, when recovered, to any useful purpose within the shire, especially to the purposes of this act. And to preserve the said fines entire for the public service, the trustees shall be entitled to costs of suit.
9. The sums levied as aforesaid shall be laid out annually upon the highways, bridges, and ferries, for making, repairing, or improving the same; proceeding regularly with the reparation according to the scheme or plan ordered as above to be settled in each shire and stewartry.
10. With respect to roads that are not the first in order, and for which there is no interim provision by this act during reparation of the more frequented roads, the commissioners are empowered to exact from cottars and day-labourers their statute-work, according to the acts presently in force, to be applied to these secondary roads. The statute-work is not to be demanded unless for this purpose; and is to cease totally after the highways have, by means of the present act, been once totally repaired.
11. The commissioners and heritors, at all their meetings, shall bear their own charges.
12. The clause in the act 1661, empowering heritors, at the sight of the sheriff, to cast about highways for their con-venience, shall be repealed; and it shall be declared unlawful, in time coming, to turn about or change any highway, unless for the benefit of the public, as by shortening it, carrying it through firmer ground, or making it more level; and to that purpose the commissioners shall be empowered to turn about highways, as also to widen the same, not exceeding thirty feet, free of ditches. But the commissioners shall have no power to carry a road through any house, garden, orchard, or pleasure-ground.
13. The commissioners shall have power to take from the adjacent lands, stones, sand, gravel, or other materials for making the highways, paying always for the damage done.
14. With respect to highways that bound the properties of neighbouring heritors, which it may be found necessary to alter or widen, the commissioners shall be empowered to adjudge to one heritor any small bits of ground cut off from the other by the road so altered; and if land cannot be given for land, to make a compensation in money, valuing the land at the current price of the market.
15. In order to prevent water stagnating on the highways, the commissioners shall be empowered to make ditches or drains through neighbouring grounds; and such ditches or drains shall be preserved entire by the proprietors of the land, or at their charges.
16. As the foresaid assessment, after repairing the highways, may not be sufficient for building bridges or making ferries, where rivers are large; any five of the commissioners may, for building bridges or making ferries, establish a pontage or toll; so much for horses, so much for horned cattle, and so much for sheep, and the double for each beast in a wheel-carriage. Upon the credit of the toll, the said commissioners may borrow money, to be employed wholly upon the bridge or ferry where the toll is gathered.
But before borrowing, an estimate must be made of the expence of the work. After the work is finished, the sum bestowed on it must be ascertained: an accurate account must be kept of the gradual payment of this sum by the toll; and when it is completely paid, the commissioners must declare the bridge or ferry to be free.
17. The determinations of the commissioners shall be final, unless complained of in manner following.
18. If any heritor apprehend that undue preference is given to a certain highway, or conceive himself aggrieved by any order or sentence of the commissioners, it shall be lawful for him, within forty days of the act complained of, to enter a complaint in the court of session; and the judgement upon such complaint shall be final. But such complaint shall only be effectual for damages, and shall not stay execution of the work. At the same time, no complaint shall be admitted till security be given to pay full costs, in case the plaintiff be found in the wrong.
19. Former laws concerning highways, bridges, or ferries, to continue in force, unless as far as altered by this act.
20. An annual state of what is done by virtue of this act, made by the commissioners, or their clerk, shall, before the last Tuesday of March, be laid before the trustees for fisheries and manufactures, in order to be made a part of their annual report to the King; and these trustees shall direct proper persons to inspect what work is done upon the high-roads, and in what manner. Upon any misapplication or embezzlement of the money levied, any neglect in levying, or any wrong done to the public contrary to the intention of this act, the trustees are required to set on foot and prosecute what redress is competent in law or equity, provided the prosecution be commenced within a year after the offence.
Query, Ought not broad wheels to be required?
Considerations that support the preceding Plan.
The laws in Scotland relating to this branch of public police, are numerous; some enacted while Scotland was a separate kingdom, some after its union with England. It is not the purpose of this essay to enter into a detail of the various regulations established by these laws: they are generally known; and in the late abridgement of our statute-law, they are all recapitulated with brevity and precision. It shall suffice cursorily to observe, that the acts made during the reign of Charles II. form the ground-work of our regulations concerning highways: the later acts are little more than explanatory of the former.
It seems to have been the plan of the legislature, that highways should be repaired by those who are employed in husbandry; and accordingly, the six days annual labour is, in the statutes of Charles II. imposed upon them only.
This was a measure not ill suited to the state of Scotland at that period. During the last century, we had little inland commerce to require good roads, except that of corn carried to market; and for that reason, it was natural to impose upon husbandmen the burden of repairing highways. These persons, at the same time, passing the whole summer in idleness, unless when called to perform personal services to capricious and unfeeling landlords, could not think it a hardship to have some part of their time employed in serving themselves instead of their landlords.
That annual labour upon highways, limited to a few days, should be required from men in that condition, appears not unjust. And why may we not suppose the legislature at that time capable of such enlarged views, as to prefer this method for repairing highways, in order to bring on gradually a habit of labour and industry? But the condition of Scotland at present differs widely from what it was in the reign of Charles II.; and the regulations for repairing highways which were then proper, have, by alteration of circumstances, become both unjust and inexpedient.
