CHAPTER XIII.: OF ATTESTATIVE SATISFACTION. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 1 (Principles of Morals and Legislation, Fragment on Government, Civil Code, Penal Law) 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). 11 vols. Vol. 1.
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- Errata—vol. I.
- General Preface.
- Introduction to the Study of the Works of Jeremy Bentham;
- Section I.: Bentham’s Style and Method of Thinking.
- Section II.: The Greatest-happiness Principle and Its Application to Morals and Legislation.
- Section III.: The Pursuit of Truth.—fallacies.—principles of Evidence.
- Section IV.: System of Government.
- Section IV.: Law Reform.
- Section VI.: Principles of Punishment.
- Section VII.: Poor Laws, Education, and Other Institutions For National Amelioration.
- Section VIII.: International Law.
- Section IX.: Political Economy.
- Section X.: Logic and Metaphysics. †
- An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.
- Chapter I.: Of the Principle of Utility.
- Chapter II.: Of Principles Adverse to That of Utility.
- Chapter III.: Of the Four * Sanctions Or Sources of Pain and Pleasure.
- Chapter IV.: Value of a Lot of Pleasure Or Pain, How to Be Measured.
- Chapter V.: Pleasures and Pains, Their Kinds.
- Chapter VI.: Of Circumstances Influencing Sensibility.
- Chapter VII.: Of Human Actions In General.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Intentionality.
- Chapter IX.: Of Consciousness.
- Chapter X.: Of Motives.
- Chapter XI.: Of Human Dispositions In General.
- Chapter XII.: Of the Consequences of a Mischievous Act.
- Chapter XIII. *: of Circumstances Influencing the Degree of Alarm.
- Chapter XIV.: Reasons For Considering Certain Actions As Crimes. *
- Chapter XV.: § 1. General View of Cases Unmeet For Punishment.
- Chapter XVI.: Of the Proportion Between Punishments and Offences.
- Chapter XVII.: Of the Properties to Be Given to a Lot of Punishment.
- Chapter XVIII. § 1.: Classes of Offences.
- Chapter XIX.: § 1. Limits Between Private Ethics and the Art of Legislation.
- I. Essay On the Promulgation of Laws
- Essay On the Influence of Time and Place In Matters of Legislation.
- Introduction. *
- Chapter I.: Principles to Be Followed In Trans Planting Laws.
- Chapter II.: Regard to Be Paid to Subsisting Institutions.
- Chapter III.: Rules Respecting the Method of Transplanting Laws.
- Chapter IV.: Laws Appear the Worse For Being Transplanted.
- Chapter V.: Influence of Time.
- A Table of the Springs of Action:
- A Fragment On Government;
- Preface to the First Edition, Published In 1776.
- Historical Preface, Intended For the Second Edition.
- Three Letters On the Fragment On Governmen
- Letter the First. of an Examination Into the Merits of a Critique On Blackstone’s Commentaries, Lately Published Under the Title of a Fragment On Government.
- Letter the Second. of an Examination Into the Merits of a Critique On Blackstone’s Commentaries, Lately Published Under the Title of a Fragment On Government.
- Letter the Third. By John Lind, Esq. Afterwards Barrister At Law, to D., Author of Two Letters * On a Fragment On Government.
- Introduction. *
- Chapter I.: Formation of Government.
- Chapter II.: Forms of Government.
- Chapter III.: The British Constitution.
- Chapter IV.: Right of the Supreme Power to Make Laws.
- Chapter V.: Duty of the Supreme Power to Make Laws.
- Principles of the Civil Code.
- Part I.—: Objects of the Civil Law. *
- Chapter I.: Of Rights and Obligations.
- Chapter II.: Distinct Objects of the Civil Law.
- Chapter III.: Relation Between These Objects.
- Chapter IV.: Of Laws Relative to Subsistence.
- Chapter V.: Of Laws Relative to Abundance.
- Chapter VI.: Propositions of Pathology Upon Which the Advantage of Equality Is Founded.
- Chapter VII.: Of Security.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Property.
- Chapter IX.: Answer to an Objection.
