CHAPTER IX.: PROBLEM VI. To strengthen the Impression of Punishments upon the Imagination. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 1 (Principles of Morals and Legislation, Fragment on Government, Civil Code, Penal Law) 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). 11 vols. Vol. 1.
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- Errata—vol. I.
- General Preface.
- Introduction to the Study of the Works of Jeremy Bentham;
- Section I.: Bentham’s Style and Method of Thinking.
- Section II.: The Greatest-happiness Principle and Its Application to Morals and Legislation.
- Section III.: The Pursuit of Truth.—fallacies.—principles of Evidence.
- Section IV.: System of Government.
- Section IV.: Law Reform.
- Section VI.: Principles of Punishment.
- Section VII.: Poor Laws, Education, and Other Institutions For National Amelioration.
- Section VIII.: International Law.
- Section IX.: Political Economy.
- Section X.: Logic and Metaphysics. †
- An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.
- Chapter I.: Of the Principle of Utility.
- Chapter II.: Of Principles Adverse to That of Utility.
- Chapter III.: Of the Four * Sanctions Or Sources of Pain and Pleasure.
- Chapter IV.: Value of a Lot of Pleasure Or Pain, How to Be Measured.
- Chapter V.: Pleasures and Pains, Their Kinds.
- Chapter VI.: Of Circumstances Influencing Sensibility.
- Chapter VII.: Of Human Actions In General.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Intentionality.
- Chapter IX.: Of Consciousness.
- Chapter X.: Of Motives.
- Chapter XI.: Of Human Dispositions In General.
- Chapter XII.: Of the Consequences of a Mischievous Act.
- Chapter XIII. *: of Circumstances Influencing the Degree of Alarm.
- Chapter XIV.: Reasons For Considering Certain Actions As Crimes. *
- Chapter XV.: § 1. General View of Cases Unmeet For Punishment.
- Chapter XVI.: Of the Proportion Between Punishments and Offences.
- Chapter XVII.: Of the Properties to Be Given to a Lot of Punishment.
- Chapter XVIII. § 1.: Classes of Offences.
- Chapter XIX.: § 1. Limits Between Private Ethics and the Art of Legislation.
- I. Essay On the Promulgation of Laws
- Essay On the Influence of Time and Place In Matters of Legislation.
- Introduction. *
- Chapter I.: Principles to Be Followed In Trans Planting Laws.
- Chapter II.: Regard to Be Paid to Subsisting Institutions.
- Chapter III.: Rules Respecting the Method of Transplanting Laws.
- Chapter IV.: Laws Appear the Worse For Being Transplanted.
- Chapter V.: Influence of Time.
- A Table of the Springs of Action:
- A Fragment On Government;
- Preface to the First Edition, Published In 1776.
- Historical Preface, Intended For the Second Edition.
- Three Letters On the Fragment On Governmen
- Letter the First. of an Examination Into the Merits of a Critique On Blackstone’s Commentaries, Lately Published Under the Title of a Fragment On Government.
- Letter the Second. of an Examination Into the Merits of a Critique On Blackstone’s Commentaries, Lately Published Under the Title of a Fragment On Government.
- Letter the Third. By John Lind, Esq. Afterwards Barrister At Law, to D., Author of Two Letters * On a Fragment On Government.
- Introduction. *
- Chapter I.: Formation of Government.
- Chapter II.: Forms of Government.
- Chapter III.: The British Constitution.
- Chapter IV.: Right of the Supreme Power to Make Laws.
- Chapter V.: Duty of the Supreme Power to Make Laws.
- Principles of the Civil Code.
- Part I.—: Objects of the Civil Law. *
- Chapter I.: Of Rights and Obligations.
- Chapter II.: Distinct Objects of the Civil Law.
- Chapter III.: Relation Between These Objects.
- Chapter IV.: Of Laws Relative to Subsistence.
- Chapter V.: Of Laws Relative to Abundance.
- Chapter VI.: Propositions of Pathology Upon Which the Advantage of Equality Is Founded.
- Chapter VII.: Of Security.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Property.
- Chapter IX.: Answer to an Objection.
- Chapter X.: Analysis of the Evils Resulting From Attacks Upon Property.
