CHAPTER XI.: OF PECUNIARY SATISFACTION. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 1 (Principles of Morals and Legislation, Fragment on Government, Civil Code, Penal Law) 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). 11 vols. Vol. 1.
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- Errata—vol. I.
- General Preface.
- Introduction to the Study of the Works of Jeremy Bentham;
- Section I.: Bentham’s Style and Method of Thinking.
- Section II.: The Greatest-happiness Principle and Its Application to Morals and Legislation.
- Section III.: The Pursuit of Truth.—fallacies.—principles of Evidence.
- Section IV.: System of Government.
- Section IV.: Law Reform.
- Section VI.: Principles of Punishment.
- Section VII.: Poor Laws, Education, and Other Institutions For National Amelioration.
- Section VIII.: International Law.
- Section IX.: Political Economy.
- Section X.: Logic and Metaphysics. †
- An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.
- Chapter I.: Of the Principle of Utility.
- Chapter II.: Of Principles Adverse to That of Utility.
- Chapter III.: Of the Four * Sanctions Or Sources of Pain and Pleasure.
- Chapter IV.: Value of a Lot of Pleasure Or Pain, How to Be Measured.
- Chapter V.: Pleasures and Pains, Their Kinds.
- Chapter VI.: Of Circumstances Influencing Sensibility.
- Chapter VII.: Of Human Actions In General.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Intentionality.
- Chapter IX.: Of Consciousness.
- Chapter X.: Of Motives.
- Chapter XI.: Of Human Dispositions In General.
- Chapter XII.: Of the Consequences of a Mischievous Act.
- Chapter XIII. *: of Circumstances Influencing the Degree of Alarm.
- Chapter XIV.: Reasons For Considering Certain Actions As Crimes. *
- Chapter XV.: § 1. General View of Cases Unmeet For Punishment.
- Chapter XVI.: Of the Proportion Between Punishments and Offences.
- Chapter XVII.: Of the Properties to Be Given to a Lot of Punishment.
- Chapter XVIII. § 1.: Classes of Offences.
- Chapter XIX.: § 1. Limits Between Private Ethics and the Art of Legislation.
- I. Essay On the Promulgation of Laws
- Essay On the Influence of Time and Place In Matters of Legislation.
- Introduction. *
- Chapter I.: Principles to Be Followed In Trans Planting Laws.
- Chapter II.: Regard to Be Paid to Subsisting Institutions.
- Chapter III.: Rules Respecting the Method of Transplanting Laws.
- Chapter IV.: Laws Appear the Worse For Being Transplanted.
- Chapter V.: Influence of Time.
- A Table of the Springs of Action:
- A Fragment On Government;
- Preface to the First Edition, Published In 1776.
- Historical Preface, Intended For the Second Edition.
- Three Letters On the Fragment On Governmen
- Letter the First. of an Examination Into the Merits of a Critique On Blackstone’s Commentaries, Lately Published Under the Title of a Fragment On Government.
- Letter the Second. of an Examination Into the Merits of a Critique On Blackstone’s Commentaries, Lately Published Under the Title of a Fragment On Government.
- Letter the Third. By John Lind, Esq. Afterwards Barrister At Law, to D., Author of Two Letters * On a Fragment On Government.
- Introduction. *
- Chapter I.: Formation of Government.
- Chapter II.: Forms of Government.
- Chapter III.: The British Constitution.
- Chapter IV.: Right of the Supreme Power to Make Laws.
- Chapter V.: Duty of the Supreme Power to Make Laws.
- Principles of the Civil Code.
- Part I.—: Objects of the Civil Law. *
- Chapter I.: Of Rights and Obligations.
- Chapter II.: Distinct Objects of the Civil Law.
- Chapter III.: Relation Between These Objects.
- Chapter IV.: Of Laws Relative to Subsistence.
- Chapter V.: Of Laws Relative to Abundance.
- Chapter VI.: Propositions of Pathology Upon Which the Advantage of Equality Is Founded.
- Chapter VII.: Of Security.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Property.
- Chapter IX.: Answer to an Objection.
- Chapter X.: Analysis of the Evils Resulting From Attacks Upon Property.
- Chapter XI.: Security and Equality—their Opposition.
- Chapter XII.: Security and Equality—means of Reconciliation.
- Chapter XIII.: Sacrifices of Security to Security.
- Chapter XIV.: Cases Subject to Dispute.
- Chapter XV.: Examples of Attacks Upon Security.
- Chapter XVI.: Of Forced Exchanges.
- Chapter XVII.: Power of the Laws Over Expectation.
- Part II.
- Chapter I.: Of Titles Which Confer a Right to Property. *
- Chapter II.: Another Mode of Acquisition—consent.
- Chapter III.: Another Means of Acquisition—succession.
- Chapter V.: Of Wills.
- Chapter V.: Of Rights Respecting Services—means of Acquiring Them.
- Chapter VI.: Community of Goods—its Inconveniences.
