Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAP. XVII.: The East-India Trade does not abate the Rents of the Landholder by destroying his Monopoly. - A Select Collection of Early English Tracts on Commerce from the Originals of Mun, Roberts, North, and Others
CHAP. XVII.: The East-India Trade does not abate the Rents of the Landholder by destroying his Monopoly. - John Ramsay McCulloch, A Select Collection of Early English Tracts on Commerce from the Originals of Mun, Roberts, North, and Others 
A Select Collection of Early English Tracts on Commerce from the Originals of Mun, Roberts, North, and Others, with a Preface and Index (London: Printed for the Political Economy Club, 1856).
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- A Select Collection of Early English Tracts On Commerce
- Thomas Mun, a Discoverse of Trade From England Vnto the East-indies: Answering to Diuerse Obiections Which Are Vsually Made Against the Same.
- Lewes Roberts, the Treasure of Traffike, Or a Discoourse of Forraigne Trade.
- Thomas Mun, England’s Treasure By Forraign Trade. Or. the Ballance of Our Forraign Trade Is the Rule of Our Treasure.
- Chap. I.: The Qualities Which Are Required In a Perfect Merchant of Forraign Trade.
- Chap. II.: The Means to Enrich This Kingdom, and to Encrease Our Treasure.
- Chap. III.: The Particular Ways and Means to Encrease the Exportation of Our Commodities, and to Decrease Our Consumption of Forraign Wares.
- Chap. IV.: The Exportation of Our Moneys In Trade of Merchandize Is a Means to Encrease Our Treasure.
- Chap. V.: Forraign Trade Is the Only Means to Improve the Price of Our Lands.
- Chap. VI.: The Spanish Treasure Cannot Be Kept From Other Kingdoms By Any Prohibition Made In Spain.
- Chap. VII.: The Diversity of Gain By Forraign Trade.
- Chap. VIII.: The Enhansing Or Debasing Our Moneys Cannot Enrich the Kingdom With Treasure, Nor Hinder the Exportation Thereof.
- Chap. IX.: A Toleration For Forraign Coins to Pass Currant Here At Higher Rates Then Their Value With Our Standard, Will Not Encrease Our Treasure.
- Chap. X.: The Observation of the Statute of Imployments to Be Made By Strangers, Cannot Encrease, Nor Yet Preserve Our Treasure.
- Chap. XI.: It Will Not Increase Our Treasure to Enjoyn the Merchant That Exporteth Fish, Corn Or Munition, to Return All Or Part of the Value In Money.
- Chap. XII.: The Undervaluing of Our Money Which Is Delivered Or Received By Bills of Exchange Here Or Beyond the Seas, Cannot Decrease Our Treasure.
- Chap. XIII.: The Merchant Who Is a Mere Exchanger of Money By Bills Cannot Increase Or Decrease Our Treasure.
- Chap. XIV.: The Admirable Feats Supposed to Be Done By Bankers and the Merchants Exchange.
- Chap. XV.: Of Some Excesses and Evils In the Commonwealth, Which Notwithstanding Decay Not Our Trade Nor Treasure.
- Chap. XVI.: How the Revenues and Incomes of Princes May Justly Be Raised.
- Chap. XVII.: Whether It Be Necessary For Great Princes to Lay Up Store of Treasure.
- Chap. XVIII.: How Much Treasure a Prince May Conveniently Lay Up Yearly.
- Chap. XIX.: Of Some Different Effects, Which Proceed From Naturall and Artificiall Wealth.
- Chap. XX.: The Order and Means Whereby We May Draw Up the Ballance of Our Forraign Trade.
- Chap. XXI.: The Conclusion Upon All That Hath Been Said, Concerning the Exportation Or Importation of Treasure.
- Samuel Fortrey, Englands Interest and Improvement.
- England’s Great Happiness; Or, a Dialogue Between Content and Complaint.
- Britannia Languens, Or a Discourse of Trade
- The Preface.
- The Introduction.
- Section I.: Trade National Or Private, Home Or Forreign Treasures Imported By Trade, Thence Land-rents, Populacy Increased, the Revenues of All Ranks of Men Depend Upon Trade, People and Treasure Make National Strength, Particular Advantages In Treasure,
- Sect. II.: The Several Kinds of Forreign Trade, of Trading With Home Or Forreign Navigation, Some General Application.