- Chapter XI.: Security and Equality—their Opposition.
- Chapter XII.: Security and Equality—means of Reconciliation.
- Chapter XIII.: Sacrifices of Security to Security.
- Chapter XIV.: Cases Subject to Dispute.
- Chapter XV.: Examples of Attacks Upon Security.
- Chapter XVI.: Of Forced Exchanges.
- Chapter XVII.: Power of the Laws Over Expectation.
- Part II.
- Chapter I.: Of Titles Which Confer a Right to Property. *
- Chapter II.: Another Mode of Acquisition—consent.
- Chapter III.: Another Means of Acquisition—succession.
- Chapter V.: Of Wills.
- Chapter V.: Of Rights Respecting Services—means of Acquiring Them.
- Chapter VI.: Community of Goods—its Inconveniences.
- Chapter VII.: Of Distribution of Loss.
- Part III.: Of the Rights and Obligations Attached to Different Private Conditions.
- Chapter I.: Of Master and Servant.
- Chapter II.: Of Slavery.
- Chapter III.: Of Guardian and Ward.
- Chapter IV.: Of Parent and Child.
- Chapter V.: Of Marriage.
- Appendix.: of the Levelling System. *
- Principles of Penal Law.
- Part I.: Political Remedies For the Evil of Offences.
- Chapter I.: Subject of This Book.
- Chapter II.: Of Direct Methods of Preventing Offences.
- Chapter III.: Of Chronic Offences.
- Chapter IV.: Of Suppressive Remedies For Chronic Offences.
- Chapter V.: Of Martial Law
- Chapter VI.: Of the Nature of Satisfaction.
- Chapter VII.: Reasons Upon Which the Obligation to Make Satisfaction Is Founded.
- Chapter VIII.: Of the Different Kinds of Satisfaction.
- Chapter IX.: Of the Quantity of Satisfaction to Be Granted.
- Chapter X.: Of the Certainty of Satisfaction.
- Chapter XI.: Of Pecuniary Satisfaction.
- Chapter XII.: Of Restitution In Kind.
- Chapter XIII.: Of Attestative Satisfaction.
- Chapter XIV.: Of Honorary Satisfaction.
- Chapter XV.: Remedies For Offences Against Honour.
- Chapter XVI.: Of Vindictive Satisfaction.
- Chapter XVII.: Of Substitutive Satisfaction, Or At the Expense of a Third Party.
- Chapter XVIII.: Of Subsidiary Satisfaction At the Expense of the Public Treasure.
- Part II.—: Rationale of Punishment.
- Book I.: General Principles.
- Chapter I.: Definitions and Distinctions.
- Chapter II.: Classification.
- Chapter III.: Of the Ends of Punishment.
- Chapter IV.: Cases Unmeet For Punishment.
- Chapter V.: Expense of Punishment.
- Chapter VI.: Measure of Punishment.
- Chapter VII.: Of the Properties to Be Given to a Lot of Punishment.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Analogy Between Crimes and Punishments.
- Chapter IX.: Of Retaliation.
- Chapter X.: Of Popularity.
- Book II.: Of Corporal Punishments.
- Chapter I.: Simple Afflictive Punishments. *
- Chapter II.: Of Complex Afflictive Punishments.
- Chapter III.: Of Restrictive Punishments—territorial Confinement.
- Chapter IV.: Imprisonment.
- Chapter V.: Imprisonment—fees.
- Chapter VI.: Imprisonment Examined.
- Chapter VII.: General Scheme of Imprisonment.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Other Species of Territorial Confinement—quasi Imprisonment—relegation—banishment.
- Chapter IX.: Of Simply Restrictive Punishments.
- Chapter X.: Of Active Or Laborious Punishment.
- Chapter XI.: Capital Punishment.
- Chapter XII.: Capital Punishment Examined. *
- Book III.: Of Privative Punishments, Or Forfeitures.
- Chapter I.: Punishment Analyzed.
- Chapter II.: Of the Punishments Belonging to the Moral Sanction.
- Chapter III.: Forfeiture of Reputation.
- Chapter IV.: Of Pecuniary Forfeitures.