- Chapter VII.: Of Distribution of Loss.
- Part III.: Of the Rights and Obligations Attached to Different Private Conditions.
- Chapter I.: Of Master and Servant.
- Chapter II.: Of Slavery.
- Chapter III.: Of Guardian and Ward.
- Chapter IV.: Of Parent and Child.
- Chapter V.: Of Marriage.
- Appendix.: of the Levelling System. *
- Principles of Penal Law.
- Part I.: Political Remedies For the Evil of Offences.
- Chapter I.: Subject of This Book.
- Chapter II.: Of Direct Methods of Preventing Offences.
- Chapter III.: Of Chronic Offences.
- Chapter IV.: Of Suppressive Remedies For Chronic Offences.
- Chapter V.: Of Martial Law
- Chapter VI.: Of the Nature of Satisfaction.
- Chapter VII.: Reasons Upon Which the Obligation to Make Satisfaction Is Founded.
- Chapter VIII.: Of the Different Kinds of Satisfaction.
- Chapter IX.: Of the Quantity of Satisfaction to Be Granted.
- Chapter X.: Of the Certainty of Satisfaction.
- Chapter XI.: Of Pecuniary Satisfaction.
- Chapter XII.: Of Restitution In Kind.
- Chapter XIII.: Of Attestative Satisfaction.
- Chapter XIV.: Of Honorary Satisfaction.
- Chapter XV.: Remedies For Offences Against Honour.
- Chapter XVI.: Of Vindictive Satisfaction.
- Chapter XVII.: Of Substitutive Satisfaction, Or At the Expense of a Third Party.
- Chapter XVIII.: Of Subsidiary Satisfaction At the Expense of the Public Treasure.
- Part II.—: Rationale of Punishment.
- Book I.: General Principles.
- Chapter I.: Definitions and Distinctions.
- Chapter II.: Classification.
- Chapter III.: Of the Ends of Punishment.
- Chapter IV.: Cases Unmeet For Punishment.
- Chapter V.: Expense of Punishment.
- Chapter VI.: Measure of Punishment.
- Chapter VII.: Of the Properties to Be Given to a Lot of Punishment.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Analogy Between Crimes and Punishments.
- Chapter IX.: Of Retaliation.
- Chapter X.: Of Popularity.
- Book II.: Of Corporal Punishments.
- Chapter I.: Simple Afflictive Punishments. *
- Chapter II.: Of Complex Afflictive Punishments.
- Chapter III.: Of Restrictive Punishments—territorial Confinement.
- Chapter IV.: Imprisonment.
- Chapter V.: Imprisonment—fees.
- Chapter VI.: Imprisonment Examined.
- Chapter VII.: General Scheme of Imprisonment.
- Chapter VIII.: Of Other Species of Territorial Confinement—quasi Imprisonment—relegation—banishment.
- Chapter IX.: Of Simply Restrictive Punishments.
- Chapter X.: Of Active Or Laborious Punishment.
- Chapter XI.: Capital Punishment.
- Chapter XII.: Capital Punishment Examined. *
- Book III.: Of Privative Punishments, Or Forfeitures.
- Chapter I.: Punishment Analyzed.
- Chapter II.: Of the Punishments Belonging to the Moral Sanction.
- Chapter III.: Forfeiture of Reputation.
- Chapter IV.: Of Pecuniary Forfeitures.
- Chapter V.: Forfeiture of Condition.
- Chapter VI.: Forfeiture of the Protection of the Law.
- Book IV.: Of the Proper Seat of Punishment: Or Say, of Mis-seated Punishment.
- Book V.: Of Complex Punishments.
- Chapter I.: Inconveniences of Complex Punishments.
- Chapter II.: Of Transportation.
- Chapter III.: Panopticon Penitentiary.
- Chapter IV.: Felony.
- Chapter V.: Of PrÆmunire.
- Chapter VI.: Outlawry.
- Chapter VII.: Excommunication.
- Book VI.: Miscellaneous Topics.
- Chapter I.: Choice of Punishments—latitude to Be Allowed to the Judges.
- Chapter II.: Of Subsidiary Punishments.
- Chapter III.: Of Surety For Good Conduct.
- Chapter IV.: Defeazance of Punishment.
- Appendix—: On Death-punishment. ∥ Jeremy Bentham to His Fellow-citizens of France.
- Part III.: Of Indirect Means of Preventing Crimes.
- Chapter I.: Methods of Taking Away the Physical Power of Injuring.
- Chapter II.: Another Indirect Method—hinder the Acquisition of Knowledge Which May Be Rendered Injurious. †
- Chapter III.: Of Indirect Means of Preventing the Will to Commit Offences.
- Chapter IV.: Problem I. to Divert the Course of Dangerous Desires, and Direct the Inclination Towards Those Amusements Which Are Most Conformed to the Public Interest.
- Chapter V.: Problem II. to Make Such Arrangements, That a Given Desire May Be Satisfied Without Prejudice, Or With the Least Possible Prejudice.
