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NOTES TO TROILUS - Geoffrey Chaucer, The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, vol. 2 (Boethius, Troilus) 
The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, edited from numerous manuscripts by the Rev. Walter W. Skeat (2nd ed.) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1899). 7 vols.
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NOTES TO TROILUS
I must refer the student to Mr. Rossetti’s work (Chaucer Soc. 1875) for a detailed comparison of Chaucer’s poem with the Filostrato of Boccaccio. The following table roughly indicates the portions of these works which are more or less similar, down to the end of Book I. Similar tables are prefixed to the Notes on the other books. It often happens that a stanza in Chaucer has a mere general resemblance to the corresponding one in Boccaccio. The lines in Chaucer not mentioned below are, in the main, original; e. g. 1-20, 31-56, &c.; and so are many others that cannot be here more exactly specified.
The chief correspondences are shewn in the following table.
Other passages are mainly original; as, e. g. ll. 1352-1757 at the end, and 1-264 at the beginning.
The following scheme gives a general idea of the relationship of this Book to the original.
The following scheme gives some notion of the relationship of the contents of this book to the Filostrato, but Chaucer constantly expands and adds to the original, and not unfrequently transposes the order of the text.
The following sketch gives a general notion of the relation of this Book to the Filostrato, though Chaucer often amplifies and transposes the material in a way that it would be tedious to particularise more minutely.
ADDITIONAL NOTE TO BOOK III. 674.
As the curious word voidee has been suppressed in all previous editions, I add some more examples of it, for some of which I am indebted to Dr. Murray. It occurs, e. g., in the extremely interesting account of the death of James I of Scotland.
‘Within an owre the Kyng askid the voidee, and drank, the travers yn the chambure edraw [= y-drawe, drawn], and every man depairtid and went to rist’: (1400) Jn. Shirley, Dethe of James Stewarde, Kyng of Scotys, p. 13, ed. 1818.
Hence, no doubt, Mr. Rossetti, in his poem of The King’s Tragedy, drew the line:—‘Then he called for the voidee-cup.’
‘A voidy of spices’: (1548) Hall’s Chron. 14 Hen. VIII.
‘A voidee of spices’: (1577-87) Holinshed’s Chron. vol. iii. p. 849.
In A Collection of Ordinances and Regulations for the Royal Household, London, 1790, there are several examples of it.
‘The Archbishoppe to stand on the Kinges right hand, and the King to make him a becke when hee shall take spice and wine. And when the voide is donne, then the King to goe into his chamber; and all other estates to goe into their chambers, or where it shall please them,’ &c.: p. 111; in Articles ordained by King Henry VII.
At p. 113, there are minute directions as to the voidè. The chamberlain and others fetch a towel, the cups, and the spice-plates; the king and the bishop take ‘spice and wine,’ and afterwards the lords and people are served ‘largely’ with spice and wine also; after which the cups are removed. At p. 36, we read: ‘the bourde avoyded [cleared] when wafyrs come with ypocras, or with other swete wynes. The King never taketh a voyd [read voydè] of comfites and other spices, but standing.’ At p. 121: ‘as for the voide on twelfth day at night, the King and Queene ought to take it in the halle.’ At the Coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn, there was a voidè ‘of spice-plates and wine’; English Garner, ed. Arber, ii. 50.
The voidee was, in fact, a sort of dessert. The word spices included many things besides what it now implies. In the Ordinances above-mentioned, there is a list of spices, at p. 103. It includes pepper, saffron, ginger, cloves, maces, cinnamon, nutmegs, dates, prunes, quinces, comfits, raisins, currants, figs, and even rice. In the North of England, even at the present day, it includes sweetmeats, gingerbread, cakes, and dried fruits.
printed in great britain
at the university press, oxford
by vivian ridler
printer to the university
[P. 10; foot-notes, l. 10.]Read: C. vnplitable; A. inplitable.
[P. 181, Book I, 879.]For the read thee.
[P. 208, Book II, 628.]For swych read swich.
[P. 229, Book II, 1294.]Insert ‘ at the beginning.
[P. 234, Book II, 1461.]For streyt read streght, as in MS. H.
[P. 264, Book III, 662.]For thondre read thonder.
[P. 271, Book III, 885.]For ringe read ring.
[P. 282, Book III, 1219.]For sweet read swete.
[P. 390, Book V, 1039.]For she read he. Cf. note, p. 499; and p. lx, l. 3.
[P. 431, note to Prose 5, 35; l. 3.]Delete for which I find no authority. (In fact, postremo is the reading given by Peiper, from one MS. only; most MSS. have postremae, the reading given by Obbarius, who does not recognise the reading postremo).
[P. 463. Note to I, 217.]Add—So too in Barbour’s Bruce, i. 582: ‘Bot oft failyeis the fulis thocht.’
[P. 479, last line; and p. 480, first line.]For represents the Pers. and Arab. dū’lkarnayn, lit. two-horned; from Pers. dū, two, and karn, horn—read represents the Arab. zū’lkarnayn, lit. two-horned; from Arab. zū, lord of, hence, possessing, and the dual form of karn, horn.
[Notes to I. 948, 951; II. 36, 1335; III. 1219.]Dr. Köppel has shewn (in Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen, xc. 150, that Chaucer here quotes from Alanus de Insulis, Liber Parabolarum (as printed in Migne, Cursus Patrologicus, vol. ccx). The passages are:—
[P. 498, Note to V, 806.]Add—L. 813 is due to Dares; see p. lxiv, note.
[P. 499, Note to V, 1039, l. 6.]For the rest is Chaucer’s addition read the statement that she gave it to Diomede is due to Benoît; see p. lxii. Again, just below, read The incidents of the ‘broche’ and ‘pensel’ are also due to the same; see p. lxii.
[862, 864. ]Cm. tel; Cl. H. telle.
[863. ]Cp. thy; H. þi; Cl. Cm. þin.
[865. ]Cp. hopen; Cl. H. hopen the; Cm. Ed. hope.
[867. ]H. Cm. wex; Cl. wax.
[871. ]Cl. bigan; Cp. H. Cm. gan.
[883. ]H2. Ne y; H. Ny (= Ne y); Cl. Cm. om. I.
[885. ]Cl. frendliour. H2. ne a; Cl. H. na (= ne a); see l. 884.
[886. ]Cp. om. 2nd to.
[889. ]Cl. H. hires; Ed. hers.
[891. ]Ed. first; H2. ferst; read firste.
[892. ]Ed. H2. wele. Ed. ordayne the (with the added; ordeynè is trisyllabic).
[894. ]H2. om. nought but (!).
[895. ]H2. wele; Ed. wel.
[896. ]H2. oght; Ed. ought; read oughte.
[902. ]H. Cp. nought; Cl. not.
[907. ]Cp. H. Cm. han; Cl. a. thus] Cl. so.
[908. ]Ed. wont; Cp. H. wonte; Cl. woned.
[911. ]H. Cp. often; Cl. Cm. ofte.
[914. ]H2. monche; Ed. monch; Cl. mucche; H. muche.
[915. ]Cl. om. make.
[917. ]Cp. H preydest; Cl. preyedest.
[918. ]Cl. som.
[921. ]H. slepten.
[922. ]Cl. wolden.
[925. ]Ed. H. Cp. Yet; Cm. Yit; Cl. Ye. Cl. om. that.
[927. ]Ed. H. Cp. thoughten; Cm. thouȝtyn; Cl. thought. Cl. Ed. om. that.
[928. ]Cl. to assayn; H. Cp. tassayen.
[931. ]H. noon; Cp. non; Cl. none.
[932. ]H. Cp. sey; Cl. seye.
[935. ]H. Cp. herte; Cl. hert.
[937. ]Cp. H. for-ȝiue; Cl. Cm. for-yeue.
[938. ]Cp. liue; Cl. Cm. leue.
[939. ]Ed. H2. Pandare; Cl. H. Pandarus.
[941. ]Cl. sithen that; Cp. H. sithen. H. wepen; Cm. wepyn; Cl. wopen.
[945. ]H. Cm. ben; Cl. be.
[947. ]as] Cl. al; H2. and.
[950, 1. ]Cl. nexst. Cl. Cp. H2. derk; rest derke.
[952. ]the—of] Cl. after.
[955. ]Cp. al; Cl. H. alle.
[958. ]Cp. thy; Cl. Cm. þyn.
[959. ]Cp. werke; Cl. werk.
[960. ]Cm. H2. partyd; rest departed.
[962. ]Cp. H. Cm. though swich; Cl. that such.
[963. ]of] Cl. on.
[966. ]H. though; Cl. Cm. thow. may] Cl. mowe.
[969. ]Cp. Cm. faste; rest fast.
[972. ]Cm. bothis.
[973. ]Cp. H. Ed. maken; Cl. Cm. make.
[980. ]Cl. Cp. Cm. om. to.
[982. ]Cp. H. Ed. bethynken; Cl. byþynke.
[984. ]As] Cl. And.
[985. ]Cp. Cm. trewely; Cl. H. trewly. H. Cp. sate; Cl. Cm. sat; (read sete).
[986. ]H. Cp. louen; Cl. Cm. loue.
[993. ]Cl. of it the wiser.
[995. ]And] Cl. For.
[997. ]it] Cl. that.
[1002. ]now] Cl. ye. Cl. Cp. H. wyse; rest grete.
[1003. ]a] Cl. the.
[1006. ]most god] Cm. god most.
[1009. ]Cl. Whanne.
[1017. ]MSS. telle; Ed. tel; see l. 681.
[1020. ]Cp. H. here; Cl. heren.
[1024. ]may] Cl. wole.
[1028. ]Cp. malone.
[1033. ]Cp. H. Ed. any; Cl. Cm. ony.
[1034. ]Cp. H. Ed. dredeles; rest dredles.
[1036. ]Cp. myghte; Cl. H. myght.
[1039. ]H. Cp. roughte; Cl. rought.
[1042. ]H. Cm. Yif; Cp. Yef; Cl. Yeue.
[1044. ]Tho] Cl. But. on] Cl. on his.
[1045. ]H. Cp. Ed. hente; Cl. hent.
[1048. ]Cp. H. dredelees; Cl. dredles.
[1050. ]H. mathynketh; Ed. me athinketh; Cl. me ofthynketh; Cp. mathenketh. Ed. masterte; Cp. me sterte.
[1052. ]Accent thou.
[1059. ]Cp. H. than; Cl. thenne.
[1067. ]Cp. H. wol; Cl. wole.
[1068. ]Cp. H. sende; Cl. send.
[1074. ]Cl. lyoun.
[1075. ]Wo] Cl. Who (!) that (2)] H. a.
[1079. ]Cp. bicom; Cl. by come.
[1080. ]All most; read moste.
[1084. ]H. hieghe; Cl. heigh.
[1086. ]Cp. H. lat; Cl. late.
[1092. ]H2. Ed. driueth; Cl. drieth; Cp. H. dryeth.
[549. ]Cl. ye do.
[554. ]Cl. passede.
[555. ]Cp. com; Cm. cam; rest come.
[556. ]his] Cl. a.
[562. ]Cp. com; rest come.
[563. ]Cl. saluacioun.
[564. ]Cl. ne hadde I routhe.
[567. ]Cp. H. Cm. Ed. herte; rest hert.
[570. ]Cl. puts was after depe.
[574. ]see] Cl. do. Cl. H. swone.
[576. ]Cl. dreuen.
[577. ]Cl. hath vs.
[588. ]Cp. H. houre; Cl. Cm. oure.
[589. ]Ed. H2. a ha; H. ha a; Cm. Cp. ha ha; Cl. om.
[590, 592, 593. ]Cl. del, wele, stel.
[595. ]Cm. Cp. Ed. wel; H2. wele; Cl. H. wole I.
[597. ]Cm. H2. Ed. Ye; rest And. Cl. Cp. H. H2. om. how.
[602. ]Cp. com; H2. cam; Ed. came; rest come.
[603. ]Cm. wex; H2. wax; Ed. woxe; rest was.
[611. ]Ed. Thascrye; Cm. The acry (sic); H2. In the skye (!); Cl. Cp. H. Ascry.
[612. ]MSS. cryede, cried, criedyn.
[615. ]H2. latis; rest yates.
[616. ]this] Cl. that.
[617. ]Cm. from; Ed. H2. fro; Cl. Cp. H. to.
[618. ]Cl. Gardanus; H2. Cardanus; Cm. dardannis; rest Dardanus. open] Cl. Cm. vp on.
[624. ]Cl. H. Thus. Cp. Ed. baye; Cm. bayȝe; rest bay.
[628. ]Cp. H. Cm. sighte; rest sight.
[636. ]weldy] Cm. worthi.
[642. ]Cl. thrilled.
[643. ]Cp. cryde; Cl. cryede.
[644. ]Cl. nexst.
[650. ]Cl. Ed. it so softe.
[651. ]Cl. seluen.
[658. ]for] Cl. Ed. forth.
[659. ]Cl. casten.
[662. ]Cl. om. his bef. shap.
[666. ]Read envýous.
[669. ]All syght (wrongly).
[670. ]thee] Cp. H. y-the.
[677. ]H2. ins. hert (error for herte) bef. for.
[681. ]Cl. senenethe.
[686. ]Cm. sonere; Ed. sooner; rest sonner.
[694. ]Cl. she yn thought gan to.
[696. ]Ed. don; H2. do; rest done.
[697, 8. ]Cl. folde, colde.
[700. ]Cp. H. Ed. tendite.
[701. ]Cl. thought; see l. 699.
[702. ]his] Cl. Cm. Ed. by.
[710. ]H. sighte; rest sight.
[713. ]H. No (for Now). wys] H2. a fole.
[718. ]Cl. drynklees; Cm. Cp. drynkeles.
[719. ]Cl. Ek for me sith I wot. Cl. al his; rest om. al.
[720. ]Cp. Cm. aughte; rest ought, aught.
[722. ]Cl. om. And. Cl. Cm. long.
[724. ]Cl. Ne auaunter; Ed. No vauntour; Cp. H. Nauauntour.
[725. ]vyce] Cl. nyse.
[726. ]Cl. cherishe; rest cherice.
[729. ]y-wis] Cl. wys.
[733. ]H. Ed. alway.
[734. ]wommen] Cl. a woman. Cl. H. Cp. al bysyde hire leue; Cm. þour al this town aboute; Ed. H2. al this towne aboute.
[736. ]Cl. Ed. H2. om. for.
[737. ]Cl. Cp. H. this ilke; rest om. ilke. Cl. thryftiest (also worthiest in l. 739, and best in l. 740).
[745. ]Cm. H2. no man; rest noon (none).
[746. ]Cm. Cp. H. fayreste; rest fairest.
[747. ]Cp. H. goodlieste; rest goodliest.
[752. ]Ed. H. vnteyd; Cp. vnteyde; Cm. onteyed; rest vntyd.
[753. ]Cl. H2. With-out.
[757. ]Cl. om. 2nd I.