Unjust they have become in a high degree. Inland commerce, which begins to flourish in Scotland, is greatly promoted by good roads; and every dealer, and indeed every traveller, profits by them. But no men are less interested in good roads than day-labourers, or those who are commonly called cottars; and yet these chiefly are burdened with the reparation. Such men, at the same time having commonly many children, find it difficult to support their families, even with their utmost industry. Nothing can be more unjust, than to impose upon such men an annual tax of six days labour for repairing roads, the goodness of which contributes little or nothing to their convenience.
Our present laws are inexpedient, as well as unjust. In the first place, a tax of this nature discourages the propagation of children, in which the strength of a state consists: the poor labourer ought to be encouraged with a reward, instead of being discouraged with a tax. In the next place, cottars called out to perform the statute-work, obey with reluctance, and trifle away time without doing any thing effectual. To enforce the law, and to compel such men to labour, is grievous to the gentlemen who are empowered to execute the law: they cannot punish with rigour or firmness men who have so good reason to decline the service: they are soon disgusted with being taskmasters, and the generality desist altogether.
Laws concerning private property are always kept in observance; and they execute themselves, as is commonly expressed, because there are always a multitude of individuals strongly interested to have them executed. But, in making public laws, the great difficulty has ever been, to lay down effectual measures for putting them in execution: by what means to make such laws execute themselves, is one of the most intricate problems in politics. Our laws concerning highways, are eminently defective in that respect: and accordingly, though most of them have existed near a century, they never have at any period been executed to any extent. Take the following specimen, among ma-ny that may be urged, of this defect. Overseers are forced into the service under a penalty, in order to compel the peasants to perform faithfully their six days labour. To hope any good from a reluctant overseer set over a set of reluctant labourers, is a fond conceit: it is much if his resentment tempt him not to encourage their idleness. In vain would we expect, that any overseer, without a suitable reward, will exert himself in promoting the work.
To remedy the hardship of laying the burden of reparation upon those who are least able and least benefited, and at the same time to make this remedy effectual, is the purpose of the foregoing plan. And upon considering the matter in its different views, the only method that promises success, appears to be a county-tax laid upon land according to the valuation, and a capitation-tax on the inhabitants of boroughs. These taxes relieve the labouring poor, and lay the burden where it ought to be laid: and the law will execute itself, if that effect can be hoped from any public law: effectual measures are laid down for levying the tax; and, if once levied, there is no danger of its being allowed to lie unemployed in the hands of the collector, for every heritor will be anxious to have some part employed for his benefit. The danger will rather be of factious disputes about the distribution. This danger also is attempted to be prevented; and, it is hoped, with success.
Some narrow-minded persons may possibly grudge a tax, that loads the present generation for the advantage of those who come after: but is it rational to grudge, that others should benefit by measures evidently calculated for advancing our own interest? Let us suppose, that the heritors of a shire were to concert measures in common, for improving their lands: to make good roads would be one effectual measure; for, supposing their reparation to cost L. 5000, their estates would be bettered double that sum.
To conclude: it is not to be expected that any regulations concerning highways, or concerning any branch of police, can be so framed as to please every individual. Wise men are practicable men, to use an expression of Lord Bacon, and will make concessions, in order to promote a general good, if without such concessions it cannot be obtained. Better far to have a good law, though, in our opinion, defective in some articles, than to have no law at all; or, which is worse, a law eminently defective, unjust, and inexpedient.
LATIN TAGS AND PHRASES
ad valorem: according to the value
aliquando bonus dormitat Homerus: sometimes even the excellent Homer nods (a common misquotation of Horace, Ars poetica, l. 359)
amor patriae: love of country
cessio bonorum: surrender of the goods
credat Judeus Apella: the Jew Apella may believe that (Horace, Satires, bk. I, v, l. 100. The line continues non ego: but not I)
credo quia impossibile est: I believe it because it is impossible (a common misquotation of Tertullian’s certum est, quia impossibile est: it is certain because it is impossible)
de hereditate viventis: concerning the inheritance of a living person
delenda est Carthago: Carthage must be destroyed
fides punica: Carthaginian fidelity (i.e., treachery)
gratis: free of charge
hic labor, hoc opus est (should be: hoc opus, hic labour est): this is the task, this is the toil (Virgil, Aeneid, bk. VI, l. 129)
in lucro captando: in the making of profit
lex talionis: the law of punishment in kind
mens sana in corpore sano: a healthy mind in a healthy body
meum et tuum: mine and thine
nudus cum nuda: a naked man with a naked woman
officina gentium: the workshop of the world
o tempora! o mores!: what times! what manners! (Cicero, In Catilinam I, 1)
patria potestas: the power of the father (i.e., the power bestowed by Roman law upon the father of a family over his children, grandchildren, and other descendants)
per aes et libram: by bronze and scales (a form of testament involving the fictitious sale of the inheritance to the heir)
per fas et nefas: by fair means or foul
pro aris et focis: in defense of one’s altars and hearths (i.e., in defense of one’s home)
quaeritur: it might be asked
quidlibet ex quolibet: everything from anything
sanctum sanctorum: holy of holies
solatium: damages awarded by way of reparation for injury to feelings
terra australis incognita: unknown southern land (i.e., a continent supposed to exist south of the Pacific Ocean)
toties quoties: as often as the thing shall happen
ultima voluntas: last will
virtute officii: by virtue of one’s office
vis major: a superior force
- Aa, Pieter van der (1659–1733). Recueil de divers voyages curieux, faite en Tartarie, en Pèrse, et ailleurs. Leyden, 1729.