- Chapter VI.: Problem III. to Avoid Furnishing Encouragement to Crimes.
- Chapter VII.: Problem IV. to Augment the Responsibility of Individuals, In Proportion As They Are More Exposed to Temptation to Do Wrong.
- Chapter VIII.: Problem V. to Diminish Sensibility With Regard to Temptation.
- Chapter IX.: Problem VI. to Strengthen the Impression of Punishments Upon the Imagination.
- Chapter X.: Problem VII. to Facilitate the Discovery of Offences Committed.
- Chapter XI.: Problem VIII. to Prevent Offences, By Giving to Many Persons an Interest In Preventing Them.
- Chapter XII.: Problem IX. to Facilitate the Recognition and the Finding of Individuals.
- Chapter XIII.: Problem X. to Increase the Difficulty of Escape For Delinquents.
- Chapter XIV.: Problem XI. to Diminish Uncertainty With Regard to Procedure and Punishment.
- Chapter XV.: Problem XII. to Prohibit Accessory Offences, In Order to Prevent Their Principals.
- Chapter XVI.: Of the Cultivation of Benevolence.
- Chapter XVII.: Employment of the Motive of Honour, Or of the Popular Sanction.
- Chapter XVIII.: Of the Employment of the Religious Sanction.
- Chapter XIX.: Uses to Be Drawn From the Power of Instruction.
- Chapter XX.: Use to Be Made of the Power of Education.
- Chapter XXI.: General Precautions Against the Abuse of Authority.
- Chapter XXII.: Measures to Be Taken Against the Ill Effects of an Offence Already Committed—conclusion of the Subject.
OF PECUNIARY SATISFACTION.
There are some cases in which pecuniary satisfaction is demanded by the nature of the offence itself: there are other cases in which it is the only one allowed by the circumstances. It ought to be preferred on the occasions in which it promises to have its greatest effect.
Pecuniary satisfaction is at its highest point of suitability in the cases in which the damage sustained by the party injured, and the advantage reaped by the offender, are equally of a pecuniary nature, as in theft, peculation, and extortion. The evil and the remedy are homogeneous—the compensation may be exactly measured by the loss, and the punishment by the profit of the offence.
This species of satisfaction is not so well founded when there is a pecuniary loss on one side, without any pecuniary profit on the other; as in waste, on account of enmity, by negligence or by accident.
It is still less well founded in the cases in which neither the evil suffered by the party injured, nor the advantage reaped by the author of the crime, can be valued in money; as in injuries which relate to honour.
The more a method of satisfaction is found incommensurable with the damage—the more a method of punishment is found incommensurable with the advantage of the offence—the more are they respectively liable to lose their aim.
The ancient Roman law, which awarded a crown as an indemnification for a box on the ear, did not provide for the security of honour. The reparation had no common measure with the outrage, its effect was precarious, whether as satisfaction or as punishment.
There still exists an English law which is a remnant of barbarous times: manent vestigia ruris. A daughter is considered as the servant of her father. Is she seduced, the father can obtain no other satisfaction than a sum of money, the price of the domestic services of which it is considered that he may be deprived by the pregnancy of his daughter.
In personal injuries, a pecuniary indemnification may be suitable or not, according to the fortunes on the one side and the other.
In regulating a pecuniary satisfaction, the two branches of the past and of the future ought not to be forgotten. Satisfaction for the future consists simply in making the evil of the offence to cease: satisfaction for the past, consists in indemnification for the wrong suffered. The payment of a sum due is satisfaction for the future; the payment of the interest accrued on this sum is satisfaction for the past.
Interest ought to accrue from the moment the mischief which it is intended to compensate happens; from the moment, for example, from which the payment due has been delayed—or the thing has been taken, destroyed, or damaged—or the service which ought to have been rendered has been neglected.
Interests granted on account of satisfaction ought to be higher than the ordinary rate of commerce, at least when evil intention is suspected.
This excess is highly necessary: if the interest were only equal, there would be many cases in which the satisfaction would be incomplete, and other cases in which a profit would remain to the delinquent; a pecuniary profit, if he have wished to procure a forced loan at the ordinary rate of interest; a pleasure of vengeance or enmity, if he have wished to hold the injured party in a state of want, and to enjoy his distress.
For the same reason, compound interest ought to be calculated; that is to say, the interest ought to be added to the capital, each time that the interest ought, according to custom, to become due, since the capitalist, at the expiration of every such term, might convert his interest into capital, or derive some equivalent advantage from it. Leave this part of the damage without satisfaction, there will be, on the part of the proprietor, a loss, and on the part of the delinquent a gain.
Among co-delinquents, the expense of the satisfaction ought to be divided among them according to their fortunes, except when this division ought to be modified according to the different degrees of their criminality. In truth, the obligation to make satisfaction is a punishment, and this punishment would be on the pinnacle of inequality, if co-delinquents of unequal fortunes were taxed equally.