[758. ]Cp. Ed. leste; rest lyst (liste).
[759. ]H. Cp. nought; rest not.
[763. ]Cp. alle; rest al.
[764. ]H. brighte; rest bright.
[765. ]H. Cm. March; rest Marche.
[766. ]All flight.
[772. ]H. Cm. putte; rest put.
[777. ]Cm. why; rest (except H2) weye (wey). H2. Ther lovith none with-out bothe care and peyn (wrongly).
[778. ]Cm. moste; Cl. meste.
[781. ]Cp. Cm. the; rest that.
[787. ]Cp. H. Ed. cessed; Cl. Cm. sesed.
[791. ]Cl. at the; rest om. the.
[792. ]Cp. H. y-knowen; Cl. knowe. Cm. H2. Ed. tyme may men rede and se.
[795. ]Cl. Cm. go; Cp. H. ago.
[797. ]All bycometh; see l. 795.
[800. ]Cl. Cp. H. dremen; rest demen (deme).
[801. ]Cl. H. om. that.
[804. ]Cp. H. Ed. stoppen; rest stoppe.
[804, 5. ]Cl. tungen (!), rungen. whyl] Cl. whanne.
[814, 9. ]Cl. gardeyn.
[819. ]Cm. folwede; Cl. folweden.
[820. ]yerd] Cl. gardeyn.
[821. ]Cl. shadwede (om. wel). Cl. bowes blosmy and grene.
[830. ]Cl. herte.
[833. ]Cp. H. alle; rest al; see 763. Cl. surete; H. Cm. H2. seurte.
[834. ]Cp. H2. Ye; rest The.
[838. ]Cl. om. that.
[840. ]Cp. H. leest; Cl. Ed. H2. lest.
[843. ]Of wit] Cl. With (!). Cl. H. secrenesse (!).
[844. ]lust] Cl. luf (!).
[845. ]Cl. Cm. al; rest alle.
[847. ]Cl. om. so.
[851. ]Cm. ryghte; rest right.
[860. ]Ed. H2. him; rest it; see 861.
[862, 4. ]H. righte, bryghte; rest right, bryght.
[863. ]Cl. Cp. feblesse; rest fieblenesse (febilnesse). All eyen (eighen).
[867. ]who] Cl. he (for ho).
[872. ]Cl. H2. is growen.
[876. ]Cl. stynte; H2. stynt.
[882. ]Cp. H. Cm. let; rest led.
[894. ]Cl. Cp. H. moste; Cm. miste; Ed. mote; H2. must. at] Cl. of.
[896. ]H2. axe; Ed. aske; Cl. H. Cp. axen; Cm. axith. Cl. ful (for foul).
[903. ]Cp. Cm. wex; Cl. was; rest wax.
[904. ]Cl. heighe; Cp. H. heye; rest eye; read yë.
[909. ]H. Cp. for tapere.
[910. ]Cl. om. al. in] Cm. H2. hom.
[916. ]Cl. alle.
[919. ]Under] Cl. Vp-on.
[923. ]Cl. Cm. Ed. herkened; Cp. H. herkned.
[924. ]Til] Cl. That.
[934. ]H. scarmich; H2. Ed. scarmysshe.
[936. ]yeden] Cm. ridyn.
[937. ]Cl. sought.
[938. ]Cp. H. Cm. laste; rest last.
[939. ]Ed. came; rest come.
[941. ]Cl. Cp. H2. slyng; H. sleynge (for slynge); Ed. slonge; Cm. slynging of.
[942. ]Cl. now an; rest om. now.
[943. ]Ed. Cm. om. so.
[945. ]H. Ed. answerde; Cl. answered.
[947. ]Cp. H. Ed. the; H2. her; rest om.
[950. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. om. that.
[953. ]Cl. vs; rest me.
[954. ]don] Cm. Ed. do on. Cl. H2. sped; rest spedde.
[955. ]Cl. om. And.
[956. ]Cp. H. Cm. Ed. shorte; rest short.
[959. ]lak] Cl. lat (!). Cl. om. thy.
[967. ]Cl. of the; rest om. the.
[968. ]Ed. stalkes; H2. stalkys; Cm. stalke; rest stalk.
[973. ]Cl. y-hered.
[974. ]Cp. H2. Pandare; rest Pandarus.
[976. ]Cl. bonden; Cm. woundis (!).
[979. ]Cl. myght; Cp. H. Cm. myghte.
[982. ]Cl. Whanne; nexst.
[983. ]Cl. ben y-dreuen.
[987. ]Cl. dishese.
[995. ]Cp. H. Cm. yit; rest yet.
[999. ]fare] Cl. do.
[1001. ]along] Cl. y-long.
[1002. ]Cl. om. wel.
[1003. ]as] Cl. a.
[1005. ]Cl. Cp. H. om. Right.
[1006. ]Cp. H. Ed. tellen; rest telle.
[1009. ]Cl. myn-. Cl. wil; Cp. H. wol; rest shal.
[1011. ]Cl. Cm. om. thou.
[1012. ]right] Cm. and that; Cl. om.
[1015. ]All strete.
[1016. ]H. leste; Cm. lyste; Cl. lyke; rest list.
[1017. ]make] Cp. H. Ed. make thou; H2. thow make.
[1022. ]Whan] Cl. Than.
[1023. ]Cl. that thow; rest om. that.
[1025. ]Cp. H. Ed. tough; Cl. towh; rest tow.
[1026. ]Cm. om. it.
[1030. ]Cm. Cp. Ed. beste; rest best.
[1031. ]H. Cm. Cp. Ed. beste; rest best. Cl. sounded.
[1033. ]H2. werble; Ed. warble; H. warbul; Cm. warbele.
[1035. ]Cp. H. maken; rest make.
[1037. ]Cm. iumpere; Ed. iombre.
[1039. ]of] Cl. vp.
[1043. ]nere] Cl. Ed. were.
[1044. ]H2. to; rest vn-to.
[1049. ]Cl. Cm. om. it.
[1051. ]H. Cm. answerde; Cl. answered. Cp H. leste; Cm. Ed. lest; rest lyst.
[1053. ]that lord] Cl. hym.
[1055. ]Cl. Cp. H. om. Right.
[1060. ]Cl. I pray; Cm. preye I; rest prey ich.
[1063. ]Cp. H. Cm. Yif; Cl. Yef.
[1064. ]Cp. H. sette; Cl. Ed. set; Cm. sat.
[1065. ]Cl. om. hir. Cm. ryghte; rest right.
[1066. ]Cl. lece.
[1068. ]Cl. alle these loueres.
[1071. ]Cp. H. muchel; Cl. muche.
[1072. ]Cl. H2. om. this. Cl. louely; Ed. H2. lowly; rest lowely.
[1077. ]Cp. H. leigh; H2. Ed. lyed.
[1079. ]Cl. wold (for sholde).
[1086. ]Cl. salty; Cp. Cm. Ed. salte; rest salt.
[1090. ]H. Cm. Cp. Ed. kiste; Cl. cussed.
[1093. ]Cl. Cm. Pandarus.
[1095. ]it] Cl. is (!).
[1097. ]Cp. Ed. H. sore; Cl. so.
[1107. ]Cp. H. Cm. hoppe; rest hope.
[1108. ]Cl. Ed. laughe; H. laugh; H2. lagh; Cm. law. H. breste; rest brest.
[1109. ]Ed. alway that ye; Cm. that ye alwey; rest om. that.
[1111. ]come] Cl. y-come.
[1112. ]Cl. griek; Cp. greek; rest greke.
[1113. ]Cm. H2. come I; Cl. I am come; Cp. H. Ed. I come. Cl. Cp. H. Ed. ins. newe after yow.
[1116. ]Cl. wente.
[1119. ]Cl. they spoke; H. Ed. he spake (read speke); Cp. he spak; Cm. H2. his wordis.
[1123. ]Cp. Ed. sente; rest sent. H2. to; rest om.
[1130. ]Ed. scripte.
[1131. ]swich] Cl. this.
[1137. ]Cm. H. seyn; Cl. sey.
[1145. ]Cm. H2. Ed. dethe; rest deth. smiten be] Cl. be smet.
[1148. ]Cl. H2. to; rest it (better).
[1149. ]Cp. H. neigh; Cl. nyh. Cp. Cm. alle; Cl. H. al.
[1154. ]Cl. hent.
[1155. ]H2. doun the lettre cast; perhaps read doun the lettre thraste.
[1156. ]Cl. or noon (for anoon).
[1157. ]Cl. gaueren; rest gauren.
[1159. ]Cl. Cm. om. him.
[1160. ]your] Cl. yow.
[1162. ]Cl. thanne wole.
[1172. ]Cl. som; rest some.
[1174. ]Cp. Ed. besynesses; rest besynesse.
[1181. ]Cl. Cp. H. om. him.
[1182. ]Cl. H. H2. om. that.
[1186. ]Cl. wyndowe nexst.
[1188. ]Cl. aforn-yeyn; Cp. aforȝeyn; Ed. aforyene; II. aforyeynes; H2. aforyens; Cm. aforn.
[1193. ]vn-to] Cl. Cm. to.
[1194. ]Cl. Cp. H. weren. Cl. H2. om. alle.
[1198. ]Cl. Cm. om. tho. Cp. H. Cm. wex; Cl. wax.
[1202. ]Cl. honde. Cm. fel; H2. fil; rest sat.
[1214. ]Cl. wrote; ony.
[1215. ]in-to] H2. in.
[1217. ]Cm. disdainys; Ed. disdaynes; Cp. desdaynes; Cl. H. disdayns; H2. disdeynous.
[1223. ]Cl. wolde. Ed. Cp. seluen; H. selfen; rest self.
[1225. ]Cp. fayn; Cl. H. fayne; Cm. ay fayn. Cm. om. to.
[1227. ]Cp. Ed. in-to; Cl. in-to a; rest in-to the.
[1229. ]Cp. quysshyn; Cm. quysschyn; H. Ed. quysshen; Cl. quysshon; H2. ousshyn.
[1238. ]All impressions.
[1245. ]Cp. H. y-doon; Ed. ydone; rest don.
[1247. ]they] Cl. he.
[1250. ]Cl. softly: thederwardes.
[1252. ]Cl. paylays; H. payleysse; rest paleys. Ed. H2. Pandare; rest Pandarus.
[1254. ]Cp. seeth; H. seth; Ed. sethe; Cl. seyth; Cm. sey.
[1256. ]Cp. H. Cm. wex; Cl. wax. Cl. as the rose; rest om. the.
[1260. ]Cl. om. he.
[1270. ]Cl. a routhe; rest om. a.
[1273. ]Cp. Cm. nexte; Cl. nexst.
[1278. ]Cl. H. Telle; rest Tel.
[1284. ]Cp. Ed. H. yonde; Cl. H2. yend; Cm. yondir. Cl. ritt; Cp. Cm. rit; Ed. rydeth; H. ride. Cl. om. ye.
[1298. ]Cp. H. Ed. holden; rest holde (hold).
[1309. ]Ed. lo; rest om.
[1313. ]Cl. Cp. ryse; Ed. vp ryse; rest aryse.
[1317. ]Cl. Cp. thorugh.
[1320. ]H2. and se thes lettres blake.
[1323. ]yave] Cl. yaf; Cm. yeue.
[1329. ]H. Cp. Ed. biheste; rest byhest.
[1332. ]Ed. Through; Cl. Cp. Thorugh; H. Thorw; H2. The. or] Cl. and.
[1336. ]Cl. Cp. H. thorugh.
[1347. ]Ed. dyce.
[1349. ]Cl. gistes; H2. gyltes; Cp. gostes; rest gestes.
[1350. ]And] Cp. H. H2. As.
[1352. ]Cl. Cm. Pandarus; rest Pandare.
[1354. ]Cl. Cm. red.
[1355. ]Cp. H. woode; Cm. Ed. wode; Cl. wod; H2. wood.
[1360. ]Cl. dishese.
[1368. ]Cp. H. Ed. om. that.
[1374. ]Ed. her don. Cm. H2. Ed. for to; Cl. H. om. for.
[1379. ]What] Cl. That.
[1383. ]Cl. Cp. H. Cm. ins. to bef. come. come] Cm. falle; H2. than fal.
[1384. ]doon] Cl. doth. Cp. H. Ed. milne; Cm. melle; Cl. H2. myl.
[1387. ]Cp. reed; Cl. H. ried.
[1388. ]Cl. wold.
[1394. ]H. Ed. tel; Cl. telle. Cp. H. Ed. lest; Cl. lyste; rest lyst.
[1401. ]Cp. lat malone.
[1409. ]Cl. to-forn.
[1413. ]nas] Cl. na.
[1418. ]doon] Cl. do.
[1423. ]thus] Cl. so.
[1427. ]spore] H. H2. Cm. spere.
[1428. ]Cp. Cm. roughte; rest rought (roght).
[1429. ]Cl. H. Cm. telle.
[1436. ]Cl. Cp. H. yow as; rest om. yow.
[1452. ]and eek] Cl. ek and.
[1460. ]gan to] Cl. wolde he.
[1465. ]Cl. om. myn.
[1466. ]Cl. H2. put me before the.
[1467. ]Cl. H. om. ye. H2. that; rest om.
[1473. ]Cp. H. ne wolde; Cm. yit wolde; rest wolde.
[1482. ]Cp. Ed. maked; H. makes (for maked); rest made (mad).
[1484. ]Ed. H2. so that; Cl. Cp. H. that so; Cm. so euere.
[1489. ]nolde] Cl. H. wolde.
[1490. ]goodly] Cl. good.
[1504. ]thou] Cl. yow. Ed. H2. a; rest om.
[1509. ]Yet] Cl. That.
[1513. ]Cm. Ed. belyue; H2. as blyue; rest blyue.
[1517. ]Cm. Ed. Sone; Cl. So; Cp. H. And.
[1526. ]Cp. H. Ed. fully ther; H2. fully the; Cl. there fully; Cm. the fulli.
[1527. ]thou] Cl. Cm. H2. now.
[1532. ]Cl. H. Cm. om. the.
[1536. ]Cl. om. al.
[1554. ]wood man] Cl. womman.
[1556. ]Cp. meel-tide; Ed. mealtyde; Cl. meltid; H. meelited (!); Cm. mele.
[1557. ]Shoop] Cl. H. Shapt; Cp. Shapte.
[1558. ]Cl. nold not; H2. wold not; rest nolde.
[1559. ]sooth] Cl. for.
[1561. ]Cp. Ed. Cm. al what; Cl. H. what al.
[1582. ]Cp. H. Cm. thoughte; rest thought. coude] Cl. cowede
[1585. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. om. up.
[1588. ]they] Cl. he.
[1591. ]Cl. om. for.
[1594. ]don] H2. to; Cl. om.
[1595. ]lest] Cl. Cp. H. lyst.
[1596. ]H. glosses For for by quia propter.
[1598. ]arisen] Cl. aryse; H2. thei risyn.
[1602. ]H2. If it; rest om. it.