- Sect. III.: Of Forreign Trade Consisting In Exportation, of the Advantages of Home Manufactures, and Manufactures, Incidently Other Home Trades, and Imployments Are Considered; and Which of Them Enrich a Nation; of the Fishing-trade, and the Annual Export
- Sect. IV.: Of Forreign Trade From Port to Port, the Nature and Advantage of It, Differs From Meer Carriage, and Meer Importation; the Necessity of a Home Storehouse: the Ordinary Exporting of Money Or Bullion, of Dangerous Consequence; How to Be Avoided:
- Sect. V.: That Our Home and Forreign Market Is Incumbered, and Prejudiced By Extraordinary and Unequal Charges, and Cloggs In Our Merchandize Above What Are In Our Neighbour-nations, Viz. In the Building and Furniture of Our Ships, Victuals, Sea-mens Wa
- Sect. VI.: Other Cloggs On Our Trade, Viz. the Late Acts of Navigation, Which, With the Other Difficulties, Have Begot Monopolies; Made Our Navigation Yet Dearer, So Forreign Materials of Manufacture Cause Meer Importations, Hinder Our Forreign Vent of
- Sect. VII.: Forreigners Eased In Trade; Other Clogs and Difficulties Upon Ours; Want of Populacy, Incidently of Extream Prizes of Victuals, and How the Duration of Land-rents May Be Secured, Our People Restrained From Manufactures; the Abuse of the Act
- Sect. VIII.: That a Nation May Grow Poor By Forreign Trade, Viz. By an Excess of Meer Importations, Illustrated By Some Observations: This Facilitated By Exporting Money Or Bullion; the Fatal Consequences and Symptoms of a Consumptive Trade, Decay of Ma
- Sect. IX.: That a Consumptive Trade Must Render a Nation Still Weaker and Weaker: How Far the Meer Establishment of Absolute Power, Or Meer Liberty and Property, May Alter the Case.
- Sect. X.: Further Presumptions of Our Late National Overballance In Trade; an Account From the Mint In November 75. and Thence Our Former Ballance of Trade Estimated.
- Sect. XI.: Particular Decays In Our Exportations, and the Beneficial Parts of Our Trade; Instances In the Decay of Our Foreign-trade For Woollen Clothing, In the Several Countries and Ports We Traded To, In the Sinking of the Foreign Price of This Manufac
- Sect. XII.: Instances In Late Increases and Excesses of Our Forreign Importations, and Therein of the Decay of Some Other of Our Own Manufactures Which Supplyed Our Home Uses, Viz. In Linnens of All Sorts, More Dear Fine Linnens Used; Incidently of the
- Sect. XIII.: That a Considerable Part of Our Late Treasure Is Exhausted: Application to Our Publick and Private Revenues: Objections Answered, Viz. the Plenty of Money to Be Let On Securities, Stores of Money In London, Stocks In Merchandize, the Over
- Sect. XIV.: People and Treasure the True Pillars of the National Strength: the Odds In the Different Vse and Imployment of People. the Absoluteness of the French Monarchy No Cause of the Present French Grandure: the Late Application of the French Co
- Dudley North, Discourses Upon Trade
- The Preface.
- A Discourse Concerning the Abatement of Interest.
- A Discourse of Coyned Money.
- Postscript. Upon Farther Consideration of the Foregoing Matters, I Think Fit to Add the Following Notes.
- Considerations On the East-india Trade
- To the Reader.
- Chap. I.: The Objections Against the East-india Trade; Viz. the Exportation of Bullion For Manufactures to Be Consum’d In England; the Loss of the Labourer’s Employment; the Abatement of Rents Are Enforc’d.
- Chap. II.: The Exportation of Bullion For Indian Manufactures, Is an Exchange of Less For Greater Value.
- Chap. III.: A More Open East-india- Trade, Is More Profitable to the Kingdom.
- Chap. IV.: The East-india Trade Does Not So Much Diminish the Riches of Some Private Persons, As It Increases the Riches of the Kingdom.
- Chap. V.: The East-india Trade Is the Way to Increase Our Bullion.
- Chap. VI.: The East-india Trade Must Increase Our Exportations.
- Chap. VII.: Notwithstanding the Idleness of the Mint, the Money and the Bullion Are Increas’d.
- Chap. VIII.: The Increase of Paper Money Is to Be Ascrib’d to the Increase of Real Money, Rather Than the Apparent Plenty of Money to the Increase of Current Paper.
- Chap. IX.: The Kingdom Is Not More Impoverish’d By the Consumption of Indian Than of English Manufactures.
- Chap. X.: The East-india Trade Destroys No Imployment of the People Which Is Profitable to the Kingdom.
- Chap. XI.: The East-india Trade Is the Most Likely Way to Inlarge the Business In the Present Manufactures.
- Chap. XII.: By Being the Cause of the Invention of Arts and Engines, of Order and Regularity In Our Manufactures, the East-india Trade, Without Abating the Wages of Labourers, Abates the Price of Manufactures.
- Chap. XIII.: The East-india Trade Is the Most Likely Way to Set On Foot New Manufactures For Imployment of the People.
- Chap. XIV.: The East-india Trade Does Not Abate the Rents, By the Exportation of Bullion, By the Diminution of Consumers, By the Abatement of Wages; the Importation of Indian Manufactures Is Less Likely to Abate Rents Than the Importation of the Unwro
- Chap. XV.: The Importation of Indian Manufactures Abates Only the Price of Labour, But Raises the Price of the Produce of the Estate.