- Adamnan, Saint (ca. 625–704). Vita S. Columbae.
- Aelian (Claudius Aelianus, ca. 170–235). Varia historia.
- Agathias (ca. 531–ca. 580). De imperio et rebus gestis Iustiniani imperatoris.
- Aldrovandi, Ulisse (1522–ca. 1605). Author of various works of natural history.
- Alexandria, Alexander of (d. 1523). Geniales dies.
- Ammianus Marcellinus (ca. 330–95). Rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt. Translated by John C. Rolfe. Loeb Classical Library. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass., 1935.
- Anson, George, Baron (1697–1762). A Voyage Around the World in the Years 1740, 1, 2, 3, 4. London, 1748.
- Appian (fl. ca. ad 160). De bellis civilibus.
- Arnobius Afer (second half of third century ad). Adversus gentes.
- Arrian (Flavius Arrianus, b. ad 85–90). Anabasis, or De expeditione Alexandri Magni.
- Athenaeus (fl. ca. ad 200). Deipnosophistai.
- Bacon, Francis (1561–1626). The Advancement of Learning. London, 1605.
- ———. De Sapientia Veterum. London, 1609.
- ———. The Historie of the Raigne of King Henry the Seventh. London, 1622.
- ———. Novum Organum. London, 1620.
- Bancroft, Edward (1744–1821). An Essay on the Natural History of Guiana, in South America. London, 1769.
- Barbeyrac, Jean (1674–1744). Traité de la morale des pères de l’église. Amsterdam, 1728.
- Baretti, Giuseppe Marco Antonio (1719–89). An Account of the Manners and Customs of Italy. London, 1768.
- Bayle, Pierre (1647–1706). Dictionaire historique et critique. Rotterdam, 1697.
- ———. Oeuvres diverses. La Haye, 1727–31.
- Bell, John (1691–1780). A Journey from St. Petersburg in Russia, to Diverse Parts of Asia. Glasgow, 1763.
- Bergier, Nicolas (1567–1623). Histoire des grands chemins de l’empire Romain. Paris, 1622.
- Bernier, François (1620–88). Histoire de la denière révolution des États du Grand Mogol. Paris, 1670.
- Björner, Erik Julius (1696–1750). Prodromus Tractatuum de Geographica Scandinaviae Veteri, et Historicis Gothicis. Stockholm, 1726.
- Blackwell, Thomas (1701–57). An Enquiry into the Life and Writings of Homer. London, 1735.
- Blair, Hugh (1718–1800). A Critical Dissertation on the Poems of Ossian. London, 1763.
- Bochart, Samuel (1599–1667). Geographia Sacra. Cadomi, 1651.
- Bosman, Willem (b. 1672). Nauwkeurige beschryvyng van des Guinese Goud-, Tand- en Slave Kust. Utrecht, 1704. (A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea, translated anonymously, London, 1705.)
- Bougainville, Louis-Antoine de (1729–1811). Voyage autour du monde. Paris, 1771.
- Boyes (or Boece), Hector (ca. 1465–1536). Scotorum historiae. Paris, 1526.
- Brantome, Pierre de Bourdeille, seigneur de (d. 1614). Memoires . . . contenant les vies de dames galantes. Leiden, 1693.
- Brydone, Patrick (1743–1818). A Tour Through Sicily and Malta. Dublin, 1773.
- Buffier, Claude (1661–1737). Traité des premières veritez: et de la source de nos jugements. Paris, 1724.
- Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de (1707–88). Histoire naturelle, générale et particulaire. Paris, 1749–66, with supplements to 1789.
- Bullialdus, Ismael (1605–94). Astronomia Philolaica. Paris, 1645.
- Burgersdijck, Franco (1590–1635). Institutionum Logicorum Libri II. Lyons, 1634.
- Busbequius, Augerius Gislenius (1522–92). Legationis Turcice Epistole Quator. Paris, 1595. (Travels into Turkey, translated anonymously, London, 1744.)
- Butler, Joseph (1692–1752). Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel. London, 1726.
- Caesar, Gaius Julius (100–44 bc). De bello Africo. (Not now believed to have been written by Caesar himself.)
- ———. De bello Gallico.
- Camden, William (1551–1623). Britannia sive Florentissimorum Regnorum, Angliae, Scotiae, Hiberniae. London, 1600.
- Capitolinus, Julius. The supposed author of the (probably forged) Vita Albini, collected in the so-called Historia Augusta.
- Carew, Richard (1555–1620). The Survey of Cornwall. London, 1602.
- Cassius, Dio (ca. 150–235). Historia Romana.
- Chardin, Sir John (1643–1713). The Travels of Sir John Chardin into Persia and the East-Indies. London, 1686.
- Charlevoix, Pierre-François-Xavier de (1682–1761). Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle-France. Paris, 1744.
- Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 bc). De finibus bonorum et malorum. Translated by H. Rackham. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1914.
- ———. De inventione. Translated by H. M. Hubbell. Loeb, 1949.
- ———. De natura deorum. Translated by H. Rackham. Loeb, 1933.
- ———. De officiis. Translated by W. Miller. Loeb, 1913.
- ———. De oratore. Translated by H. Rackham. Loeb, 1942.