[1604. ]Cl. H. Ed. whiche.
[1605. ]Took] Cl. To (!).
[1607. ]Cm. H2. Iouis.
[1611. ]thou] Cl. yow; H. how.
[1615. ]Cl. Cm. om. out.
[1618. ]Answerde] Cl. Answere.
[1621. ]it] Cl. he.
[1628. ]Cl. om. me.
[1629. ]thinketh] Cl. thenketh. H. sith; rest sith that.
[1635. ]Cl. om. do. Cp. H. H2. wyte; Cl. Ed. wete.
[1638. ]thy] Cl. the.
[1647. ]Cl. lightly may.
[1648, 1652. ]loketh] Cl. loke.
[1649. ]Cl. H. om. him.
[1650. ]Cl. dishesen.
[1652. ]Cp. H. Ed. knowen; Cl. Cm. knoweth.
[1659. ]H. muchel; Cl. mechel.
[1661. ]him] Cl. he.
[1662. ]toucheth] Cl. toucher (!).
[1665, 6. ]Cp. H. entente, wente; rest entent, went.
[1667. ]Cl. goode softly.
[1670. ]Cl. fare.
[1673. ]Cp. H. H2. Ed. to; rest om.
[1674. ]Cp. Ed. biseke; H. bisike; rest byseche.
[1680. ]than] Cl. that.
[1686. ]Cl. Cm. susteyne.
[1687. ]Ed. Now good thrift.
[1690. ]Cm. H2. Or; rest O. Cl. Cm. for-bede; rest forbede it. Cl. H2. om. tho.
[1691. ]Cp. H. sauf; Cl. Cm. saf.
[1697. ]Cl. tretes.
[1703. ]Cl. Cm. dede.
[1708. ]Cp. H. Ed. gonne; Cl. gon; Cm. gan. Cl. rede.
[1719. ]Cl. humbely; Cp. H. humblely; Cm. vmbely; rest humbly.
[1722. ]his—bireve] Cl. of his reste hym reue.
[1723. ]Cl. Incocent (!).
[1730. ]Cl. Avise.
[1734. ]Cl. by halue; Cm. halue; rest half. Cl. vs alle sowle; H2. vs soule hath; Cp. Cm. Ed. soule us alle; H. same (for soule) vs al.
[1739. ]Cl. Thenk that; rest om. that.
[1741. ]Cl. Secundelich; Cm. Secundeli; Cp. Secoundely; H. Secoundly; rest Secondly.
[1746. ]Cl. wolden; Cm. woldyn.
[1749. ]Ed. H2. Lest; rest Las (!). Ed. H2. be lost; Cp. I loste; rest I lost.
[1752. ]H2. kankerdorte; rest kankedort, cankedort.
[1757. ]Cl. Cm. I; rest he.
[573. ]Cl. hem; rest him.
[576. ]Cl. Cp. H2. whan that; rest om. that.
[578. ]Cl. ther; rest ther-of.
[579. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. with-outen. Cl. a-wayte.
[584. ]H. goosish; Cp. goosissh; H2. gosisshe; Cl. gosylyche; Ed. gofysshe (!). Cl. peple; H. peples; Cm. puples; Cp. poeples; Ed. peoples.
[587. ]Cm. mot; rest most (must).
[589. ]Cl. om. hir.
[595. ]Cl. vn to the; rest to.
[601. ]Cl. Cp. stuwe.
[602. ]Cl. om. in.
[603. ]Cl. H. Wnwist
[608. ]Cl. hym; rest hem.
[612. ]Cl. auyse; rest deuyse.
[613. ]Cl. like; Cp. H. Cm. liken. Cl. laughen that here.
[614. ]Cp. Cm. Ed. tolde; Cl. H. told. Cl. tales; Ed. a tale; H2. the tale; rest tale.
[616. ]Cl. she wolde; rest om. she.
[617. ]H2. werdis; Cl. Cp. Ed. wyerdes; H. wierdes; Cm. wordis (!).
[619. ]Cm. H2. herdis; rest hierdes.
[621. ]Cl. om. now.
[630. ]it] Cl. a.
[632. ]Cl. om. I.
[636. ]Cl. be. nought a-] Cl. for no.
[637. ]Cl. om. as.
[640. ]ron] Ed. rayned. H2. flood; Cl. H. Cm. flode.
[642. ]Cl. om. it.
[645. ]dere] Cl. drede.
[648. ]a] Cm. on.
[664. ]Cp. outer; H. outter; Cl. other; Ed. vtter; Cm. vttir.
[674. ]Cl. Cp. H. The voyde; Cm. They voydyn; Ed. They voyde; H2. They voydid &.
[676. ]Cl. that; H2. om.; rest the.
[684. ]Cl. in; rest at.
[690. ]Cp. Ed. skippen; H. skipen; Cm. schepe; H2. skipe; Cl. speken. traunce] Ed. praunce.
[696. ]Cl. Cp. sey; H. seye; Cm. woste; H2. wist; Ed. sawe. Cl. Ed. H2. al.
[697. ]Cl. om. up-.
[704. ]Cl. om. For.
[711. ]Cp. H. gruwel; Cl. Cm. growel; Ed. gruell.
[715. ]Cl. An; Cp. As; rest And.
[717. ]Cl. combest; Cm. H2. cumbrid; Cp. H. Ed. combust. Cl. om. in.
[722. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. om. O.
[725. ]Cl. Cp. H. Cipres; Cm. Cipris; Ed. Cipria; H2. Ciphis.
[726. ]Ed. Daphne.
[727. ]Cm. wex; Cl. Cp. H. wax.
[729. ]Cl. Cp. H. hierse; H2. hyerce; Cm. hirie; Ed. her (!).
[729, 731. ]Cl. ek, by-sek; H. eke, bi-seke.
[735. ]Cl. help; rest helpeth.
[737. ]Cl. a-garst (!).
[738. ]Cp. H. don; Cm. do; rest do on. Cl. a-boue; rest up-on.
[739. ]Cl. folewe; Cp. Cm. folwe; H. Ed. folowe.
[745. ]Cp. H. Ed. layen; Cl. lay.
[753. ]Cl. Cm. haveth.
[756. ]H. rise; Cl. rysen.
[758. ]Cm. H2. thus; rest om. hem] Cl. vs.
[761. ]H2. Ey; Ed. Eygh; rest I.
[762. ]Cl. Quod tho; rest om. tho.
[763. ]Cl. om. er.
[770. ]com] Cl. cam.
[775. ]Cm. houe; H2. howe.
[776. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. this mene while; Cm. H2. om. mene.
[777. ]Cl. om. 2nd a.
[780. ]Cl. that; Cp. Cm. H. Ed. al.
[791. ]shal] H2. ow; Ed. owe.
[795. ]Cl. Ed. H2. is this.
[797. ]Cp. H. Cm. scholden louen oon; Cl. louen sholde on. hatte] Ed. hight.
[799. ]Cl. alle these thynges herde.
[801. ]she] Cl. H2. ful. Cl. answerede.
[802. ]Cl. tolle (!).
[804. ]Cl. conseytes.
[809. ]Cl. more (for morwe). and] Cl. yf.
[810. ]Cl. fully excuse.
[811. ]him] Cl. he.
[813. ]Cl. om. god.
[818. ]Cl. Ed. either; H. oyther (for eyther); Cl. Cm. other. Cl. nough.
[823. ]Cl. Other he; rest Or.
[826. ]derknesse] H. distresse.
[829. ]Cl. om. that.
[833. ]ful] Cl. but.
[834. ]Cl. Cm. manere.
[839. ]Cl. H. mad Troylus to me; H2. thus Troylus me made; Cm. Ed. Cp. Troylus mad to me.
[842. ]him] Cl. yow.
[843. ]Cl. myn; Cp. H. my.
[847. ]Ed. I (for for I). H. Ed. for the beste.
[850. ]Ed. H2. om. a.
[854. ]H. abedes; Cm. abydis.
[857. ]Cp. H. Ed. Wel; rest om. Cl. H2. to rescowe; rest om. to.
[859. ]Cm. H2. How is; rest om. is (here). H2. y-falle; Cm. falle; rest is falle.
[861. ]H2. feldyfare; Cl. feld-fare; rest feldefare.
[862. ]Cp. H. Ed. ne; rest om. Cl. gref.
[869. ]I] Cl. ye.
[870. ]Ye] Cl. I.
[880. ]Cl. malis.
[887. ]more] Cl. H2. bettre.
[889. ]Cl. ben sene; Cp. H. Cm. be sene; H2. be seyn; Ed. he sene.
[892. ]dede men] Cl. a dede man.
[893. ]trowe I] Cl. I trowe.
[898. ]Cl. stenteth; rest stynteth.
[900. ]Cp. Ed. Cm. nolde; H. nold; Cl. nold not. Cp. H. setten; Cl. Cm. sette.
[909. ]Cl. To; rest So. H. spek; rest speke.
[912. ]Cm. om. is. H. teuery (for to euery).
[917. ]Cl. at; H2. am; Cm. H. Ed. al; Cp. om.
[928. ]to] Cl. Cp. H. Ed. for to.
[931. ]Cl. H. A; rest At.
[935. ]or] Cl. Cm. H2. and. Cl. tacches.
[936. ]Cp. Ed. This is seyd. Cl. hym; rest hem. Cl. is; rest be (ben, beth).
[947. ]Cl. That; H2. That good; rest Ther good.
[954. ]Cl. Cm. Cp. H2. hede; Ed. heed; H. hed.
[956. ]Cl. -lych; H. -lyche.
[964. ]Cl. quysshon; Cm. qwischin; H2. cusshyn.
[965. ]Cp. Ed. leste; rest lyste, lyst.
[968. ]Cl. put; Cp. H. putte.
[970. ]H2. dewte; Cp. dewete.
[975. ]Cl. H2. now gode; rest om. now.
[976. ]Cl. om. al.
[978. ]Cl. fyre; Ed. fiere: rest fere.
[980. ]Cl. loken.
[990. ]Cl. goudly; Cp. H. goodly. Cl. Cp. make; H. Cm. Ed. maken.
[994. ]for] Cl. first; Cm. H2. om.
[995. ]H2. found; rest founden. Cp. ȝit; Cm. yite; rest yet.
[999. ]Cl. emforthe; Cp. H. Ed. emforth.
[1002. ]Cl. H2. dredles.
[1004. ]Cl. H2. yow not.
[1005. ]your] Cl. H2. yow.
[1009. ]Cl. loue (for myn, as a correction).
[1014. ]Cl. refuyt; Cp. H. Cm. refut; Ed. refute.
[1015. ]Cl. ins. him bef. arace. arace] Cl. Ed. race.
[1017. ]Ed. dignyte (for deitee).
[1020. ]for to] Cl. that I. on] Cl. Ed. of.
[1022. ]up-on] Cl. on.
[1029. ]Cl. Cm. to bere; rest om. to.
[1032. ]Cl. And whanne.
[1033. ]Cp. H. piete; rest pite.
[1043. ]Cl. dishese.
[1046. ]Cp. H. Ed. list; Cl. lyste. Cm. ordel.
[1047. ]Cl. lyste; Cp. H. Ed. leste.
[1055. ]Cl. in-to the bed down; rest doun in the bed.
[1056. ]Cl. wreygh; Cp. H. wreigh; Cm. wrigh; Ed. wrighe.
[1060. ]Cl. om. a.
[1066. ]Cm. Ed. liste; rest lyst (list, lest).
[1067. ]Cl. om. a.
[1074. ]in] Cl. vn.
[1075. ]that] Cl. the.
[1087. ]Cl. eighen; Cp. H. Ed. eyen.
[1094. ]Cl. H2. For; rest But. Ed. hushte.
[1096. ]Cl. Buth; Cp. H. Ed. Beth.
[1097. ]Cl. he him in-to bedde.
[1104. ]Cp. Ed. Cm. pullen; Cl. H. pulle.
[1113. ]Cl. no; Cm. not; Cp. H. nought.
[1116. ]to] Cl. for.
[1121. ]Cl. bet gan; rest gan bet.
[1129. ]Cp. Ed. keste; Cl. Cm. kyste.
[1131. ]Cp. H. herte; rest hertes.
[1132. ]Cp. H. Ed. leste; Cl. lyste.
[1137. ]All eyen (eyȝen).
[1141. ]Cl. Cp. chimeney; H. Cm. chimeneye.
[1143. ]H. Ed. list; Cl. lyste.
[1144. ]Cp. Cm. thoughte; Cl. H. thought.
[1163. ]Cp. Ed. andswerde; H. answarde; Cl. answered.
[1168. ]Cp. H. Ed. Ialous; Cm. Ielous; Cl. Ialousye.
[1169. ]Cl. om. it.
[1177. ]Cp. H. answerde; Cl. answered.
[1192. ]Cl. Cp. Cm. it; rest him. Cp. H. foot; Cl. fote.
[1193. ]Cp. H. thise; Cm. these; Cl. this.
[1194. ]Cp. H. sucre; Cm. seukere; H2. Ed. sugre; Cl. sour. Cp. H. soot; Cl. sot; Cm. H2. sote; Ed. soote.
[1195. ]Cl. mot.
[1200. ]Ed. aspen; H2. auspen.
[1201. ]Cl. om. his.
[1203. ]Cl. om. tho.
[1206. ]Cm. Ed. mote; rest mot.
[1208. ]H. boot; Cl. Cp. Cm. bote.
[1209. ]Cp. H. Cm. answerde; Cl. answered.
[1211. ]Cl. yolden.
[1218. ]hath] Cl. is.
[1219. ]Cl. the more; rest om. the.
[1222. ]Cl. sith that; rest om. that.
[1225. ]Cp. comth; Cl. come.
[1227. ]Cl. Iust.
[1229. ]Cl. entent; H. entente.
[1231. ]Cl. Cm. wrythe; Cp. H. Ed. writhe; H2. writhen is (read wryth or writh).
[1234. ]Cl. gynneth to; Cp. bygynneth to; rest begynneth.
[1236. ]Cl. ony.
[1238. ]Cl. Criseyd. Cl. stynte; Cp. H. stente.
[1240. ]y-] Cl. is.
[1241. ]Cl. out; gysse.
[1244. ]Cl. alle; word.
[1247. ]Cl. streyght; Cp. streghte.
[1248. ]Cl. fleysshly.
[1251. ]Cl. om. heuene and to.
[1258. ]Cl. the; rest that (after next).
[1261. ]Cl. Cm. Benyngne; Cp. H. Benigne.
[1264. ]Cl. nodestow (!).
[1266. ]Cl. seye; Cp. H. Cm. seyn.
[1268. ]H2. coude leest; Cm. couthe lest; Cp. H. leest koude; Cl. lest kowde.
[1269. ]Cl. be; Cp. H. Cm. ben. Cl. to; Cp. H. Cm. vn-to.
[1272. ]Cp. H. H2. pace; Cl. passe.
[1276. ]Cl. dishese.