- Chapter X.: Analysis of the Evils Resulting From Attacks Upon Property.
- Chapter XI.: Security and Equality—their Opposition.
- Chapter XII.: Security and Equality—means of Reconciliation.
- Chapter XIII.: Sacrifices of Security to Security.
- Chapter XIV.: Cases Subject to Dispute.
- Chapter XV.: Examples of Attacks Upon Security.
- Chapter XVI.: Of Forced Exchanges.
- Chapter XVII.: Power of the Laws Over Expectation.
- Part II.
- Chapter I.: Of Titles Which Confer a Right to Property. *
- Chapter II.: Another Mode of Acquisition—consent.
- Chapter III.: Another Means of Acquisition—succession.
- Chapter V.: Of Wills.
- Chapter V.: Of Rights Respecting Services—means of Acquiring Them.
- Chapter VI.: Community of Goods—its Inconveniences.
- Chapter VII.: Of Distribution of Loss.
- Part III.: Of the Rights and Obligations Attached to Different Private Conditions.
- Chapter I.: Of Master and Servant.
- Chapter II.: Of Slavery.
- Chapter III.: Of Guardian and Ward.
- Chapter IV.: Of Parent and Child.
- Chapter V.: Of Marriage.
- Appendix.: of the Levelling System. *
- Principles of Penal Law.
- Part I.: Political Remedies For the Evil of Offences.
- Chapter I.: Subject of This Book.
- Chapter II.: Of Direct Methods of Preventing Offences.
- Chapter III.: Of Chronic Offences.
- Chapter IV.: Of Suppressive Remedies For Chronic Offences.
- Chapter V.: Of Martial Law
- Chapter VI.: Of the Nature of Satisfaction.
- Chapter VII.: Reasons Upon Which the Obligation to Make Satisfaction Is Founded.
- Chapter VIII.: Of the Different Kinds of Satisfaction.
- Chapter IX.: Of the Quantity of Satisfaction to Be Granted.
- Chapter X.: Of the Certainty of Satisfaction.
- Chapter XI.: Of Pecuniary Satisfaction.
- Chapter XII.: Of Restitution In Kind.
- Chapter XIII.: Of Attestative Satisfaction.
- Chapter XIV.: Of Honorary Satisfaction.
- Chapter XV.: Remedies For Offences Against Honour.
- Chapter XVI.: Of Vindictive Satisfaction.
- Chapter XVII.: Of Substitutive Satisfaction, Or At the Expense of a Third Party.
- Chapter XVIII.: Of Subsidiary Satisfaction At the Expense of the Public Treasure.
- Part II.—: Rationale of Punishment.
- Book I.: General Principles.
- Chapter I.: Definitions and Distinctions.
- Chapter II.: Classification.
- Chapter III.: Of the Ends of Punishment.
- Chapter IV.: Cases Unmeet For Punishment.
- Chapter V.: Expense of Punishment.
- Chapter VI.: Measure of Punishment.
- Chapter VII.: Of the Properties to Be Given to a Lot of Punishment.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Analogy Between Crimes and Punishments.
- Chapter IX.: Of Retaliation.
- Chapter X.: Of Popularity.
- Book II.: Of Corporal Punishments.
- Chapter I.: Simple Afflictive Punishments. *
- Chapter II.: Of Complex Afflictive Punishments.
- Chapter III.: Of Restrictive Punishments—territorial Confinement.
- Chapter IV.: Imprisonment.
- Chapter V.: Imprisonment—fees.
- Chapter VI.: Imprisonment Examined.
- Chapter VII.: General Scheme of Imprisonment.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Other Species of Territorial Confinement—quasi Imprisonment—relegation—banishment.
- Chapter IX.: Of Simply Restrictive Punishments.
- Chapter X.: Of Active Or Laborious Punishment.
- Chapter XI.: Capital Punishment.
- Chapter XII.: Capital Punishment Examined. *
- Book III.: Of Privative Punishments, Or Forfeitures.
- Chapter I.: Punishment Analyzed.
- Chapter II.: Of the Punishments Belonging to the Moral Sanction.
- Chapter III.: Forfeiture of Reputation.