- ———. Epistulae ad Atticam. Translated by E. O. Winstedt. Loeb, 1912.
- ———. Epistulae ad familiores. Translated by W. G. Williams. Loeb, 1927.
- ———. Epistulae ad M. Brutum. Translated by G. L. Hendrickson. Loeb, 1939.
- ———. Pro A. Licinio Archia poeta oratio. Translated by N. H. Watts. Loeb, 1923.
- ———. Tusculanae disputationes. Translated by J. E. King. Loeb, 1927.
- The Civil Law. Translated by S. P. Scott. 17 vols. Cincinnati, 1932.
- Clarendon, Edward Hyde, first earl of (1609–74). History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. Oxford, 1702.
- Cocceius, Heinrich von (1644–1719). Grotius Illustratus. Bratislava, 1744–52.
- Columella, Lucius Junius Moderatus (fl. ca. 60–65). De re rustica.
- Commynes, Philippe de (ca. 1447–1511). Mémoires . . . où l’on trouve l’histoire des rois de France Louis XI et Charles VIII.
- Condamine, Charles-Marie de (1701–74). Relation abrégée d’un voyage fait dans l’intérieur de l’Amérique méridionale. Paris. (A Succinct Abridgment of a Voyage Made Within the Inland Parts of South America, translated anonymously, London, 1747.)
- Contarini, Gasparo (1483–1542). Della republica et magistrati di Venetia. Venice, 1591. (The Common-wealth and Government of Venice, translated by Lewes Lewkenor, London, 1599.)
- Crantz, David (1723–77). Historie von Grönland. Barby, 1765. (The History of Greenland, translated anonymously, London, 1767.)
- Cudworth, Ralph (1617–88). A Treatise Concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality. London, 1731.
- Curtius Rufus, Quintus (first century ad). De gestis Alexandri Magni regis Macedonum.
- Dalrymple, Sir David (1726–92). The Annals of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1776–79.
- Damascenus, Nicholaus (b. 64 bc). Mores, leges, et ritus omnium gentium. Edited by Joannes Boemus. (The Manners, Lawes, and Customes of All Nations, London, 1611.)
- Dampier, William (1652–1715). A New Voyage Round the World. London, 1697.
- Dapper, Olfert (1639–89). Naukerige beschrijvinge der Afrikaensche gewesten. Amsterdam, 1676. (Description de l’Afrique, translated anonymously, Amsterdam, 1686.)
- Dares Phrygius. Author of a supposed translation of a pre-Homeric poem on the destruction of Troy, at first thought to be by the character Dares Phrygius in the Iliad, and traditionally ascribed to Cornelius Nepos (ca. 100–ca. 25 bc).
- Davenant, Charles (1656–1714). The Political and Commercial Works. Collected and revised by Sir C. Whitworth. London, 1771.
- Derham, William (1657–1735). Physico-Theology: or, A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God, from His Works of Creation. London, 1713.
- Diogenes Laertius (third century ad). Vitae et sententiae eorum qui in philosophia probati fuerunt.
- Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste (1674–1743). Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique et physique de l’empire de la Chine. Paris, 1725. (A Description of the Empire of China and Chinese Tartary, translated anonymously, London, 1738–41.)
- Ellis, Henry (1721–1806). A Voyage to Hudson’s Bay in 1746 and 1747. London, 1748.
- Ferguson, Adam (1723–1816). An Essay on the History of Civil Society. 1767.
- Fielding, Henry (1707–54). A Proposal for Making an Effectual Provision for the Poor. London, 1753.
- Firmicus Maternus, Julius (fourth century ad). De errore profanarum religionum.
- Fletcher, Andrew (1655–1716). The Political Works. London, 1732.
- Fleury, Claude (1640–1723). Histoire ecclesiastique. Paris, 1691.
- Florus, Lucius Annaeus (fl. second century ad). Epitome rerum Romanarum.
- Forbin, Claude, comte de (1656–1733). Mémoires du comte de Forbin. Amsterdam, 1730.
- Forbonnais, François Véron Duverger de (1722–1800). Elémens du commerce. Amsterdam, 1755.
- Foster, Sir Michael (1689–1763). A Report of Some Proceedings on the Commission of Oyer and Terminer and Gaol Delivery . . . To Which Are Added a Few Remarks of the Crown Law. Oxford, 1762.
- The Frederician Code; or, a Body of Law for the Dominions of the King of Prussia. Translated from the French anonymously. Edinburgh, 1761.
- Froissart, Jean (ca. 1338–ca. 1410). Chroniques.
- Fuller, Thomas (1608–61). The History of the Worthies of England. London, 1662.
- Funnell, William. A Voyage Round the World. London, 1707.
- Gellius, Aulus (ca. 130–ca. 180). Noctes Atticae.
- Giraldus Cambrensis (ca. 1146–ca. 1223). Itinerarium Cambriae.
- Gobien, Père Charles le. Histoire des isles Marianes. Paris, 1700.
- Gonneville, Paulmier de, Binot. An account of his voyage to the South Seas in the sixteenth century is collected in John Callander, ed., Terra Australis Cognita: or, Voyages to the Terra Australis, or Southern Hemisphere, During the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, Edinburgh, 1766–68.
- Goudar, Ange (1720–91). Les interêts de la France mal entendus. Amsterdam, 1756.