[1285. ]Cp. H. Cm. benignite; Cl. benyngnite.
[1286. ]Cm. thynkith; Cl. thenk; Cp. H. thynk that.
[1288. ]Cl. seruyce.
[1290. ]Cl. for that; rest om. that.
[1291. ]Cl. Cm. Cp. stere; H. Ed. fere (feere).
[1294. ]Cl. om. that I; Cm. Cp. om. I.
[1296. ]Cl. But; rest For.
[1298. ]H. Cp. Ed. fynden; Cl. Cm. fynde. Cl. lyfe.
[1299. ]Cp. H. Ny (for Ne I). Cm. Ed. H2. not; Cl. Cp. H. om.
[1302. ]Cl. to; rest un-to.
[1314. ]Cl. om. thise.
[1315. ]Cm. be-twixe; Cl. be-twexen; H. bitweyne. Cl. Cm. dred; rest drede (read dreed).
[1318. ]Cl. om. two.
[1321. ]Cl. daunder (!).
[1322. ]Cl. blyssyd; rest blisse (blis).
[1324. ]Cp. Ed. tellen; Cm. tellyn; H. talen; Cl. telle.
[1326. ]Cm. (2nd) I; Cl. Cp. H. and; Ed. om.
[1339. ]Cp. H. Cm. Ed. a-sonder; Cl. a-sondry. Cp. H. Cm. Ed. gon; Cl. go ne (!) Cl. om. it.
[1340. ]Cm. H2. wende; Cp. Cl. H. wenden.
[1341. ]Cm. Ed. Cp. H2. moste; Cl. H. most.
[1342. ]Cl. nere (for were).
[1345. ]And] Cl. A. goodly] Cl. gladly.
[1346. ]H. Cm. blynte; Cp. Ed. bleynte; Cl. blente.
[1352. ]Cl. eighen; Cp. H. Ed. eyen.
[1356. ]Cl. wreten; Cp. H. writen.
[1361. ]H. swiche; H2. Ed. suche; Cl. swich.
[1362. ]Cl. whanne; Cm. whan; Cp. H. when.
[1365. ]H. bilynne; rest blynne.
[1370. ]Cl. of; rest and.
[1373. ]Cl. Cp. H. or a; Cm. a; rest om.
[1375. ]tho] Cl. the. Cl. Ed. pens; Cp. H. Cm. pans. Cp. H. mokre; H2. moker; Cm. mokere; Cl. moke. Cl. Ed. kecche; Cm. crache (!). Cp. tecche (!); H2. teche (!); H. theche (!).
[1385. ]Cp. H. Ed. lyue; Cl. leue.
[1387. ]tho] Cl. that.
[1388. ]Cl. eerys.
[1390. ]Cl. drenken.
[1394. ]Cp. H. Thise; Cl. This.
[1396. ]Cp. H. speken; Cl. speke.
[1398. ]hem] Cl. hym.
[1400. ]to] H. Cm. in-to.
[1401. ]Cp. H. Cm. mo; rest more. Cp. H. fel; Cl. fille.
[1403. ]Cp. H. Cm. al; Cl. alle.
[1405. ]Cl. dede; Cm. dedyn; Ed. dydden; rest diden.
[1407. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. -peyse; rest -pese.
[1408. ]Cl. shep (!); H. slep; rest slepe.
[1409. ]Cl. nough (!)
[1410. ]H. Cm. kep; rest kepe.
[1414. ]Cl. Cp. gentilesse; rest gentilnesse.
[1415. ]Cl. whanne; Cp. Cm. whan; H. when.
[1416. ]Cl. to crowe; rest om. to.
[1418. ]Cm. hese (= his); rest here (hire). Cl. bemys throw.
[1419. ]Cl. Cm. after-; rest est-.
[1420. ]than] All that.
[1424. ]Cl. Cm des-; rest dis-.
[1425. ]Cp. H. hennes; Cm. henys; Cl. hens to.
[1426. ]Cl. ellys.
[1428. ]Ed. Alcmena.
[1435. ]Cl. Cm. flest; Cp. H. H2. fleest.
[1442. ]Cl. hastely.
[1444. ]H. piteous; Cp. pietous; rest pitous.
[1450. ]Cl. crueel.
[1453. ]Cp. H2. yen; rest eyen.
[1454. ]Cm. espyen.
[1457. ]Cl. Cm. these; Cp. H2. thise.
[1459. ]Cl. shent; rest slayn.
[1460. ]Cm. Ed. let; Cl. late; rest lat (read lete).
[1462. ]Cl. Cp. selys.
[1464. ]Cl. he to; rest om. to.
[1465. ]Cp. H. fool; Cl. Cm. fol.
[1466. ]Cl. Cp. Cm. dawyng; rest dawnyng.
[1471. ]H. Cp. sighte; Cl. sight; Ed. syghed.
[1476. ]H. my lyf an oure; Cp. Ed. my lyf an houre; Cl. an hour my lyf.
[1482. ]Cl. brenneth; H. bitleth (!); Cp. biteth; Ed. byteth; rest streyneth.
[1486. ]Cm. H2. Yit; rest om. Cp. H. wiste; Cl. wist.
[1490. ]Cl. Cm. wordes; rest worldes.
[1491. ]Cp. H. Cm. Ed. enduren; Cl. endure.
[1492. ]Cp. H. answerde; Cl. answered.
[1498. ]Cl. Troles (!).
[1506. ]Cl. An.
[1516. ]H. Cp. ayein; Cl. a-yen.
[1525. ]Cl. myn herte and dere swete.
[1526. ]Cp. H. sownde; Cl. sound.
[1527. ]Cp. H. Cm. answerde; Cl. answerede.
[1535. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. bedde; rest bed.
[1536. ]Cl. woned.
[1542. ]Cl. Hise; rest Hire (Her).
[1543. ]Cl. hire; rest his.
[1546. ]Cl. new; Cp. H. Cm. newe.
[1554. ]Cp. dorste; Cl. H. dorst.
[1558. ]Cl. ye my; rest om. my.
[1559. ]slepe] Cl. shepe (!).
[1562. ]Cp. H. com; Cl. Cm. come.
[1563. ]Cl. H. murye; Cm. merie.
[1564. ]Cp. H. answerde; Cl. Cm. answerede. Cl. om. for.
[1566. ]Cp. H. caused; Cl. causes.
[1568. ]Cl. Cm. om. O.
[1570. ]H. Cm. wex; Cl. Cp. wax.
[1573. ]Cl. Here hane. Ed. smyteth; Cp. smyten; rest smyte.
[1575. ]Cl. keste.
[1577. ]and] Cl. an.
[1578. ]to] Cl. for to
[1579. ]Cl. H2. but; rest than.
[1583. ]H. Cp. ayeyn; Cl. a-yen.
[1587. ]Cl. come.
[1592. ]Cm. kneis; Cp. H. knowes.
[1593. ]Cl. out of; rest om. out.
[1595. ]he] Cl. Cm. and. Cl. H. Cm. blysse; rest blesse.
[1600. ]Cp. Cm. flegetoun; Ed. Phlegeton. Cl. Cp. H. Cm. fery; H2. firy; Ed. fyrie.
[1603. ]Cm. myghte; Cl. might. Cm. Ed. mote; Cp. H. moote; Cl. mot.
[1608. ]Cp. H. hires; Cl. heres.
[1609. ]Cp. heighe; Cm. hye; Cl. H. heigh.
[1611. ]Cp. y-ȝiue; Cl. y-yeue.
[1613. ]Cl. Cm. leue; rest lyue.
[1619, 1621, 1622. ]Cl. Cp. lief, grief, mischief; Cm. lef, gref, myschef; H2. leef, greef, mischeef.
[1621. ]now] Cl. it.
[1622. ]Cl. of of (!); rest of this.
[1627. ]Cl. H2. be; rest ben.
[1629. ]Cp. H. Thart. Cl. ynowh.
[1634. ]Cl. kep; rest kepe.
[1642. ]Cp. H. Ny.
[1644. ]Cm. wistist thou; Ed. wystest thou; Cp. wystestow; Cl. H. wistow.
[1655. ]than] Cl. er.
[1656. ]H. answerde; Cl. answerede.
[1657. ]Cl. Cm. onys.
[1659. ]Cp. H. Cm. herde; Cl. herd.
[1662. ]H. Cp. preysen; Cl. preyse.
[1663. ]Cp. Cm. righte; Cl. H. right.
[1664. ]chere] Cl. clere.
[1671. ]Cp. Cm. felte; Cl. H. felt.
[1675. ]Cm. H2. ek; rest om.
[1677. ]Cp. H. theffect.
[1679. ]Al brought. Cl. Cp. H. H2. whan that; Cm. Ed. om. that.
[1680. ]Cl. om. thus.
[1687. ]Cl. complende (!); Cp. comprende; rest comprehende.
[1693. ]H. wryten; H2. writyn; Cl. y-wrete.
[1694. ]Cl. by-thenke; rest by-thynke.
[1696. ]signes] Cl. synes.
[1700. ]traytour] Cl. traytous.
[1702. ]Cl. Cp. H. om. allas.
[1703. ]H2. Pirous; Ed. Pyrous; H. Pirors; Cl. Cp. Cm. Piros.
[1704. ]Ed. Whiche; rest Which.
[1708. ]him] Cl. here; Cp. H. hire. Cl. sacrifice.
[1711. ]Cl. woned; Cp. H2. Ed. wont; H. wonte; Cm. wone.
[1713. ]Cp. Cm. wroughte; Cl. H. wrought.
[1718. ]Cl. H. festeynynges; Cp. H2. festynges; Cm. festyngys; (read festeyinges).
[1720. ]aboute him] Cl. hym aboute.
[1722. ]H. fresshiste; Cl. fresshest.
[1723. ]Cl. om. 2nd a. stevene] H. neuene.
[1725. ]Cl. rong vp into.
[1731. ]Cl. ony.
[1734. ]Cl. y-maked (!).
[1738. ]Cp. H. Cm. Ed. gardyn; Cl. gardeyn.
[1745. ]Cl. heste.
[1747. ]Cl. hem lyst hym (wrongly).
[1748. ]Cl. Cp. knetteth; H. knettheth; Ed. knytteth; H2. kennyth; Cm. endytyth. Cl. Cm. of; H. Cp. Ed. and; H2. om.
[1753. ]Cl. elementes; Cp. H. elementz.
[1755. ]Cp. H2. Ed. mote; Cl. H. mot; Cm. may.
[1759. ]Cl. Constreyne.
[1760. ]Cl. om. so. Cp. H. Ed. fiersly; Cm. fersely; H2. fersly; Cl. freshly.
[1762. ]Cp. H. lete; Cl. late; Cm. let; Ed. lette.
[1767. ]H. Cp. cerclen; Cm. serkelyn; Cl. cerchen; Ed. serchen; H2. cherysson.
[1768. ]Cp. H. wey; Cl. weye.
[1769. ]twiste] Cl. it wyste.
[1770. ]Cl. lest; Cp. H. liste.
[1771. ]Cl. kep.
[1774. ]Cl. certaynly.
[1776. ]Cl. H. Cm. encres; Ed. encrease.
[1779. ]Cl. om. he.
[1780. ]Cp. boor; Cm. bor; rest bore.
[1784. ]Cl. H2. cometh; rest comen.
[1787. ]Cl. Cp. H. alle; rest al.
[1794. ]Cl. heyghe; Cp. H. heigh.
[1797. ]Cm. vnkouth; Cl. vnkow; Cp. vnkoude; rest vnkouthe.
[1800. ]Cm. real.
[1801. ]Cl. Lyst hym; Cp. H. Him liste.
[1804. ]Cp. Cm. wolde; Cl. H. wold.
[1805. ]Cp. H. Ed. pride and Ire enuye.
[1810. ]In] Cl. I. Cp. H. tabide.
[1815. ]Cl. seruyce.
[1816. ]Cl. dishese.
[1818. ]wyse] Cl. wys.
[530. ]Cl. H2. To; rest Go.
[531. ]H. outher; Cl. Cm. other; H2. either.
[535. ]Cl. H2. be; rest ben.
[539. ]Cm. beleuyn.
[540. ]Cl. answerede.
[544. ]Cl. om. this.
[548. ]by] Cl. my.
[556. ]Cl. Thanne.
[564. ]Cp. mooste; Cl. most.
[566. ]Cl. Cp. H. nold; rest nolde.
[582. ]Cl. answerede.
[583 ]Cl. for; rest so.
[586. ]Cl. H. nold; Cm. nylde; rest nolde.
[591. ]Cp. H. Ed. seluen; rest self.
[592. ]Cl. Cp. namly.
[594. ]Cp. H. lite; Cl. Ed. Cm. litel.
[596. ]Cp. H. Ed. vn-to; Cl. to.
[599. ]H2. lete; Cm. letyn; Cp. H. laten; Cl. late. H2. to; Cm. in-to (om. thus); rest vn-to.
[601. ]man] Cm. men.
[607. ]Cl. Cp. H. of; rest for. Cl. Cp. H. fered; Cm. ferd; Ed. feare; H2. drede.
[612. ]Cl. loue.
[614. ]Ed. H2. Though; Cp. H. Theigh; Cl. They; Cm. That.
[615. ]thee] Cl. yow.
[619. ]Cl. Kygh (!); Ed. Kythe; Cp. Cm. Kith.
[624. ]dede] Cl. nede.
[625. ]Cl. H. Cp. Theygh; Ed. Though. Cl. stonde.
[630. ]H. H2. it; rest om.
[631. ]Cl. to quiken.
[636. ]Cl. short.
[637. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. rauysshen.
[639. ]Cl. thanne. wel] Cp. H. wil.
[640. ]Cl. answered.
[642. ]H. Ed. yuel; Cp. yuele; Cl. Cm. euele.
[643. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. rauysshen.
[652. ]Cl. shappe; om. that.
[662. ]Cp. H. Ed. al; Cl. of; Cm. om.
[667. ]Cl. om. which.
[671. ]Cp. thise; Cm. Ed. these; Cl. H. this. Cp. H. Cm. sothe; Cl. soth.
[675. ]this] Cl. the. mighte] Cl. koude.
[679. ]Cl. om. So.
[682. ]Cp. H. com; rest come.
[684. ]Cl. ynowh.
[688. ]Cl. that ye shal; Cm. ye schal; rest om. ye.
[689. ]seyde] Cl. answered. nam] Cl. Cm. Ed. am.
[691. ]Cp. H. Ed. tho; rest om.
[692. ]Cp. bryngen; Cm. bryngyn; Cl. H. brynge.
[693. ]Cl. whanne.
[694. ]Cl. wodes (!); wommannyssh.
[695. ]Cp. thennes; H. tennes (!); Cl. thens.
[699. ]Cl. herte; rest soule.
[701. ]Cp. H. Thise; Cl. This. Cl. om. thus.
[703. ]Cl. hem; Ed. her; rest hire.
[707. ]So all (except their for that in H2.).