- Chapter IV.: Of Pecuniary Forfeitures.
- Chapter V.: Forfeiture of Condition.
- Chapter VI.: Forfeiture of the Protection of the Law.
- Book IV.: Of the Proper Seat of Punishment: Or Say, of Mis-seated Punishment.
- Book V.: Of Complex Punishments.
- Chapter I.: Inconveniences of Complex Punishments.
- Chapter II.: Of Transportation.
- Chapter III.: Panopticon Penitentiary.
- Chapter IV.: Felony.
- Chapter V.: Of PrÆmunire.
- Chapter VI.: Outlawry.
- Chapter VII.: Excommunication.
- Book VI.: Miscellaneous Topics.
- Chapter I.: Choice of Punishments—latitude to Be Allowed to the Judges.
- Chapter II.: Of Subsidiary Punishments.
- Chapter III.: Of Surety For Good Conduct.
- Chapter IV.: Defeazance of Punishment.
- Appendix—: On Death-punishment. ∥ Jeremy Bentham to His Fellow-citizens of France.
- Part III.: Of Indirect Means of Preventing Crimes.
- Chapter I.: Methods of Taking Away the Physical Power of Injuring.
- Chapter II.: Another Indirect Method—hinder the Acquisition of Knowledge Which May Be Rendered Injurious. †
- Chapter III.: Of Indirect Means of Preventing the Will to Commit Offences.
- Chapter IV.: Problem I. to Divert the Course of Dangerous Desires, and Direct the Inclination Towards Those Amusements Which Are Most Conformed to the Public Interest.
- Chapter V.: Problem II. to Make Such Arrangements, That a Given Desire May Be Satisfied Without Prejudice, Or With the Least Possible Prejudice.
- Chapter VI.: Problem III. to Avoid Furnishing Encouragement to Crimes.
- Chapter VII.: Problem IV. to Augment the Responsibility of Individuals, In Proportion As They Are More Exposed to Temptation to Do Wrong.
- Chapter VIII.: Problem V. to Diminish Sensibility With Regard to Temptation.
- Chapter IX.: Problem VI. to Strengthen the Impression of Punishments Upon the Imagination.
- Chapter X.: Problem VII. to Facilitate the Discovery of Offences Committed.
- Chapter XI.: Problem VIII. to Prevent Offences, By Giving to Many Persons an Interest In Preventing Them.
- Chapter XII.: Problem IX. to Facilitate the Recognition and the Finding of Individuals.
- Chapter XIII.: Problem X. to Increase the Difficulty of Escape For Delinquents.
- Chapter XIV.: Problem XI. to Diminish Uncertainty With Regard to Procedure and Punishment.
- Chapter XV.: Problem XII. to Prohibit Accessory Offences, In Order to Prevent Their Principals.
- Chapter XVI.: Of the Cultivation of Benevolence.
- Chapter XVII.: Employment of the Motive of Honour, Or of the Popular Sanction.
- Chapter XVIII.: Of the Employment of the Religious Sanction.
- Chapter XIX.: Uses to Be Drawn From the Power of Instruction.
- Chapter XX.: Use to Be Made of the Power of Education.
- Chapter XXI.: General Precautions Against the Abuse of Authority.
- Chapter XXII.: Measures to Be Taken Against the Ill Effects of an Offence Already Committed—conclusion of the Subject.
OF ATTESTATIVE SATISFACTION.
This method of satisfaction is particularly adapted to crimes of falsehood, from which any opinion results prejudicial to an individual, without its being possible to estimate the amount of the damage or its extent, or even the existence of its effects. So long as the error exists, it is a constant source of actual or probable evil: there is only one method of stopping it; that is, establishing the contrary truth by evidence.
The enumeration of the principal offences of falsehood will naturally find a place here. 1. Simple mental injuries, consisting in spreading false alarms: for example, tales of apparitions, ghosts, vampires, sorcery, demoniacs, possessions, &c.; false reports of a nature to fill any individual with fear or sorrow: pretended deaths, bad conduct of parents and relations, conjugal infidelity, loss of goods, &c.; falsehoods likely to alarm a more or less numerous class; as reports of pestilence, invasion, conspiracy, incendiarism, &c.