- Grafton, Richard (d. ca. 1572). A Chronicle at Large and Meere History of the Affayres of Englande. London, 1568.
- Gravesande, Willem Jacob ’s (1688–1742). Physices Elementa Mathematica, experimenta confirmata. 1725.
- Grenville, George (1712–70). The Speech of a Right Honourable Gentleman, on the Motion for Expelling Mr. Wilkes, Friday, February 3, 1769. London, 1769.
- Grotius, Hugo (1583–1645). De Jure Belli ac Pacis. Paris, 1625.
- ———. Historia Gothorum, Vandalorum, et Langobardorum. Amsterdam, 1655.
- Guicciardini, Francesco (1483–1540). La Historia d’Italia. (The Historie of Guicciardin, translated by Geffray Fenton, London, 1599.)
- Gumilla, José (d. 1750). El Orinoco ilustrado. Madrid, 1741. (Histoire naturelle, civile et géographique de l’Orenoque, translated from the Spanish by M. Eidous, Avignon, 1758.)
- Hale, Sir Matthew (1609–76). Pleas of the Crown. London, 1678.
- Hanway, Jonas (1712–86). An Earnest Appeal for Mercy to the Children of the Poor. London, 1766.
- Harrington, James (1611–77). The Common-wealth of Oceana. London, 1656.
- Harris, James (1709–80). Hermes: Or a Philosophical Inquiry Concerning Universal Grammar. London, 1751.
- ———. Philosophical Arrangements. London, 1775.
- Hay, William (1695–1755). Remarks on the Laws Relating to the Poor. London, 1735.
- Helvétius, Claude-Adrien (1715–71). De l’esprit. Amsterdam, 1758.
- Hennepin, Louis (1626–ca. 1705). Description de la Louisiane. Paris, 1683.
- Hentzner, Paul (1558–1623). Itinerarium Germaniae, Galliae, Angliae, Italiae. Norinberge, 1612. (A Journey into England, translated by Richard Bentley, edited by Horace Walpole, Strawberry Hill, 1757.)
- Heraclides Ponticus (387–312 bc). De politiis Graecorum.
- Herodian (fl. ca. ad 230). Historiae de imperio post Marcum.
- Historia Augusta. A collection of biographies of Roman emperors and their heirs, apparently written in the fourth century ad, and now recognized to be mostly forgeries of dubious historical value.
- Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679). Leviathan: or, The Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil. London, 1651.
- Holinshed, Raphael (d. ca. 1580). Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande. London, 1577.
- Home, Henry (Lord Kames, 1696–1782). Elements of Criticism. Edinburgh, 1762. (6th ed. Edinburgh, 1785.)
- ———. Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion. Edinburgh, 1751. (2nd ed. Edinburgh, 1758; 3rd ed. Edinburgh, 1779.)
- ———. The Gentleman Farmer. Being an Attempt to Improve Agriculture by Subjecting It to the Test of Rational Principles. Edinburgh, 1776. (2nd ed. Edinburgh, 1779.)
- ———. Historical Law-Tracts. Edinburgh, 1758.
- ———. Principles of Equity. Edinburgh, 1760 (2nd ed. Edinburgh, 1767; 3rd ed., Edinburgh, 1778).
- ———. Statute Law of Scotland Abridged, with Historical Notes. Edinburgh, 1757.
- Homer (probably eighth century bc). The Iliad. Translated by Alexander Pope. London, 1715–20.
- ———. The Odyssey. Translated by Alexander Pope. London, 1725–26.
- Hooker, Richard (ca. 1554–1600). Of the Lawes of Ecclesiasticall Politie. London, 1593–1601.
- Horace (Quintius Horatius Flaccus, 65–8 bc). A Poetical Translation of the Works of Horace, by Philip Francis. London, 1746.
- ———. Ars poetica. Translated by H. Rushton Fairclough. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1926.
- ———. Satires. Translated by H. Rushton Fairclough. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1926.
- Hoyle, Edmond (1672–1769). Mr. Hoyle’s Games of Whist, Quadrille, [etc.]. London, 1748.
- Huet, Pierre Daniel (1630–1721). Huetiana, ou Pensées diverses de M. Huet. Paris, 1722.
- Hume, David (1711–76). The History of England. London, 1754–62.
- ———. “The Natural History of Religion.” First published in Four Dissertations, London, 1757.
- ———. “Of the Populousness of Ancient Nations.” First published in Political Discourses, London, 1752.
- ———. A Treatise of Human Nature. London, 1739–40.
- Irenaeus, Saint (first–second centuries ad). Demonstratio praedicationis apostolicae.
- Ives, Edward (d. 1786). A Voyage from England to India, in the Year 1754. London, 1773.
- Jornandes, bishop of Ravenna (mid-sixth century ad). De Getarum, sive Gothorum orgine et rebus gestis. 1597.
- Josephus, Flavius (ad 37–after 93). Antiquitates Iudaicum.
- Jurieu, Pierre (1637–1713). Apologie pour l’accomplissement des propheties. Rotterdam, 1687.
- Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus, second or third century ad). Epitoma historiae Phillippicae Pompei Trogi.
- Kaempfer, Engelbert (1651–1716). The History of Japan: Giving an Account of the Ancient and Present State of That Empire. Translated from the manuscript by John Scheuchter, London, 1727.