[708. ]Ed. H2. might she no lenger; Cm. myghte sche no lenger to.
[709. ]Ed. H2. they gan so; Cm. so gunne thei; (read so they gonnen).
[710. ]Cm. yeuyn; Ed. gaue. Cm. the; rest her.
[713. ]Cm. sithe; H2. sythe; Ed. sens. Cm. forgoth; Ed. forgo; H2. forgeten.
[716. ]Cp. H. Wenden; rest Wende.
[717. ]Cl. om. she.
[720. ]Cl. Seygh; H. Cp. Seigh; Cm. Saw.
[722. ]Cl. comforten; H. Cm. conforten.
[731. ]Ed. soroufull; Cl. H. sorwful.
[741. ]Cl. om. 2nd hir.
[750. ]Cm. The salte teris from hyre eyȝyn tweyn.
[751. ]Doun fille] Cm. Out ran. in] Cm. of. Cm. H2. Aprille; Cp. April. Cm. ful; rest om.
[752. ]wo] Cm. peyne.
[756. ]forlost] H2. soore lorn.
[757. ]doon] Cl. do. Cm. What schal he don what schal I don also.
[758. ]Cl. om. that.
[765. ]Cl. I a; rest om. I.
[768. ]Cm. Leuyn.
[772. ]Cp. crueltee; Cl. cruwelte; H. Ed. cruelte.
[773. ]yow] Cl. him.
[775. ]Ed. Cp. H2. drinke; rest drynk.
[777. ]Cp. Ed. wol; Cm. wele; Cl. H. wold.
[788. ]Cl. Ed. Cm. twynned.
[791. ]Cm. Erodice; rest Erudice
[799. ]y-red] H. y-herd.
[805. ]I] Cp. H. ich.
[806. ]Cl. sent was; rest om. was.
[807. ]Cl. om. Was. H2. to; rest vn-to.
[810. ]Cp. secree; Cl. seere (!); Ed. H2. secrete; H. faire.
[812. ]Cl. Cp. Come; H. Com; Ed. Came.
[814. ]C. terys.
[816. ]Cl. herys.
[817. ]Cl. eris.
[818. ]H2. martire; Cp. matire; Ed. matiere; rest matere (!).
[824. ]H2. pite felte; Cp. pitie felt; H. pite hadde; Cl. felte pyte.
[827. ]Cp. H. pleynte; Cl. pleynt.
[832. ]Cl. -ferst; brough (!).
[833. ]swich] Cl. this.
[834. ]Cl. thanne. or] Cl. er.
[835. ]Cm. euery; rest alle. Cl. thenketh.
[837. ]Cl. who that.
[839. ]Cl. accurse; Cp. H. a-corse.
[840. ]wikke] Cl. wo.
[841. ]Cl. onys.
[842. ]Cp. H. pleynte; Cl. pleynt. Cl. Ed. wo and; Cp. H. H2. om. and.
[845. ]Cl. sikenesse; H. sekenesse; Cp. siknesse.
[846. ]Cl. teris.
[847. ]Cl. cruwel.
[850. ]Cp. Cl. Ed. resport (see l. 86); H. reporte; Cm. report; H2. desporte.
[851. ]Cl. om. allas.
[852. ]Cl. Lef; Cp. H. Leef; Cm. Leue. werk] Cl. wek. Cm. tak; Cl. Cp. H. take.
[858. ]wol] Cl. wold. Cl. om. herte.
[860. ]Cl. ye (for he). Cl. terys.
[864. ]Cl. a; H. to; rest of.
[870. ]H2. Betrent. H. toknynge; Cl. tokenynge.
[872. ]Cl. H. myght; Cp. Cm. myghte.
[872. ]Cl. H. myght; Cp. Cm. myghte.
[875. ]Cp. H. thise; Cl. this.
[882. ]Cl. awey.
[887. ]Cl. It; rest And.
[891. ]can] Cl. may.
[893. ]Cl. May as; rest om. as.
[894. ]Cl. an answere; rest om. an.
[896. ]Cp. H2. leue; Ed. leaue; Cm. leuyth; Cl. H. Lef.
[897. ]Cp. H. sighte; Cl. Ed. sighed; Cm. syghynge.
[898. ]Cl. felt; rest feleth. Cl. sharpe; Cp. H. sharp.
[899. ]Cp. H. muchel; Cl. muche.
[900. ]Cl. loueth.
[903. ]Cp. Cm. sorwe; Cl. H. sorw.
[909. ]Cl. And; rest But. Cl. treteth.
[910. ]Cl. the; rest that. Cp. Cl. H. H2. he beteth; Cm. Ed. om. he.
[911. ]Cl. This.
[914. ]Cl. ye wel.
[917. ]Cl. Cm. wod
[919. ]Cl. wend.
[924. ]Cl. Cp. H. lef; H2. leue; Ed. leaue.
[925. ]Cl. shappeth. H. tabrigge.
[927. ]Cl. Buth; Cm. Be; rest Beth. Cl. om. cause. flat] Ed. plat.
[930. ]Cl. drenche; Cm. drenk; rest dreynte.
[932. ]hider] Cl. here.
[934. ]Cl. shappeth. Cl. Cm. this; rest your.
[937. ]Cl. puts now after sen.
[944. ]this] Cl. Cm. H2. his. H. soor; Cl. Cm. sor.
[948. ]Cl. rowhte.
[949. ]Cp. H. Cm. pitouse; Cl. petouse.
[957. ]Read loren (Legend, 1048); MSS. lorn.
[966. ]Cl. come; rest comen.
[968. ]Cl. clerkes grete.
[969. ]Cp. H2. Ed. argumentes; Cl. H. argumentz.
[974. ]som] Cl. so.
[975. ]Ne] Cl. And.
[976. ]Cl. falle; rest fallen. H2. Ed. though; Cl. they; Cp. H. theigh.
[977. ]Cl. seighen; Ed. sene; rest seyn.
[984. ]All feled (felid); read fel’d.
[989. ]Cl. stedefast.
[994. ]Cl. corsed wykkednesse.
[998. ]Cl. seyghen; Ed. sene; rest seyn.
[1011. ]Cl. wheyther.
[1016. ]Cp. H. nenforce. Cp. Ed. H. nat; Cl. nought; rest not.
[1019. ]Cl. byforn; H. Cp. bifor; H2. Ed. before; read biforen.
[1021. ]Cp. Ed. necessaire; rest necessarie.
[1026. ]Cl. coniestest.
[1029. ]Cl. nowe herkene.
[1035. ]Cl. om. in thee (rest in the).
[1036. ]Cl. Ter mot.
[1038. ]All give too long a line: That thyn opinion of his sitting soth is.
[1039. ]sit] Ed. sate.
[1045. ]Cl. make.
[1048. ]Cl. Cp. H. which.
[1052. ]Cl. it is; rest is it.
[1053. ]Cl. Nough; rest Nat (Not).
[1065. ]I (2nd)] Cl. ich.
[1066. ]H2. purueyth; Cl. purueyed; rest purueyeth.
[1070. ]Cl. H. soueyren; H2. souereyn.
[1072. ]H. H2. herto; Cl. Ed. therto.
[1073. ]Cl. om. That. as] Cl. a.
[1077. ]the] Cl. that.
[1079. ]Cl. Thanne.
[1080. ]Cl. H2. alle; rest al this.
[1085. ]Cp. H. Ed. in; rest om.
[1087. ]Cm. H2. Ey; Ed. Eygh; Cl. Cp. H. I.
[1089. ]Cm. owene; H. Ed. owne; Cl. owen.
[1091. ]Cl. thyn; H. Cp. thy.
[1092. ]Cl. eyghen.
[1093. ]Cl. by-fore; rest be-forn (by-forne).
[1097. ]Cl. om. thy.
[1099. ]Cl. H. com; Cp. Ed. come.
[1103. ]Cl. seluen; rest self.
[1114. ]Cl. swych; Cm. why; rest which.
[1116. ]Cl. blissyd; rest blisful.
[1120 ]this] Cl. H2. thi.
[1121. ]Cl. answerede; H. answerde. Cl. sight; Cp. H. sighte.
[1128. ]Cl. it is; rest om. it. that] H. than; Cl. om. Cl. whanne.
[1129. ]peyne] Cl. peynes; Cm. sorwe.
[1135, 6, 8. ]Cl. teris.
[1139. ]Cl. thought; Ed. through; Cp. thorugh; H. thorwgh.
[1144. ]H. woken; Ed. weaken; Cm. lesse.
[1146. ]Cl. teris.
[1147. ]H2. Cm. hors; Ed. horse; H. hois. Cp. H. Ed. H2. for shright; Cl. for bright (!); Cm. for feynt.
[1151. ]Cl. lost; H. lefte; rest loste.
[1153. ]Cl. vp; Cm. H2. a; Cp. H. o; Ed. in.
[1158. ]Cm. With-oute; rest With-outen.
[1166. ]ful] Cl. fyl. is] Cl. his.
[1171. ]Cl. honde.
[1178. ]Cl. om. aught. he] Cl. I.
[1181. ]Cl. Cm. won; H. H2. wone.
[1184, 1189. ]Cl. cruwel; Cp. H. cruel.
[1185. ]Cl. He (for His).
[1186. ]Ed. sleen; Cl. Cp. Cm. slen.
[1187. ]Cl. sowe (2nd time).
[1188. ]Cp. doom; Cl. Cm. dom; rest dome.
[1191. ]Cl. Cp. H2. fulfilled; rest fulfild.
[1193. ]Cl. om. ye.
[1202. ]H. wol; Cl. wole.
[1203. ]H. suffure; Cp. Ed. H2. suffre; Cl. Cm. suffren. H. lyues here; Cl. y-fere (!); rest lyuen here.
[1207. ]Cl. now I; rest om. now.
[1208. ]H2. Attropos; Ed. Attropose; Cl. H. Cp. Attropes.
[1212. ]H. breyde; Cm. brayd; rest abreyde (Cp. shabreyde).
[1221. ]Cl. flekered; Cm. flekerede; Cp. Ed. flikered; H2. fykered (!); H. fliked.
[1222. ]Cl. a-yen; H. a-yein.
[1226. ]Cp. H. it hadde; H2. that (he) hadde; rest hadde it.
[1227. ]Cl. Cm. om. hir.
[1231. ]Cl. swich; rest which.
[1234. ]Cl. wolden; slay.
[1235. ]Cl. answerede.
[1236. ]Cl. mad; rest made.
[1241. ]slayn] Cm. slawe.
[1244. ]Cm. Ed. there; rest ther.
[1245. ]morter] Cm. percher.
[1246. ]ful] Cl. right.
[1248. ]tho] Cl. Cm. H2. the.
[1249. ]Cl. gan other.
[1257. ]nis] Cl. H. is. Cl. Cm. encres; Cp. H. encresse; H2. encrease; Ed. encreace.
[1259. ]Cl. H2. be; rest ben.
[1261, 3. ]Cl. Cm. wot, hot; H. woote, hoote.
[1264. ]Cl. thenketh; rest thinketh. Cl. H2. ne; rest nor.
[1265. ]Cm. Aughte; rest Ought.
[1267. ]Ed. sleen; Cl. H. Cm. slen.
[1268. ]Cl. om. 2nd the.
[1271. ]nis] Cl. Cm. is.
[1272. ]Cl. Cp. remede; H. remade; rest remedie.
[1276. ]H. Cp. ayein; Cl. Cm. ayen.
[1278. ]Cl. dredles; Cp. H. Cm. dredeles. Cl. Cp. H. wowke; Cm. wouke; H2. wooke; Ed. weke.
[1281. ]Cl. Cm. hep; Cp. H. heepe.
[1282. ]Cl. wot; Cp. H. Ed. wol; Cm. nyl. Cl. sermon.
[1283. ]may] Cl. wol.
[1284. ]Cl. conclusyon.
[1287. ]Cl. Cm. ayen; H. ayenis; Cp. ayeyns.
[1296. ]Cl. for ye; rest om. for.
[1299. ]Cl. Iuggement.
[1304. ]Cl. dishese; cruwellyche.
[1308. ]Cl. Cm. ayen; H. Cp. ayein.
[1309. ]Cp. oughte; Cl. ought. Cl. H2. the lasse; rest om. the.
[1312. ]Cl. ye wel.
[1318. ]H. Cp. ayein; Cl. ayen.
[1319. ]Cl. righ.
[1321. ]Cl. Cm. erst; rest erste. Cl. shal; see 1322.
[1324. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. insert tyme after ofte.
[1329. ]Cp. H. an; rest om.
[1330. ]lite] Cl. Cm. H2. litel.
[1343. ]if] Cl. and.
[1344. ]Cl. nedede; H. H2. neded.
[1354. ]Cm. moste; H. most; Cp. moost; Cl. mose (!).
[1356. ]Cl. Cm. ben; rest been.
[1358. ]Cl. wit-outen.
[1361. ]Cl. wheder.
[1373. ]Cl. Cp. H. Ed. ful hard; rest om. ful.
[1376. ]Cm. Mot; H. Moot; Cl. Cp. Mote.
[1380. ]Cp. H. H2. moeble; Cl. moble; see l. 1460.
[1384. ]Cl. wheche.
[1385. ]Cm. sendyn; rest sende.
[1387. ]H. glosses quantitee by i. of golde; hence Ed. has be of golde an.
[1388. ]Ed. aspyde; Cm. aspiede; H. aspied; Cl. aspie.
[1391. ]Cl. H2. om. that.
[1394. ]what for] Cl. that for other (!).
[1397. ]Cl. and or; rest om. and.
[1398. ]Cl. calkullynge.
[1399. ]Ed. blende; rest blynde.
[1406. ]Ed. speke.
[1407. ]a] Ed. o.
[1409. ]his] Cl. is.
[1411. ]H. Ed. ferde; Cm. fer; Cl. Cp. fered; H2. drede. Cl. his; rest om.
[1415. ]Cl. wreten.
[1416. ]of] H. Cm. in. Cp. Ed. entente; rest entent.
[1422. ]Cl. eerys.
[1423. ]Ed. H2. deuysed.
[1425. ]selve] Cl. same. H2. lete; Cl. Cp. H. late. hir] Cl. he.
[1426. ]Cl. om. him.
[1431. ]Cp. H. thamorouse.
[1435. ]Cp. H2. Delited; Cl. Ed. Deliten; Cm. Delite; H. Delites (!).
[1436. ]Cp. H. natheles; Cl. nathles.
[1445. ]Cp. Ed. H. cruel; Cl. cruwel.
[1449. ]Ed. Dwell; H2. Dwelleth; rest Dwelle.
[1452. ]Cl. fayllen; Cp. H. faylen.
[1456. ]and] Cl. but. Cl. a-rede; H. Cp. atrede; Cm. at-rede.
[1458. ]Cl. H. crepul; Cp. crepel; rest crepil. Cl. can on; rest om. on.
[1459. ]MSS. eyed.
[1463. ]Cl. H. alle; Cm. Cp. Ed. al.