2. Offences against reputation, among which may be distinguished many kinds. Positive defamation, by facts set down, or by ingenious libels. Weakening of reputation, which consists in weakening what cannot be destroyed; in hiding from the public, for example, a circumstance which would add to the eclât of a celebrated action. Interruption of reputation, which consists in suppressing a fact, concealing a work honourable to a certain individual, or in taking from him the opportunity of distinguishing himself, by causing an enterprise to be regarded as impossible or accomplished. Usurpation of reputation: All plagiarism, whether by authors or artists, are examples of this.
3. Fraudulent acquisition.—Examples:—False reports, for the purpose of stock-jobbing; false reports to influence the price of the negotiable securities of any commercial company.
4. Disturbance of the enjoyment of the rights attached to a domestic or civil condition.—Example: The denying to the right possessor, the possession of his condition; of a husband with regard to a certain woman—of wife with respect to a certain man—of child with regard to a certain man or woman; the attributing falsely a like condition to one’s self; the acting a falsehood of the same kind with respect to any civil condition or privilege.
5. Hindering acquisition.—Hindering a man from acquiring or selling, by false reports; disputing the value of any thing or the right to sell it; hindering a person from acquiring a certain condition, as marriage, by false reports, which cause it to be deferred, or not to take place.
In all these cases, the arm of justice would be powerless; forcible methods would be in vain, or imperfect. The only efficacious remedy is an authentic declaration which destroys the falsehood. To destroy the error—to publish the truth—these are functions worthy of the highest tribunals.
What form ought to be given to attestative satisfaction? It may be varied according to all the methods of publicity: printing and publication of the judgment at the expense of the delinquent; placards distributed at the choice of the party injured; publication in the national and foreign journals, &c.
The idea of this satisfaction, so simple and so useful, has been derived from French jurisprudence. When a man had been calumniated, the parliaments almost always ordained that the sentence which re-established his reputation should be printed and placarded at the expense of the calumniator.
But why oblige the delinquent to declare that he has uttered a lie, and publicly to recognise the honour of the party injured? This plan was bad in many respects: it was wrong to prescribe to a man the expression of certain sentiments which might not be his own, and to risk the judicially commanding a lie. It was also wrong to weaken the reparation by an act of constraint; for, finally, what does a retractation made at the command of justice prove, but the weakness and the fear of him who pronounces it?
The delinquent may be the organ of his own condemnation, if it is judged proper to augment his punishment: but this may be done without deviating from the exact truth, provided that the formula which is prescribed to him, expresses the sentiments of justice as being those of justice, and not as his own. “The court has judged that I have advanced a falsehood;—the court has judged that I have swerved from the character of an honest man;—the court has judged that in all this affair my adversary has behaved as a man of honour.” This is all that concerns the public and the party injured: it is a sufficiently brilliant triumph for the truth, a humiliation sufficiently great for the guilty. What would be gained by obliging him to say—“I have uttered a falsehood;—I have swerved from the character of an honest man;—my adversary has behaved as a man of honour?” This declaration, stronger than the first in appearance, is much less so in reality. The fear which dictates such disavowals, does not change the real sentiments; and whilst the mouth pronounces them before a numerous auditory, the cry of the heart is heard, so to speak, disavowing them.
With reference to a fact, justice is less liable to be deceived, and the direct avowal of falsehood required from the condemned party in his own name, would be almost always conformed to his inward conviction; but with reference to an opinion, to the opinion of the delinquent, the disavowal commanded of him will be almost always opposed to his inward conviction. In such contests, impartial persons would condemn an individual ten times for each once that he condemned himself. Is he for a moment sufficiently calm to give place to reflection? the triumph of his adversary is before his eyes, he is himself the instrument of its publication, and the irritation of wounded pride would augment the prejudices of his mind. He may be honestly deceived, and you oblige him to accuse himself of falsehood; you place him in a cruel position, in which the more honest he is, the more he will suffer; in which he will be punished the more, the less he deserves it.