- Chapter V.: Forfeiture of Condition.
- Chapter VI.: Forfeiture of the Protection of the Law.
- Book IV.: Of the Proper Seat of Punishment: Or Say, of Mis-seated Punishment.
- Book V.: Of Complex Punishments.
- Chapter I.: Inconveniences of Complex Punishments.
- Chapter II.: Of Transportation.
- Chapter III.: Panopticon Penitentiary.
- Chapter IV.: Felony.
- Chapter V.: Of PrÆmunire.
- Chapter VI.: Outlawry.
- Chapter VII.: Excommunication.
- Book VI.: Miscellaneous Topics.
- Chapter I.: Choice of Punishments—latitude to Be Allowed to the Judges.
- Chapter II.: Of Subsidiary Punishments.
- Chapter III.: Of Surety For Good Conduct.
- Chapter IV.: Defeazance of Punishment.
- Appendix—: On Death-punishment. ∥ Jeremy Bentham to His Fellow-citizens of France.
- Part III.: Of Indirect Means of Preventing Crimes.
- Chapter I.: Methods of Taking Away the Physical Power of Injuring.
- Chapter II.: Another Indirect Method—hinder the Acquisition of Knowledge Which May Be Rendered Injurious. †
- Chapter III.: Of Indirect Means of Preventing the Will to Commit Offences.
- Chapter IV.: Problem I. to Divert the Course of Dangerous Desires, and Direct the Inclination Towards Those Amusements Which Are Most Conformed to the Public Interest.
- Chapter V.: Problem II. to Make Such Arrangements, That a Given Desire May Be Satisfied Without Prejudice, Or With the Least Possible Prejudice.
- Chapter VI.: Problem III. to Avoid Furnishing Encouragement to Crimes.
- Chapter VII.: Problem IV. to Augment the Responsibility of Individuals, In Proportion As They Are More Exposed to Temptation to Do Wrong.
- Chapter VIII.: Problem V. to Diminish Sensibility With Regard to Temptation.
- Chapter IX.: Problem VI. to Strengthen the Impression of Punishments Upon the Imagination.
- Chapter X.: Problem VII. to Facilitate the Discovery of Offences Committed.
- Chapter XI.: Problem VIII. to Prevent Offences, By Giving to Many Persons an Interest In Preventing Them.
- Chapter XII.: Problem IX. to Facilitate the Recognition and the Finding of Individuals.
- Chapter XIII.: Problem X. to Increase the Difficulty of Escape For Delinquents.
- Chapter XIV.: Problem XI. to Diminish Uncertainty With Regard to Procedure and Punishment.
- Chapter XV.: Problem XII. to Prohibit Accessory Offences, In Order to Prevent Their Principals.
- Chapter XVI.: Of the Cultivation of Benevolence.
- Chapter XVII.: Employment of the Motive of Honour, Or of the Popular Sanction.
- Chapter XVIII.: Of the Employment of the Religious Sanction.
- Chapter XIX.: Uses to Be Drawn From the Power of Instruction.
- Chapter XX.: Use to Be Made of the Power of Education.
- Chapter XXI.: General Precautions Against the Abuse of Authority.
- Chapter XXII.: Measures to Be Taken Against the Ill Effects of an Offence Already Committed—conclusion of the Subject.
To strengthen the Impression of Punishments upon the Imagination.
It is the real punishment which produces all the evil: it is the apparent punishment which produces all the good. It is proper to diminish the first, and to augment the second, as much as possible. Humanity consists in the appearance of cruelty.
Speak to the eyes, if you would move the heart. This precept is as old as the age of Horace, and the experience which dictated it, as old as the first man:—every one has felt its force and endeavoured to profit by it; the actor, the rogue, the orator, the priest, all know its prevailing power. Render, therefore, your punishments exemplary; give to the ceremonies which accompany them a mournful pomp; call to your assistance all the imitative arts; and let the representation of these important operations be among the first objects which strike the eyes of childhood.