[1468. ]Cl. a-yen; H. Cp. ayein.
[1470. ]on] Cl. to.
[1473. ]preyse] Cl. prese.
[1476. ]of] Cm. Ed. on; H. of on (!). Cl. H2. he; rest ye.
[1483. ]And] Cl. Al.
[1490. ]Cm. Troilus; Cl. Cp. H. Ed. Troians (but read Troián-es).
[1492. ]Cl. thenke; rest thinke.
[1494. ]Cp. H. dredeles; Cl. Cm. dredles.
[1498. ]Cl. am; Cp. H. Ed. H2. nam.
[1501. ]reweth] Cl. rewes.
[1503. ]Cp. H. bi-twixe; Cl. by-twext.
[1505. ]his] Cl. is.
[1507. ]Cp. H. to-gidere; Cl. to-gedre.
[1508. ]wit] Cl. nede.
[1509. ]Cp. sholden; H. sholdon; Cm. schuldyn; Cl. sholde.
[1515. ]Cl. Y-nowh. Cl. pleasaunce; Cp. H. Cm. plesaunce.
[1520. ]Cl. Cm. Ed. hardely.
[1523. ]Cp. Cm. gold; rest golde.
[1532. ]Cl. Cp. helpe; H. Cm. help. Cm. moste; Cp. mooste; Cl. H. most.
[1538. ]Cl. Ed. Saturnus.
[1539. ]Cp. H. wood; Cl. wod. Cm. achamaunt; Ed. Achamante.
[1546. ]Cp. H. Cm. Ed. to-breste; Cl. H2. thow breste.
[1548. ]Ed. Synoys; rest Symoys.
[1549. ]Cm. om. ay.
[1550. ]Cl. wittenesse.
[1555. ]awey] Cl. alwey.
[1557. ]any] Cl. ony.
[1558. ]Cl. namly.
[1560. ]Cm. leye; Ed. laye; H2. were; Cl. Cp. H. lay.
[1562. ]Ed. herafter be take. Perhaps read: pees be after take.
[1565. ]Cp. H. ayeyne; Cl. ayen.
[1567, 8. ]Cp. H. Cm. hastif.
[1569. ]Cl. ye that the peple ek of al; rest om. that and of.
[1570. ]Cp. H. tarede.
[1577. ]I] Cl. H2. it.
[1585. ]Cp. H. moot; Cl. Cm. mote.
[1587. ]Cp. H. Ed. By pacience (paciens); Cl. By pacient;H2. Be pacient; Cm. Beth pacient. Cl. thenk; Cm. thynkith; rest thynke.
[1592. ]H. leon, glossed i. signum leonis; ariete, glossed i. signum arietis.
[1595. ]Cp. H. messaile.
[1603. ]Cl. om. that.
[1608. ]H. cynthia; Cp. Cinthia; Cl. Cynthes (!); Ed. Scythia (!).
[1623. ]Cp. H. Cm. wiste; Cl. H2. wist.
[1624. ]Cl. H. com.
[1626. ]H. H2. way; Cp. wey; Cl. weye.
[1632. ]Cl. Cm. beseche.
[1633. ]Cl. ough.
[1636. ]so] Cl. the. Cl. good of; Cm. good; rest good a.
[1637. ]Cl. om. ye.
[1638. ]Ed. at; H2. in; H. a; Cl. Cp. Cm. o. point] Cl. poyn.
[1640. ]Cp. Cm. owene; Ed. owne; Cl. owen.
[1642. ]Cl. assent (!).
[1643. ]Cl. do ye me.
[1649. ]Cp. H2. alle; rest al.
[1655. ]Cm. Ed. glade; H2. gladde; Cl. H. glad.
[1656. ]H2. yhe; rest eye.
[1658. ]Cm. schorte; Cp. Ed. shorte; rest short.
[1660. ]Cp. H. Cm. goode; Cl. good.
[1664 ]Cl. om. god.
[1669. ]H. tournay; H2. tourney.
[1670 ]Cl. aray.
[1677. ]and] Cl. an. Cl. pepelyssh; H. Cp. H2. poeplissh.
[1682. ]Read fortun-è.
[1689. ]Cp. H2. streite; H. streyte; Cl. streyght.
[1691. ]Cl. Cp. rowfullych; H. rewfulliche; H2. pitously.
[1693. ]hir] Cl. his.
[1696. ]Ed. H2. Ne entendement; Cl. Cp. Nentendement.
[1697. ]The] Cl. This. H. cruel; Cp. cruele; Cl. cruwel.
[1699. ]Cl. om. whan.
[506. ]Cl. H. sobrelich; rest softely (softly).
[510. ]Cp. H. bihighte; Cl. byhight.
[513. ]Cl. Cm. of here; rest om. here.
[515. ]Cl. om. it.
[519. ]Cm. Cp. Ed. H2. On; Cl. H. O.
[520. ]Cp. tabrayde H. to breyde; rest to abreyde.
[523. ]H. Ed. H2. As; Cl. So; Cm. om.
[528. ]Cl. Criseyde; rest Criseydes.
[530. ]Cl. Cm. brast.
[531. ]Cl. dorres sperid.
[533. ]Cp. Cm. H2. war; rest ware.
[538. ]god] Cl. gold.
[548. ]Cl. Cm. with the; rest om. the.
[550. ]Cp. John. lisse; H2. hisse (!); rest blisse.
[553. ]which] Cl. whom.
[554. ]H. ye; H2. yee; rest eye.
[561. ]Cl. Cm. H2. thens; Cp. thennes; H. tennes (!).
[565. ]Cl. yende; rest yonder; see 573.
[567. ]Cm. caughte, righte; rest kaught, right.
[568, 569, 571. ]Cl. yender; see 575.
[579. ]Cl. thenketh; rest thinketh.
[583. ]Cm. myn; H2. my; rest om. (read memórie).
[584. ]Cl. waryed; Cp. wereyed; H2. weryhed; rest weryed (read werreyed = werréy’d).
[593. ]Cl. leue; Cm. lyf; rest lyue. Cl. om. in.
[594. ]Ed. ne aske; Cl. Cp. H. naxe; rest ne axe.
[599. ]Cl. lorde; cruwel.
[605. ]Cp. H. Ed. wente; rest went.
[607. ]Cl. bens; Cp. H. hennes.
[609. ]Cl. in; Ed. to; rest in-to.
[610. ]Cp. hille; H. hille; Cl. hill; Cm. hil.
[614. ]Cp. H. hider; Cl. heder.
[616. ]H. seen; Cl. se.
[618. ]Cl. Cp. H. defet; Cm. defect; Ed. defayted (om. and).
[617. ]Cl. Ed. woxen.
[631. ]Cl. hise.
[632. ]Cm. The enchesoun.
[636. ]Cm. Ed. softe; Cl. Cp. H. soft.
[637. ]Cl. gan to; rest om. to. Cl. syngen; rest singe (syng).
[639. ]Cp. H. soore; Cl. Cm. sor.
[641. ]H2. and stere; Cm. on sterid; Cl. Cp. H. in stere. Ed. I stere and sayle.
[643. ]The] Cl. Thi.
[644. ]Caribdis H2.; Cp. Carikdis; rest Caribdes.
[653. ]Cp. H. hennes; Cl. hens. Cm. bryghte; rest right.
[655. ]Cm. Cp. bryghte; rest bright. Cl. lathona; Ed. Lucyna; rest latona; see iv. 1591.
[657. ]Cl. whanne.
[658. ]she] Cl. he; H2. ye. my] Cl. me.
[659. ]Cm. Ed. H2. day is; rest dayes.
[662. ]was] Cl. is.
[669. ]yonder] Cl. H2. yender.
[670. ]Cl. Cp. tho; rest the. Cl. tenten (!).
[671. ]Cp. H. thennes; Cl. thens.
[675. ]Cl. It is.
[686. ]Ed. Cp. Cm. stynten; H. stenten; rest stynte.
[693. ]Cl. it is; rest om. it.
[695. ]Cl. ought; Ed. aught; rest nought (naught).
[696. ]Cp. H. H2. Ed. pace.
[701. ]Cp. Cm. putte; rest put.
[702. ]and] Cl. an.
[703. ]Cl. om. I. Cp. Ed. Cm. holde; Cl. H. hold.
[708. ]Cm. I-waxen; Cl. H. Ed. y-woxen.
[711. ]Ther] Cl. The. H2. Cm. ther; rest om.
[715. ]Cl. syked; om. eek.
[716. ]Ed. purtrayeng; H2. portering; Cl. portraynge; H. portreynge; Cp. purtrayng.
[720. ]woful] Cl. ful.
[722. ]Cp. cruel; Cl. H. cruwel; Cm. crewel.
[723. ]Cp. Ed. compleynen; rest compleyne.
[725. ]All wepte (but see wopen in 724).
[726. ]MSS. teris.
[729. ]Cl. Cp. rowfully; Ed. rewfully: Cm. reufully.
[733. ]Cl. H. tho yonder; rest om. tho. Cp. H2. walles; rest wallys.
[734. ]O] Cl. Of (!). Cp. H. dostow; Cm. dost thou; Cl. dost.
[735. ]whether] Cl. wher.
[744. ]three] Cl. two.
[751. ]H. weste; rest west.
[752. ]Cl. stelen. Cl. Ed. on; H2. by; rest in.
[753, 4. ]H. H2. leste, beste; rest lest, best.
[756. ]on] Cm. of.
[757. ]Cl. wold.
[758. ]H. Ed. rulen; Cm. H2. reule; Cp. reulen; Cl. rewelyn (for rewlen).
[759. ]Cl. Cm. om. Ne. Cp. H. Cm. thryuen; Cl. thryue.
[760. ]Cl. somme han blamed; rest that (at) som men blamen.
[764. ]Cl. ony.
[765. ]Cl for my; rest om. my.
[769. ]Cp. Cm. knotteles; rest knotles.
[770. ]Ed. H2. to abyde.
[774. ]Cl. Cm. short; rest shortest.
[780. ]Cp. H. thennes; Cl. Cm. thens.
[781. ]Cl. laughen.
[782. ]H2. to accoy.
[784. ]Cl. H. Cp. nassayeth; rest assayeth. Cl. Cp. H. nacheueth; Cm. ne cheueth; rest acheueth.
[787. ]Cl. om. of.
[790. ]For] Cl. As. Cl. wys; H. Cp. Cm. Ed. wyse.
[800. ]Cl. H. corageus.
[805. ]Ed. Calcidony.
[808. ]Cp. Cm. myghte; Cl. H. myght.
[809. ]Cl. H. oft; rest ofte.
[812. ]Cl. Cm. thred; rest threde. Cl. H. wold.
[815. ]Cl. H2. speke; rest speken.
[817. ]Cl. formede. H. H2. yen; rest eyen.
[821. ]Cm. I-norschid.
[827. ]Cm. waxen; H2. waxe; rest woxen.
[834. ]Cp. H. y-founde; rest founde.
[837. ]Cp. H. duryng; Cl. dorryng; Cm. dorynge to; Ed. daryng; (best durring). Cl. Cp. don; rest do.
[840. ]Cp. durre; H. durre to; Cl. dosre; Cm. dore; Ed. dare. Cl. Cp. Cm. don; Ed. done; H. do.
[845. ]Cl. a (for as).
[846. ]Cm. Cp. H2. done; Cl. don.
[849. ]H. by hire hym; Cm. by hire; rest hym by here.
[850. ]Cl. y-nowh.
[851. ]longe] Cl. more.
[856. ]H2. Betwixe; Cl. Cp. H. Ed. Bytwyxen.
[860. ]H. Cp. Cm. axen.
[867. ]Cl. Answered.
[868. ]Cp H. Ed. wiste; Cl. wist.
[872. ]Cl. thenketh.
[879. ]Cl. ony.
[880. ]Cp. H. Sholden; Ed. Shulden; rest Sholde.
[882. ]Cl. H2. dredles; rest dredeles.
[885. ]Cl. Ed. Fro. Cp. H. thennes; Cl. Cm. thens.
[888. ]to] Cm. for.
[891, 895. ]Cp. H. hennes; Cm. henys; Cl. hens.
[895. ]H. Cp. Ed. to rauyashen any; Cm. to rauych ony; H2. to rauisshe any; Cl. the rauesshynge of a.
[896. ]Cl. Cm. ben; rest be.
[898. ]Cl. H. sleye; rest slye.
[909. ]Cp. H. Cm. grete; Cl. gre (!).
[912. ]Cl. an.
[916. ]Cl. brough.
[920. ]Cl. ony.
[924. ]Cp. Ed. be; Cm. ben; H. ben a; rest the.
[925. ]Ed. reed; Cl. Cm. red.
[926. ]Cp. quook; H. quooke; Cl. Cm. quok.
[927. ]Cl. cast a litel wight a syde.
[931. ]Cl. ony.
[934. ]Of] Cl. O. Ed. Calcidony.
[938. ]H2. Polymites; Cm. Polymyght; rest Polymyte.
[942. ]Cl. I shal; rest om. I. Cp. H. Ed. H2. lyue; Cl. lyuen.
[945. ]Cl. tel.
[950. ]Cp. H. speken; Cl. Cm. speke.
[952. ]Cp. H2. to hym she; Cl. H. Ed. she to hym.
[954. ]H. Cp. Ed. it noon; Cl. H2. non it.
[970. ]All but Cp. H. om. 1st and.
[971. ]Cl. an.
[977. ]now] Cl. here.
[982. ]Cl. ony.
[986. ]Cl. done.
[987. ]Cl. to pleye; rest om. to.
[989. ]Cp. bisy; H. bysi; Cm. besi; Ed. H2. besy; Cl. ben.
[997. ]Cl. H. com.
[999. ]Cl. om. hir. heres] H. eres; Cm. eyyn.
[1003. ]Cm. Ne I; Cp. H. Ny; Cl. H2. Ed. Ne.
[1005. ]Cl. ther-with (om. al). eyen] Cl. ey.
[1006. ]Troye] Cl. Ed. Troilus and Troye (!); H. Troilus (!).
[1010. ]al] Cl. as. Cl. a-yen.
[1013. ]Cl. wich.
[1014. ]Cm. waxen; H2. waxe; rest woxen.
[1016. ]Cl. folewede.
[1018. ]Ed. Cythera.
[1032. ]Cl. shorly; om. that; tales.
[1033. ]Cl. Cm. H2. put he before spak. Ed. selfe; rest self.
[1034. ]Cl. sore sykes.
[1036. ]Cp. refte; Cl. reste (for refte); H2. rafte; H. ref (for refte); Ed. lefte; Cm. reuyth. Cl. Cp. H. (1st) of; H2. all; rest om.
[1039. ]Ed. she; rest he; see note. Cl. onys.
[1043. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. pencel; rest pensel.
[1044. ]Cp. H. the; rest om.
[1045. ]Cl. thorugh.
[1046. ]Cm. wep; rest wepte.
[1048. ]Cl. om. kepen.