- Keckermann, Bartholomeus (ca. 1571–1608). Systema logicae. Hanover, 1620.
- Knox, John (1505–72). The Historie of the Church of Scotland. 1587.
- Kolb, Peter (1675–1726). Naaukerige en uitvoerige bescchryving van de Kaap Goede Hoop. Amsterdam, 1727. (The Present State of the Cape of Good Hope: or, A Particular Account of the Several Nations of Hottentots, translated by Mr. Medley, London, 1731.)
- Labat, Jean Baptiste (1663–1738). Nouveau voyage aux isles de l’Amérique. La Haye, 1724.
- Lampridius, Aelius. One of the supposed contributors to the Historia Augusta.
- Lange, Lorenz. Journal de la résidence du sieur Lange . . . a la cour de la Chine, dans les années 1721 et 1722. Leyden, 1726.
- Lavie, Jean Charles de. Des corps politiques et de leurs gouvernements. Lyon, 1764.
- Law, William (1686–1761). A Practical Treatise upon Christian Perfection. London, 1726.
- Le Blanc, Jean-Bernard (1707–81). Lettres d’un François. La Haye, 1745.
- Leland, John (ca. 1506–52). De rebus Britannicis collectanea. Oxford, 1715.
- L’Estoile, Pierre de (1546–1611). Journal du règne de Henri IV. Edited by Thomas Bouges. La Haye, 1741.
- Linnaeus, Carl (1707–78). The Animal Kingdom, or Zoological System, of the Celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus; Class I. Mammalia. Translated by Robert Kerr, London, 1792.
- ———. Flora Lapponica. Amsterdam, 1737.
- Livy (Titus Livius, 59 bc–ad 17). Ab urbe condita libri. Translated by B. O. Foster. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1919–59.
- Locke, John (1632–1704). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. London, 1690.
- ———. Of the Conduct of the Understanding. In Posthumous Works of Mr. John Locke. London, 1706.
- ———. Some Thoughts Concerning Education. London, 1693.
- ———. Two Treatises of Government. London, 1690.
- Longinus, Cassius (ca. 213–73). Traditionally, but erroneously, supposed to be the author of De sublimitate.
- Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, 39–65). Pharsalia. Translated by Nicholas Rowe. London, 1720.
- Lucretius (Titus Lucretius Carus, ca. 99–ca. 55 bc). De rerum natura.
- Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527). Historie Fiorentine. 1532. (The Florentine History, translated anonymously, London, 1674.)
- Macpherson, James (1736–96). The Works of Ossian, the Son of Fingal. London, 1765.
- Macrobius, Ambrosius Theodosius (fl. ca. 400 bc). Saturnalia.
- Magellan. See Pigafetta.
- Magnus, Johannes (1488–1544). Gothorum Sueonumque historia. Rome, 1554.
- Mallet, Paul Henri (1730–1807). Introduction à l’histoire de Dannemarc. Copenhagen, 1755.
- Malmesbury, William of (d. ca. 1143). Gesta regum anglorum.
- Mandeville, Bernard (1670–1733). The Fable of the Bees. London, 1714, 1723, 1732.
- Manstein, Christoph Hermann von (1711–57). Memoirs of Russia, Historical, Political and Military. Translated from manuscript, London, 1770.
- Marsham, John (1602–85). Chronicus canon Aegyptiacus Ebraicus Graecus et disquisitiones. London, 1672.
- Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialis, ca. 40–103/4). Epigrams. Translated by D. R. Shackleton Bailey. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.
- Martin, Martin (d. 1719). A Late Voyage to St. Kilda. London, 1698.
- Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau de (1698–1759). La figure de la terre. Paris, 1738.
- Meursius, Joannes (1579–1639). Themis Attica: sive de Legibus Atticis. Amsterdam, 1685.
- Mildmay, Sir William (1705–71). The Police of France: or, An Account of the Laws and Regulations Established in That Kingdom, for the Preservation of Peace. London, 1763.
- Minucius Felix, Marcus (fl. 200–240). Octavius.
- Mirabeau, Victor de Riquetti, marquis de (1715–89). Théorie de l’impôt. Avignon, 1761.
- Monlorius, Johannes. Perfectissima in Aristotelis Analyticorum Priorum. Frankfurt, 1593.
- Monstrelet, Enguerrand (1390–1453). Chronique.
- Montecuculi, Prince Raimondo (1609–80). Mémorie. (Mémoires de Montecuculi, translated anonymously, Paris, 1712.)
- Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, baron de (1689–1755). Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence. Amsterdam, 1734.
- ———. De l’esprit des lois. Paris, 1748.
- Morin, Jean (1591–1659). Commentarius de Sacris Ecclesiae Ordinationibus.
- Niebuhr, Carsten (1733–1815). Description de l’Arabie. Amsterdam, 1774.
- Olaus Magnus (1490–1555). Historia de gentibus Septrentionalibus.
- Onosander (fourth century). Strategicus.
- Outhier, Réginald (1694–1774). Journal d’un voyage au Nord en 1736 et 1737. Paris, 1744.
- Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 bc–ad 17). Tristia.
- Parnell, Thomas (1679–1718). An Essay on the Life, Writings, and Learning of Homer. London, 1715. Published with Pope’s translation of Homer’s Iliad (1715–20).
- Pascal, Blaise (1623–62). Lettres provinciales. 1656–57.