A scaffold painted black, the livery of grief—the officers of justice dressed in crape—the executioner covered with a mask, which would serve at once to augment the terror of his appearance, and to shield him from ill-founded indignation—emblems of his crime placed above the head of the criminal, to the end that the witnesses of his sufferings may know for what crimes he undergoes them: these might form a part of the principal decorations of these legal tragedies; whilst all the actors in this terrible drama might move in solemn procession—serious and religious music preparing the hearts of the spectators for the important lesson they were about to receive. The judges need not consider it beneath their dignity to preside over this public scene, and its sombre dignity should be consecrated by the presence of the ministers of religion.
Instruction should not be rejected when it is offered, even by the most cruel enemy. The Vehemic Council, the Inquisition, the Star-Chamber, may all be consulted, all their methods examined and compared. A diamond is worth preserving, though covered with mud. If assassins employ pistols for the commission of murder, is this a reason why I should not use them in self-defence?
The emblematic dresses of the inquisition might be usefully employed in criminal justice: an incendiary under his cloak, painted with flames, would present to all eyes the image of his crime, and the indignation of the spectator would be fixed upon the idea of his crime.
A system of punishments, accompanied with emblems appropriated as much as possible to each crime, would possess an additional advantage: it would furnish allusions for poetry, for eloquence, for dramatic authors, for ordinary conversation. The ideas derived from them would, so to speak, be reverberated by a thousand objects, and disseminated on all sides.
The Catholic priests have known how to derive from this source the greatest assistance for augmenting the efficacy of their religious opinions. I recollect having seen, at Gravelines, a striking exhibition: a priest showed to the people a picture, in which was represented a miserable multitude in the midst of flames, and one of them was making a sign that he wanted a drop of water, by showing his burning tongue. It was a day appointed for public prayers, for drawing souls out of purgatory. It is evident, that such an exhibition would tend less to inspire a horror for crimes, than a horror of the poverty which did not allow him to be redeemed. The necessary consequence is, that money for the purchase of masses must be obtained at any rate; for where every thing is to be expiated by money, misery alone is the greatest of all crimes, the only one which has no resource.
The ancients have not been more happy than the moderns in the choice of punishments: no design, no intention, no natural connexion between punishments and crimes, can be discovered; every thing is the work of caprice.
I shall not dwell upon a point which has for a long time been familiar to all who are capable of reflection. The modes of punishment in England form a perfect contrast with every thing which inspires respect: A capital execution has no solemnity. The pillory is sometimes a scene of buffoonery; sometimes a scene of popular cruelty—a game of chance, in which the sufferer is exposed to the caprices of the multitude and the accidents of the day. The severity of a whipping depends upon the money given to the executioner. Burning in the hand, according as the criminal and the executioner can agree, is performed either with a cold or a red-hot iron; and if it be with a hot iron, it is only a slice of ham which is burnt: to complete the farce, the criminal screams, whilst it is only the fat which smokes and burns, and the knowing spectators only laugh at this parody of justice.
But it may be said, that every question has two sides—that these real representations, these terrible scenes of penal justice, will spread dismay among the people, and make dangerous impressions. I do not believe it. If they present to dishonest persons the idea of danger, they offer only an idea of security to those who are honest. The threat of terrible and eternal punishment for undefined and indefinite crimes, working upon an active imagination, may have sometimes produced madness. But here no undefined threatenings are supposed: on the contrary, here is a manifest crime proved—a crime which no one need commit; and consequently the dread of punishment can never rise to a dangerous height. It would, however, always be desirable to guard against producing false and hateful ideas.
In the first edition of the Code Theresa, the portrait of the empress was surrounded with medallions, representing gibbets, racks, fetters, and other instruments of punishment. What a blunder, to present the image of the sovereign surrounded by these hideous emblems! This scandalous frontispiece was suppressed; but the print, representing all the instruments of torture, was allowed to remain. A sad picture, which could not be considered without each one saying to himself, Such are the evils to which I am exposed, although innocent! But if an abridgment of the penal code were accompanied with prints representing the characteristic punishments set apart for each crime, it would form an imposing commentary—a sensible and speaking image of the law. Each one might say, That is what I shall suffer, if I become guilty. It is thus that, in matters of legislation, a slight difference sometimes separates what is good from what is bad.
- Cujus supplicio non debuit una parari
- Simia non serpens unus, &c.