[1049. ]Cm. hele; H2. helpe; rest helen.
[1053. ]Cl. falsede.
[1056. ]Cl. falsede on; gentilest.
[1057. ]Cl. Thas; on; worthyest.
[1060. ]word] Cl. wood.
[1062. ]Cl. Thorugh ought.
[1070. ]Cl. om. for. Cm. H2. om. me.
[1077. ]Cl. Cp. lady; Ed. H2. ladyes; rest om.
[1079. ]Cp. Ed. Cm. ne; Cl. H. to; H2. om.
[1081. ]H2. might I; Cl. Cm. myghty (!); Ed. shulde I; Cp. sholde I; H. shold I.
[1084. ]Cl. giltles.
[1085. ]Cl. Ed. And; rest But.
[1089. ]Cl. H. Tak. Cl. Cm. hise.
[1090. ]Cp. H. Ed. fynden; Cl. fynd; rest fynde.
[1091. ]Cp. H. Ed. that; rest om. Cl. Cm. gan; rest bigan.
[1094. ]the] Cl. this.
[1095. ]H2. Ed. publisshed; rest punisshed (!).
[1096. ]oughte] Cl. out.
[1097. ]Cl. ony.
[1098. ]Cl. H. om. so.
[1100. ]Cl. tolde.
[1102. ]Cp. hoot; Cl. Cm. hot; rest hote (= hoot).
[1109. ]H2. warme; rest warmen. All est; read th’est.
[1113. ]Cl. om. of.
[1114. ]Cp. noon; Cm. non; rest noone (none); see 1122.
[1118. ]Cl. here; rest his.
[1123. ]Cl. Cm. om. here.
[1125. ]Cl. twinnen; rest winnen.
[1128. ]Cl. answered.
[1130. ]Cl. thanne; a-yen.
[1133. ]Cl. Cp. H. cape; rest gape.
[1139. ]H. portours; Cp. Ed. H2. porters; Cl. Cm. porterys.
[1140. ]Cl. H2. holde; rest holden.
[1142. ]H2. comth; H. Cm. cometh; Cl. Cp. come; Ed. came.
[1147. ]hir] Cl. his.
[1153. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. H. whan that; rest om. that.
[1155. ]Cl. not to; rest om. [Editor: illegible character]
[1156. ]H. nought; Cp. Ed. naught; rest not. Cp. Ed. H. Cm. for; rest om.
[1161. ]Ed. H2. art; rest arte.
[1162. ]fare] Ed. farre; H2. soory. All carte.
[1170. ]Cl. y-nowh.
[1176. ]Ed. ferne; Cl. H. fern; Cp. farn.
[1179. ]hem] Cl. hym.
[1180. ]Cm. H2. Ed. muste; Cp. moste; Cl. H. most. Cl. beuen (for bleuen); H2. beleue.
[1181. ]Ed. within the; Cl. Cp. H2. with-inne the; rest with-inne.
[1184. ]H. Ed. gladded; Cl. Cp. gladed.
[1191. ]Cl. holden.
[1197. ]Cl. ony.
[1198. ]Cl. is fledde; rest om. is.
[1201. ]Cl. Cm. hise.
[1203. ]Cl. Cp. nyst; H. Cm. nyste. Cl. myght; Cp. H. myghte.
[1204. ]Cl. byhyght; Cp. H. bihighte.
[1205. ]Cl. H2. fifthe; rest fifte. Cp. H. Cm. H2. sexte.
[1206. ]of] Cm. the; Cl. om.
[1209. ]hir] Cl. he.
[1211. ]Cl. om. for to.
[1213. ]Cl. þe wode; rest om. the.
[1215. ]Cl. H. wold.
[1217. ]Cl. compaignye.
[1219. ]Ed. defayte.
[1223. ]Cl. Iire. Cp. omits 1233-74.
[1224. ]Cp. H. H2. axed; Ed. asked; Cm. axe; Cl. asketh.
[1235. ]Cl. welk; H. welke; rest walked.
[1239. ]Cm. slep; rest slepte.
[1248. ]Cl. ony.
[1249. ]Cl. ellis.
[1250. ]Cl. thorugh.
[1256. ]Cl. Iust; H. Cm. Ed. Iuste.
[1259. ]So Cl.; H. eseuraunce; rest assuraunce.
[1263. ]Cl. trowen; ony.
[1266. ]All bigile (begile).
[1272. ]Ed. slowe; Cl. slowh; H2. sloo; H. slewe. Ed. than alway; Cl. H. H2. alwey than. Cm. Myn self to sle than thus alwey. Cl. compleyne; rest to pleyne.
[1275. ]Cl. answerede.
[1278. ]folk] Cl. men.
[1279. ]Cl. dastow.
[1285. ]Ed. on; H2. in; Cl. Cp. H. o; Cm. a.
[1288. ]Cl. a-righ.
[1289. ]Cm. thanne; rest than.
[1292. ]Cl. can.
[1293. ]Cl. thow a lettre here.
[1294. ]Cl. H2. brynge.
[1298. ]Cm. H2. trowe; rest trowen.
[1300. ]Cl. wheyther. Cl. Cm. ony.
[1301. ]Cl. ellys.
[1303. ]Cp. writen; Cl. H2. wreten; Cm. wrete; H. writon.
[1305. ]Cl. The (for Ther).
[1310. ]Cl. H2. Accorded; rest Acorded.
[1317. ]Cl. Cp. H. ben haue.
[1324. ]Cl. H2. wite; Cp. witen; H. wyten; Ed. weten.
[1336. ]Cl. terys.
[1342. ]Cl. om. my.
[1343. ]Cl. Cp. H. masterte (for me asterte).
[1345. ]Cl. ony.
[1347. ]Cl. ought; Cp. Cm. oughte.
[1348. ]Cl. Cm. monethes.
[1350. ]Cl. Ed. ten dayes.
[1351. ]Cl. Cm. monethes. Cl. retorne.
[1352. ]me] Cl. I.
[1354. ]Cm. sikis I sike.
[1357. ]Cl. H2. it youre wil; Ed. Cm. your wyl it.
[1363. ]Cl. om. to. Cl. mot; Cp. moot; rest mote.
[1364. ]up-on] Cl. on.
[1365. ]Cl. Cp. yow; rest to yow.
[1368. ]Cl. chyste; Cp. chiste; rest cheste.
[1374, 6. ]Cm. waxen; Cl. Ed. woxen.
[1374. ]Cl. wellys.
[1376. ]Cp. Ed. Cm. harm; rest harme.
[1377. ]Cl. ellys.
[1386. ]Cl. Cp. Commeue; Ed. Can meuen; Cm. Remeue; H2. Remorde.
[1388. ]more] Cl. maner.
[1393. ]Cl. Ther; H2. The (for Ther); rest That.
[1394. ]Cl. dothe.
[1397. ]Cl. Wit.
[1398. ]Ed. Cm. disporte.
[1400. ]or] Cl. er. Cp. H2. Ed. deliuereth; rest deliuere.
[1410. ]Cl. we ether (for whether).
[1412. ]Read far’th.
[1415. ]Cl. but that; rest that but.
[1420. ]Cl. dyshese.
[1421. ]Cp. Ed. add—Le vostre T.; see l. 1631.
[1424. ]Cl. wrote a-yen.
[1428. ]Cm. Ed. nyste; rest nyst.
[1430. ]Cp. swerth. Read swer’th, lov’th; Ed. swore she loued.
[1440. ]Cl. slep; H. slepe. Cm. ne no word he ne seyde; rest ne word (worde) seyde; where worde = word he.
[1442. ]Cl. wax; H. Cp. Cm. wex.
[1444. ]come] Cl. ek.
[1446. ]Read out of?
[1448. ]Cl. vntrothe. his] Cl. here.
[1461. ]Cl. thorugh.
[1462. ]Cl. & ek of; rest om. ek.
[1464. ]Cl. om. wrooth.
[1466. ]H. Nencens.
[1468. ]Cm. Wrok; H2. Venged. Cl. cruwel.
[1469. ]Cl. Cp. H. grete; Cm. H2. gret.
[1473. ]Cl. om. the.
[1475. ]Cp. H. Ed. mayden; rest mayde.
[1480. ]Cl. om. And. Cl. descendede.
[1482. ]But] Cl. H. And.
[1484. ]Cl. were it.
[2. ]Cl. doceat; rest docet. Cl. insideas.
[3 ]Cl. Cp. H. H2. Hemoduden; Cm. sinoduden; Ed. Hermodien; read Hemoniden (Theb. iii. 42).
[9. ]Ed. -peo; H. -pes; rest -pea.
[10. ]Cl. Flumine; rest Fulmine.
[12. ]Ed. Argiuam; rest Argiua.]
[1485. ]Cl. H. told; rest tolde.
[1486. ]Cl. strong; rest stronge.
[1491. ]Cp. Ed. H2. tolde; rest told. Cp. Ed. H. by; Cl. the; Cm. on.
[1493. ]Cp. H. Ed. H2. slough; Cl. slowh; Cm. slow.
[1499. ]Cl. H. burynge; Cp. H2. burying; Ed. buryeng; Cm. brenynge.
[1500. ]Cp. H. Ed. fil; Cl. ful; Cm. fel.
[1501. ]Cp. H. Ed. Argeyes; Cl. Cm. Argeys.
[1502. ]Cl. om. how. in] Cl. y.
[1508. ]Cp. scarmuche; H. scarmyche; H2. Ed. scarmisshe; Cl. scarmych. Cl. slowh; Cp. H. slough.
[1515. ]Cl. Meleagree.
[1516. ]so] Cl. that.
[1517. ]Cl. H. is; rest his.
[1518. ]Ed. leaue.
[1521. ]Cl. Cp. H. fals.
[1522. ]Cm. gret; rest grete.
[1523. ]Cl. seystow; Cp. H. sestow; Ed. seest thou; H2. sest thou. Cl. fol; Cp. H. Cm. fool.
[1528. ]Cl. om. was.
[1534. ]Cl. cruwel.
[1537. ]Cp. y-mad; H. H2. Ed. ymade; Cl. made; Cm. mad.
[1540. ]Cp. Cl. H. dryeth; rest dryueth.
[1542. ]Cp. H2. hire; Ed. her; rest here.
[1543. ]Cl. Cp. Thorugh.
[1544. ]Cp. H2. flitted; Cl. H. fletted.
[1546. ]brighte] Cl. out.
[1552. ]Cl. om. him.
[1555. ]Cl. H. thenketh.
[1558. ]Cm. H2. the auentayle.
[1559. ]Cl. Achille thorugh.
[1563. ]Cl. may it.
[1567. ]Cl. Cp. H2. om. 2nd for.
[1573. ]Cl. a-yen.
[1576. ]Cl. Cm. gret.
[1577. ]Cl. Cp. H2. Hym self; rest Hym seluen. Ed. Cm. disgyse; Cp. desgise; Cl. H. degyse.
[1582. ]Cl. Cp. wep; rest wepte.
[1585. ]Cm. H2. (1st) that; rest om.
[1586. ]All That she; I omit That.
[1588. ]Cl. om. al.
[1598. ]Cp. pietee; Cm. pete; rest pite.
[1601. ]Cl. a-yen. Cp. H. Ed. ne; rest om.
[1602. ]Cl. Cm. om. that.
[1607. ]Cl. nys not; rest om. not.
[1608. ]Cl. H. thenketh.
[1615. ]Cl. om. How.
[1618. ]All Come (Com).
[1618. ]Cl. Cm. H2. disioynt.
[1623. ]Cl. om. that.
[1625. ]Cl. Cp. H. an; rest on. Cl. yuyl. Cl. H2. that ye; rest om. that.
[1629. ]Cl. Of; rest Eek.
[1630. ]H. H2. The entente.
[1631. ]H. Ed. add—La vostre C.
[1632. ]So Cp. H.; Cl. This lettre this Troilus.
[1634. ]Cl. Cp. Ed. kalendes; H. kalendas; Cm. kalendis. Ed. eschaunge.
[1636. ]Cl. now; rest ne.
[1640. ]Cl. Cm. ony.
[1643. ]Cl. trewe; rest kynde.
[1645. ]been] Cl. gon.
[1651. ]Cl. arme (for armure).
[1652. ]Cp. H. Biforn; Ed. Beforne; rest Byfore.
[1653. ]Cl. H. which.
[1661. ]Cl. broch; rest broche.
[1664. ]Cl. a-yen.
[1667. ]Cl. forth hom; rest om. forth.
[1669. ]All word or worde (put for ord).
[1674. ]Cl. Cm. Thanne.
[1681. ]Cl. other; rest othes.
[1684. ]and] Cl. or.
[1685. ]Cl. cruwel.
[1688. ]Cm. leste.
[1694. ]Cp. H. Ed. Cm. shewen; Cl. shewe.
[1697. ]Cl. Cp. H. Cm. with-inne; rest with-in.
[1701. ]Cl. Cm. ony.
[1708. ]on] Cp. H. Ed. of.
[1709. ]H2. Pandare; rest Pandarus.
[1711. ]Cl. thow; rest thee. Cl. lyst; Cp. H. H2. Ed. liste.
[1715. ]Cl. slep; drem.
[1717. ]Cl. hensforth; Cp. H. hennes forth.
[1719. ]Cp. H. Ed. be the; Cl. H2. by this.
[1724. ]Cl. H. wist.
[1725. ]Cl. a-yen; answerede.
[1728. ]Ed. H2. astonyed.
[1730. ]Cl. last.
[1731. ]Cl. dere brother.
[1735. ]un-to] Cl. to.
[1736, 7. ]Cl. dede.
[1740. ]Cl. dredles.
[1745. ]hir] Cl. his.
[1751. ]Cl. cruwel.
[1755. ]Cl. H2. dredles.
[1756. ]Cl. cruwely.
[1760. ]Cp. H. Ed. weren; Cl. were.
[1761. ]Cl. cruwel.
[1765. ]Cl. wryten.
[1767. ]Cl. wold; hise; battayles (read batail-lès).
[1769. ]H2. that (for as); rest seyd as I can; read as that.
[1770. ]Cl. Hese.
[1771. ]Cl. H. Red; rest Rede.
[1774. ]Ed. Al be it that.
[1777. ]All write.
[1778. ]Cl. goode.
[1779. ]Cp. H. Ny (for Ne I).
[1780. ]Ed. betrayed.
[1783. ]Ed. Betrayen.
[1787. ]Cl. makere.
[1788. ]Ed. make; rest make in; (read maken?).
[1789. ]Cl. Cp. H. nenuye; H2. enuye. Ed. make thou none enuye.
[1791. ]Cl. ther-as. Cl. Ed. pace; rest space.
[1792. ]Ed. Of Vergil; rest om. Of.
[1798. ]Cl. Cp. om. I; rest god I; but read I god.
[1799. ]Cl. rathere.
[1802. ]Cl. thousandys hese.
[1803. ]Cl. ony.
[1806. ]Cl. slowh. H2. fers.