- Paulus Diaconus (ca. 720–ca. 799). De gestis Langobardorum.
- Pausanias (fl. ca. ad 160). Periegesis Hellados.
- Pennant, Thomas (1726–98). Synopsis of Quadrupeds. Chester, 1771.
- Persius Flaccus, Aulus (24–62). Satires. Translated by G. G. Ramsay. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1918.
- Petronius Arbiter (d. ad 65). Satyricon.
- Pigafetta, Antonio (ca. 1480–ca. 1534). Primo viaggio intorno al globo.
- Plano Carpino, Giovanni di (fl. 1240). Relations des Mongols ou Tartares.
- Pliny (Gaius Plinius Secundus, 23/4–79). Naturalis historiae.
- Plutarch (ca. 46–ca. 120). Symposiacs; or Quaestiones conviviales.
- ———. Vitae parallelae.
- Polydore Vergil (1470–1555). De inventoribus rerum. Venice, 1499.
- Pompadour, Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, marquise de (1721–64). Lettres de Madame la Marquise de Pompadour. London, 1772.
- Pomponius Mela (fl. ca. ad 43). De chorographia, or De situ orbis.
- Pope, Alexander (1688–1744). Poetical Works. Edited by Herbert Davis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966.
- Porete, Marguerite (ca. 1250–1310). Le miroir des simples âmes.
- Porphyry (233–ca. 305). Isagoge, sive libellus de quinque praedicabilibus.
- Porter, Sir James (1710–76). Observations on the Religion, Law, Government, and Manners of the Turks. London, 1771.
- Price, Richard (1723–91). Observations on Reversionary Payments. London, 1771.
- Pringle, Sir John (1707–82). Observations on the Diseases of the Army, in Camp and in Garrison. London, 1753.
- Procopius (ca. 500–after 562). De bellis.
- Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, b. ca. ad 35). Institutio oratoria.
- Ramus, Petrus (1515–72). Dialecticae libri duo. 1556. (The Art of Logick, translated by S. Wotton, London, 1626.)
- Ray, John (1627–1705). The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation. London, 1691.
- Raynal, Guillaume-Thomas-François, Abbé (1713–96). Histoire philosophique et politique des etablissemens des Européens dans les Deux Indes. 6 vols. Amsterdam, 1770.
- Regnard, Jean François (1655–1709). Voyage en Laponie. 1681.
- Reid, Thomas (1710–96). Analysis of Aristotle’s Logic, with Remarks. 2nd ed. Edinburgh, 1806.
- ———. An Inquiry into the Human Mind, on the Principles of Common Sense. London, 1764.
- René, King of Naples and Jerusalem (1409–80). Traité de la forme d’un tournoi.
- Robertson, William (1721–93). The History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V. London, 1769.
- Rogers, Robert (1731–95). A Concise Account of North America. London, 1765.
- Roggeveen, Jacob (1659–1729). Histoire de l’expédition de trois vaisseaux envoyés par la Compagnie des Indes Orientales des Provinces Unies aux terres australes. Translated by Charles Frédéric Behrens. La Haye, 1739.
- Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78). Discours sur l’origine et les fondments de l’inégalité parmi les hommes. Amsterdam, 1755.
- ———. Émile, ou de l’éducation. La Haye, 1762. Translated by Barbara Foxley. London: J. M. Dent, 1993.
- ———. Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse. Amsterdam, 1761. Translated by Philip Stewart and Jean Vaché. Hanover, N.H.: Dartmouth College: University Press of New England, 1997.
- Rushworth, John (1612–90). The London Post. London, 1644–45.
- Ruysbroeck [Rubrugius], Willem van (ca. 1210–ca. 1270). Itenerarium.
- Saint-Réal, Abbé de (Cesar Vichard, 1639–92). Conjuration des Espagnols de Venise en l’année 1618. Paris, 1674.
- Sallust (Gaius Sallustius Crispus, 86–35 bc). Bellum Catilinae.
- Sarpi, Paolo (1552–1623). Istoria del Concilio Tridentino. 1619. (The Historie of the Councel of Trent, translated by Sir N. Brent, London, 1620.)
- Saxe, Maurice, comte de (1696–1750). Mes rêveries. Amsterdam, 1757. (Reveries, or Memoirs upon the Art of War, translated by Sir W. Fawcett, London, 1757.)
- Saxo Grammaticus (d. ca. 1204). Historiae Danicae libri xvi.
- Scheffer, Johannes (1621–79). Lappland, das ist: Neue und wahrhafftige Beschreibung von Lappland und dessen Einwohnern. Frankfurt, 1675. (The History of Lapland: Containing a Geographical Description, and a Natural History of That Country, translated anonymously, London, 1704.)
- Servius (Marius Servius Honoratus, early fifth century ad). Commentarii in Virgilium.
- Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, third earl of (1671–1713). Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times. London, 1711.
- Shaw, Thomas (1694–1751). Travels, or Observations Relating to Several Parts of Barbary and the Levant. Oxford, 1738.
- Shebbeare, John (1709–88). Letters on the English Nation, by Battista Angeloni. London, 1755.
- Siculus, Diodorus (fl. 60–30 bc). Bibliotheca historica.
- Sigismundus of Herbarstain. Rerum Moscoviticarum commentarii. Basel, 1571.