- Chap. XVI.: And This Is Confirm’d By Examples.
- Chap. XVII.: The East-india Trade Does Not Abate the Rents of the Landholder By Destroying His Monopoly.
- Chap. XVIII.: The Fishing-trade Is Not So Profitable As the Importation of Irish Cattel, Or of Indian Manufactures; and Is More Likely Than Either to Abate the Rents of England.
- Chap. XIX.: The Herring-fishery Not Practicable In the Present Circumstances of England; the Dutch Can Sell Cheaper.
- Chap. XX.: The Way to Bring England to Be Contented With As Little Profit In the Fishing-trade As Holland.
- Chap. XXI.: That the Way to Enable England to Catch and Cure Their Herrings As Cheap As Holland, Is, First to Have Materials For That Trade As Cheap: and That This Is Most Likely to Be Done, By Discharging the Customs Upon Such Things, By Making the T
- Chap. XXII.: The Way to Make English Labour In the Fishing-trade As Cheap As That of Holland; That the People Here Must Cohabit As Close Together; and the Most Probable Methods For Effecting This, Are to Erect a Free-port, to Impower Parishes to Send
The East-India Trade does not abate the Rents of the Landholder by destroying his Monopoly.
AND now the Answer will be very easie to the last part of the Objection, That the permission of Indian Manufactures to be sold in English Markets, destroys the Monopoly of the Gentleman. As good a price as ever is given for the Produce of the Estate; wherefore it is deny’d, That by the permission of Indian Manufacture, the Sellers and like things for sale, are increas’d beyond the former proportion of Money and Buyers, which before were ready for the Produce of the Estate.
It is very true,The increase of things does not reduce the price of Money, and Buyers increase in proportion. That an Hundred thousand Pounds in Money, and as many Buyers, are not in proportion so much to any quantity of Meat, or Corn, or Cloaths, as the same Money and Buyers wou’d be to half the quantity of any of those things: But, to the single Butcher of a Country-Village, add as much Meat and as many Butchers as are in London, if the People and Money shall increase in proportion, Meat will bear as good a price. To the English Corn, add all the Corn of Europe, yet if all must come to the English Markets, if Money and Buyers shall increase in proportion to the increase of Corn, the price of Corn will never fall. So to the Woollen Manufactures, add those of India and other Countries, yet if Money and Buyers shall increase in proportion, the price of Cloth may be as high as ever. The reason why the increase of Sellers and of like things for sale, abates the price of things, is because the increase is beyond the proportion of Money and Buyers; and therefore, if these shall increase as fast, if there shall be still as great a proportion of them to the Produce of the Estate, the price of it will not be abated.
Now the importation of Indian Manufactures, and the permission of them to be sold in English Markets, does indeed abate the price of English Manufactures; so that the proportion of Money and Buyers to English Manufactures must needs be lessen’d. But then the whole abatement is upon the price of Labour by which the same are made; and by the abatement of the price of Labour, more are invited and enabled both at home and abroad, to buy the Produce of the Estate. In Fact as much is given for this as ever, the proportion of Money and Buyers to the Produce of the Estate, is not abated; and therefore, Money and Buyers are increas’d to the Produce of the Estate, in proportion to the increase which is made of Sellers and of like things for Sale, by the importation of Indian Manufactures. And consequently, this does indeed destroy the Monopoly of the Landholder; nevertheless, the value of the Produce of his Estate is not abated by it.
What has been said of the permission of Indian Manufactures to be sold in English Markets, is, That Indian Manufactures are not so likely to abate the price of the meer Produce of English Estates as the unwrought Produce of India; they can only abate the price of Labour; by abating the price of this, they must raise the value of the Produce of the Estate; this is reason, and this is confirm’d by experience. And thus, by the destruction of his Monopoly, the Landholder loses nothing; Money and Buyers increase, as Foreign Things are added to the Produce of the Estate; the value of this is not abated by the permission of Indian Manufactures to be sold in all the English Markets.
There is still, notwithstanding the exportation of Bullion, as much Money in the Kingdom, as much Money and as many Buyers for the meer Produce of the Estate; the Labourer is still able to give as good a price; and indeed, as the price of Labour shall be lessen’d, both he and others must be forc’d to give a better: So that Rents are not abated by the importation of Indian Manufactures.
And thus Answers are given to every Objection against this Trade: to the exportation of Bullion for Manufactures to be consum’d in England; that the exchange is of less for greater value, of less for more Bullion; and that nothing more is lost to the Kingdom by the consumption of Indian, than of English Manufactures. To the complaint of the Labourer, and the loss of his imployment; that the loss of this is no loss to the Publick; and on the contrary, that the East-India Trade is the most likely way to make imployment for the People. The last Objection is deny’d, the Rents are not abated.