- Smith, Adam (1723–90). The Theory of Moral Sentiments. London, 1759
- Smollett, Tobias (1721–71). Travels Through France and Italy. London, 1766.
- Socrates Scholasticus (ca. 379–ca. 440). Historia ecclesiastica.
- Spartianus, Aelius. One of the supposed contributors to the Historia Augusta.
- Stobaeus, Johannes (fifth century ad). Anthologion.
- Stow, John (1525–1605). A Survay of London. London, 1598.
- Strabo (b. 64 bc, d. after ad 24). Geographica.
- Strahlenberg, Philipp Johann von (1676–1747). Das nord- und ostliche Theil von Europa und Asia. Stockholm, 1730. (An Histori-Geographical Description of the North and Eastern Part of Europe and Asia, translated anonymously, London, 1736.)
- Struve, Burkhard Gotthelf (1671–1738). Corpus Historiae Germanicae. 1730.
- Strype, John (1643–1737). Annals of the Reformation and Establishment of Religion. London, 1709.
- Tachard, Guy le père (1651–1712). Voyage de Siam des Pères Jésuites. Paris, 1686.
- Tacitus, Publius (b. 56 or 57, d. after 117). Annales.
- ———. De moribus Germanorum.
- ———. Vita Agricolae.
- Tassoni, Alessandro (1565–1635). Dieci libri di pensieri diversi. 1627.
- Temple, Sir William (1628–99). The Works of Sir William Temple. London, 1740.
- Terence (Publius Terentius Afer, d. 159 bc?). Heauton timoroumenos (The Self-Tormentor).
- Thomas, the Rhymer (ca. 1220–ca. 1297). The Whole Prophecies of Scotland, England, France, Ireland, and Denmark. Edinburgh and London, 1745.
- Torfeus, Thormodi (1636–1719). Historia rerum Norvegicarum. Hafniae, 1711.
- Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de (1656–1708). Relation d’un voyage du Levant. Lyon, 1727.
- Ulloa, Antonio de (1716–95). A Voyage to South America. Translated anonymously, London, 1758.
- Ustariz, Geronimo de (1670–1732). Theorica y practica de commercio, y de marina. (The Theory and Practise of Commerce and Maritime Affairs, translated by John Kippax, London, 1751.)
- Valera, Blas (1551–97). Las costumbres antiguas del Piru; y La historia de los Incas.
- Valerius Maximus (first century ad). Facta et dictu memorabilia.
- Varro (Marcus Terentius Varro, 116–27 bc). De re rustica.
- Vega, Garcilaso de la (1539–1616). Comentarios reales de los Incas. (The Royal Commentaries of Peru, London, 1688.)
- Vegetius (Flavius Vegetius Renatus, 379–95). De re militari.
- Velleius Paterculus, Gaius (ca. 19 bc–after ad 30). Historiae Romanae. Translated by Frederick W. Shipley. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1924.
- Venetus, Paulus. See Sarpi, Paolo.
- Vieira, Antonio (1608–97). Sermoens. Lisbon, 1679.
- Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro, 70–19 bc). Aeneid. Translated by H. Rushton Fairclough, revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.
- ———. Georgics. Translated by H. Rushton Fairclough, revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.
- Vitruvius Pollio (first century bc). De architectura.
- Vives, Joannes Lodovicus (1492–1540). Opera omnia. Basel, 1555.
- Vives, Juan Luis (1492–1540). De civitate Dei. 1544.
- Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de (1694–1778). Essai sur la poèsie épique. Paris, 1726.
- ———. Essai sur l’histoire générale et sur les moeurs et l’esprit des nations depuis Charlemagne jusqu’à nos jours. Geneva, 1756.
- ———. “Le Mondain.” Paris, 1736.
- Vopiscus, Flavius. One of the supposed contributors to the Historia Augusta.
- Winckelmann, Johann Joachim (1717–68). Gedanken über die Nachahmung der grieschischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst. Dresden, 1756. (Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks, translated by Henry Fuseli, London, 1765.)
- Witt, Johan de (1625–72). Aanwissing der heilsams politike Gronden en Maximen van der Republike van Holland. (The True Interest and Political Maxims of the Republic of Holland and West-Friesland, translated anonymously, 1702.)
- Wollaston, William (1660–1724). The Religion of Nature Delineated. London, 1722.
- Worster, Benjamin (fl. ca. 1722–30). A Compendious and Methodical Account of the Principles of Natural Philosophy. London, 1722.
- Xenophon (ca. 428–ca. 354 bc). Memorabilia Socratis.
- Xiphilinus, Joannes the younger (ca. 1010–75). The History of Dion Cassius, Abridg’d by Xiphilin. Translated by Francis Manning. London, 1704.
- Young, Arthur (1741–1820). A Six Weeks Tour, Through the Southern Counties of England and Wales. London, 1768.
This book is set in Adobe Garamond, a modern adaptation by Robert Slimbach of the typeface originally cut around 1540 by the French typographer and printer Claude Garamond. The Garamond face, with its small lowercase height and restrained contrast between thick and thin strokes, is a classic “old-style” face and has long been one of the most influential and widely used typefaces.
Printed on paper that is acid-free and meets the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, z39.48-1992.
Book design by Louise OFarrell Gainesville, Florida
Typography by Apex Publishing, LLC Madison, Wisconsin
Printed and bound by Worzalla Publishing Company Stevens Point, Wisconsin