[1809. ]Ed. holownesse; Cl. holwghnesse; Cp. H. holughnesse. All seuenthe.
[1810. ]Cl. lettynge; H. letynge; Cp. Ed. letyng.
[1812. ]Cl. Th (for The).
[1814. ]Cp. H thennes; Cl. thens.
[1824. ]Cl. om. that.
[1825. ]Ed. shulden; H. Cp. sholden; Cl. shuld.
[1843. ]Cl. cros; Cp. H. crois.
[1849. ]rytes] Cl. vyces.
[1852. ]Cl. trauayle.
[1853. ]Ed. and (for 3rd of).
[1855. ]Cl. om. ye.
[1856. ]Cp. book; rest boke (booke).
[1857. ]Cl. H. om. to.
[1859. ]Cp. Ed. goode; H. H2. good; Cl. garde.
[1862. ]Cl. om. to.
[1867. ]Cl. eurychon.
[1868. ]Cl. grace; rest mercy. Colophon.So H.; Cl.. has Criseide; Cp. Explicit Liber Troily.
[Metre 1.]In order to elucidate the English text, I frequently quote the original Latin, usually from the text of T. Obbarius, Jena, 1843. See further in the Introduction.
[3.]rendinge, Lat. ‘lacerae’; rather rent, or tattered. The sense ‘rending’ occurs in Ovid, Met. viii. 880.
[6.]that is to seyn. The words in italics are not in the original, but were added by Chaucer as explanatory. Throughout the treatise, I print all such passages in italics.
[8.]werdes, ‘weirds,’ fate.
[12.]slake, better slakke; cf. Cant. Ta. E 1849. empted, ‘effeto.’ MS. C. has emty.
[13.]in yeres . . . swete: ‘dulcibus annis.’
[14.]y-cleped, invoked; ‘uocata,’ sc. ‘mors.’ Cf. Troilus, iv. 503.
[16.]naiteth, refuseth; ‘negat.’ Icel. neita, to say nay.
[17.]lighte, i. e. transitory; ‘leuibus . . . bonis.’ The gloss ‘sc. temporels’ (in A) gives the right sense. sc. = scilicet, namely; the form temporels is the French plural.
[18, 19.]But now:
The translation unagreable dwellinges is an unhappy one.
[22.]in stedefast degree, in a secure position; ‘stabili . . . gradu.’
[Prose 1. 2.]and markede: ‘querimoniamque lacrimabilem stiii officio designarem.’ Hence markede is ‘wrote down’; and pointel refers to the stilus. Cf. Som. Tale, D 1742. with office, by the use (of).
[6.]empted, exhausted; ‘inexhausti uigoris.’ Of course the woman here described is Philosophia.
[9.]doutous; ‘statura discretionis ambiguae.’
[12.]heef, heaved; A. S. hōf. In Layamon, hof, haf, heaf. I put heef for hef, because the e is long.
[13.]so that: ‘respicientiumque hominum frustrabatur intuitum.’
[14.]delye (so in both MSS.) = deli-ē, O. F. deliè (see Cotgrave), delicate, thin, slender, from Lat. delicatus, with the usual loss of c between two vowels and before the accented syllable; Lat. ‘tenuissimis filis.’
[18.]as it is wont: ‘ueluti fumosas imagines solet.’
[21.]a Grekissh P; i. e. Π. a Grekissh T; i. e. Θ, not T; the Greek θ being pronounced as t in Latin. The reference is to ϕιλοσοϕία πρακτικὴ καὶ θεωρητική; in Latin, Philosophia Actiua et Contemplatiua; i. e. Practical (or Active) and Theoretical (or Contemplative) Philosophy. This is the same distinction as that between the Vita Actiua and Vita Contemplatiua, so common in medieval literature; see note (3) to the Sec. Non. Tale, G 87; and note to P. Plowman, B. vi. 251.
[26.]corven, cut, cut away pieces from; Lat. ‘sciderant.’
[33.]cruel, i. e. stern; ‘toruis.’
[34.]thise comune: ‘has scenicas meretriculas.’
[39.]no-thing fructefyinge; ‘infructuosis.’ Hence we may perhaps prefer to read no-thing fructuous, as in Caxton and Thynne.
[41.]holden: ‘hominumque mentes assuefaciunt morbo, non liberant.’
[45.]for-why, because (very common); seldom interrogative.
[47.]me, from me; and, in fact, Caxton and Thynne read from me or fro me. The forms Eleaticis, &c. are due to the Lat. text—‘Eleaticis atque Academicis studiis.’ He should rather have said—‘scoles of Elea and of the Academie.’ The Eleatici philosophi were the followers of Zeno of Elea (Zeno Eleates, born about bc 488 at Elea (Velia) in Italy), and the favourite disciple of Parmenides (who is expressly mentioned in Book iii. pr. 12, l. 143). The Academic philosophers were followers of Plato.
[49.]mermaidenes; Lat. ‘Sirenes,’ Sirens; cf. N. P. Tale, B 4461, and note.
[55.]plounged, drowned; ‘mersa.’ Cf. dreint, Met. 2, l. 1.
[59.]ner, nearer; comparative, not positive; ‘propius.’
[Metre 2. 2.]mintinge, intending; ‘tendit . . ire.’ Still in use in Cambridgeshire.
[8.]sterres of the cold moon: ‘gelidae sidera lunae.’ I suppose this means the constellations seen by moonlight, but invisible in the day. The expression sidus lunae, the moon’s bright form, occurs in Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 9. 6; but it is difficult to see how sidera can have the same sense, as some commentators say.
[9.]recourses, orbits; referring to the planets.
[16.]highteth, adorns; ‘ornet.’ Prob. from the sb. hight, hiht (A. S. hyht), joy, delight.
[17.]fleteth, flows (i.e. abounds); ‘grauidis influat uuis.’
[20.]empted: ‘Nunc iacet effeto lumine mentis.’
[22.]fool, i. e. foolish, witless, senseless; ‘stolidam.’
[Prose 2. 6.]armures, i. e. defensive armour; ‘arma.’
[8.]in sikernesse: ‘inuicta te firmitate tuerentur.’
[14.]litargie; better letargye, i. e. lethargy. Cf. Troil. i. 730.
[19.]yplyted, pleated into a wrinkle; ‘contracta in rugam ueste.’
[Metre 3. 1.]discussed, driven away; ‘discussâ . . . nocte.’
[4.]clustred; ‘glomerantur’; or ‘covered with clouds,’ as Chaucer says.
[5.]Chorus, Corus, or Caurus, the north-west wind.
[6.]ploungy, stormy, rainy; ‘nimbosis . . . imbribus.’
[8.]Borias, Boreas, the north wind, from Thrace.
[9.]caves; better cave, as in Caxton and Thynne; Lat. ‘antro.’ beteth; ‘uerberet’; hence Chaucer’s gloss.
[11.]y-shaken, ‘uibratus’; i. e. tremulous, sparkling.
[Prose 3. 2.]took, drew in, received light; ‘hausi caelum.’
[4.]beholde, the present tense; ‘respicio.’
[10.]norry, pupil, lit. nourished one; ‘alumne.’
[11.]parten the charge, share the burden.
[15.]redoute my blame, fear blame. agrysen, shudder.
[16.]quasi diceret non, as if she would say no; as if she expected the answer no. This remark is often inserted by Chaucer.
[19.]Plato;bc 428-347. Before his time, Solon, Anaxagoras, and Pythagoras all met with opposition. The fate of Socrates is well known.
[21.]The heritage: ‘Cuius hereditatem cum deinceps Epicureum uulgus ac Stoicum, ceterique pro sua quisque parte raptum ire molirentur, meque reclamantem renitentemque uelut in partem praedae detraherent, uestem, quam meis texueram manibus, disciderunt, abreptisque ab ea panniculis, totam me sibi cessisse credentes abiere.’
[38.]Anaxogore, Anaxagoras, a Greek philosopher (bc 500-428); exiled from Athens (bc 450).
[39.]Zeno; Zeno of Elea (see p. 420), born about bc 488, is said to have risked his life to defend his country. His fate is doubtful.
[40.]Senecciens, apparently meant for ‘the followers of Seneca.’ The original has: ‘at Canios, at Senecas, at Soranos . . . scire potuisti.’
[41.]Sorans, the Sorani; men like Soranus. Soranus is mentioned in Tacitus, Annal. xvi. 23. Caxton and Thynne read Soranos, as in the Latin text.
[42.]unsolempne, uncelebrated; ‘incelebris.’
[49.]it is to dispyse, it (the host) is to be despised.
[53.]ententif, busy about seizing useless baggage as spoil.
[56.]palis, also spelt paleis (O. F. palis), lit. a palisading, or a piece of strong paling, a rampart, used to translate Lat. uallum. When spelt paleis, it must not be confused with paleis, a palace.
[Metre 4. 3.]either fortune, good fortune or bad.
[5.]hete: ‘Versum funditus excitantis aestum.’ I suppose that aestum is rather ‘surge’ than ‘heat’ here. See Met. vii. below, l. 3.
[6.]Vesevus, ‘Veseuus’; the same as Vesuvius; cf. Vergil, Georg. ii. 224.
[7.]wrytheth, writhes out, throws forth wreaths of smoke. Here the old printed editions by Caxton and Thynne, as well as MS. Ii. 1. 38, happily restore the text; Lat. ‘Torquet.’
[8.]Caxton and Thynne have thonder-leyte, which is perhaps better. MS. Ii. 1. 38 has thonder leit.
[13.]stable of his right: ‘stabilis, suique iuris.’
[Prose 4. 2.]Artow lyk. The original is partly in Greek. ‘An ὄνος λύρας?’ Some MSS. have: ‘Esne ὄνος πρὸς λύραν?’ And MS. C. has: ‘Esne asinus ad liram?’ In an edition of Boethius by Renatus Vallinus, printed in 1656, I find the following note: ‘Ut et omnes veteres scripsere, Varro in satyra quæ Testamentum inscribitur apud Agellium, lib. iii. cap. xvi: Ii liberi, si erunt ὄνοι λύρας, exheredes sunto. Suidas ex Menandro, Lucianus, Martian. Capella, lib. viii., atque alii quos refert Erasmus, in eo adagio. Imo et apud Varronem id nominis satyra extitit.’ It has clearly a proverbial reference to dullness of perception. Ch. quotes it again in his Troilus, i. 731, where he so explains it.
[3.]why spillestow teres, why do you waste tears; ‘Quid lacrimis manas?’ After these words occur, in the original, four Greek words which Chaucer does not translate, viz.: Ἐξαύδα, μὴ κεν̂θε νόῳ: i. e. speak out, do not hide them in your mind; quoted from Homer, Iliad i. 363.
[7.]by him-self, in itself; ‘per se.’ Alluding to ‘sharpnesse,’ i. e. ‘asperitas.’
[15.]enformedest, didst conform; ‘formares.’
[17.]ordre of hevene; ‘ad caelestis ordinis exemplar.’ This refers to the words of Plato just at the end of the 9th book of The Republic: ἐν οὐρανῳ̑ ἴσως παράδειγμα ἀνάκειται. Cf. also the last lines of Book II of the present treatise.
[18.]confermedest (MS. A, enfourmedist), didst confirm; ‘sanxisti.’ The reading conformedest evidently arose from confusion with enformedest above, in l. 15.
[19.]mouth of Plato; referring to Book V (473 D) of the Republic: ἐὰν μὴ, ἢ οἱ ϕιλόσοϕοι βασιλεύσωσιν ἐν ταɩ̂ς πόλεσιν, ἢ οἱ βασιλη̂ς τε νν̂ν λεγόμενοι καὶ δυνάσται ϕιλοσοϕήσωσι γνησίως τε καὶ ἱκανω̂ς, καὶ τον̂το εἰς ταὐτὸν ξυμπέσῃ, δύναμίς τε πολιτικὴ καὶ ϕιλοσοϕία· τω̂ν δε νν̂ν πορευομένων χωρὶς ἐϕ’ ἑκάτερον αἱ πολλαὶ ϕύσεις ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἀποκλεισθω̂σιν, οὐκ ἕστι κακω̂ν παν̂λα . . ταɩ̂ς πόλεσι· δοκω̂ δὲ, οὐδὲ τῳ̑ ἀνθρωπίνῳ γένει.
[24.]the same Plato; in the 6th Dialogue on the Republic.
[25.]cause, reason; ‘caussam.’ wyse, i. e. ‘for wise men.’
[27.]felonous tormentours citizenes, citizens who are wicked and oppressive; the substantives are in apposition.
[33.]knowinge with me, my witnesses; ‘mihi . . . conscii.’
[36.]discordes . . preyeres; ‘inexorabilesque discordiae.’
[37.]for this libertee, &c.; ‘et quod conscientiae libertas habet.’
[41.]Conigaste, Conigastus, or Cunigastus; mentioned in Cassiodorus, Epist. lib. viii. ep. 28. The facts here referred to are known only from the present passage.
[43.]Trigwille, Triguilla; ‘regiae praepositum domus.’
[45.]auctoritee; ‘obiecta periculis auctoritate protexi.’
[52.]cariages, taxes; ‘uectigalibus.’ See a similar use in the Pers. Tale, I 752, and note.
[59.]inplitable, intricate: ‘inexplicabilis.’ coempcioun, an imposition so called; see Chaucer’s explanation below, in l. 64. In Greek, συνωνή.
[61.]Campaigne, Campania, in Italy. provost; ‘praefectum praetorii.’
[64-67.]See the footnote. I have here transposed this gloss, so as to make it follow, instead of preceding, the mention of coempcioun in the text.
[68.]Paulin, Decius Paulinus, consul in 498; mentioned in Cassiodorus, Epist. lib. i. epist. 23, lib. iii. epist. 29.
[69.]houndes; ‘Palatini canes.’
[73.]Albin, perhaps Decius Albinus, to whom Theodoric addressed a letter preserved in Cassiodorus, lib. iv. ep. 30. See l. 156 below.
[75.]Ciprian, Cyprian. We know something of him from two letters in Cassiodorus, Epist. v. 40, 41. Theodoric esteemed him highly. See a discussion of his career in H. F. Stewart’s Essay on Boethius, pp. 42-52.
[78.]to hem-ward, i. e. for the benefit of the officers around me; ‘mihi . . nihil apud aulicos, quo magis essem tutior. reseruaui.’
[81.]Basilius. Not much is known of him; see H. F. Stewart, as above, p. 48.
[82.]compelled, i. e. bribed to accuse me. for nede of foreine moneye: ‘alienae aeris necessitate.’
[84.]Opilion, Opilio; the Opilio mentioned in Cassiodorus, lib. v. epist. 41, and lib. viii. epist. 16, and brother of the Cyprian mentioned above, l. 75. His father’s name was Opilio likewise.
[89.]aperceived, made known. the king, i. e. Theodoric, king of Italy for 33 years, ad 493-526. His reign was, on the whole, good and glorious, but he committed the great crime of putting to death both Boethius and his aged father-in-law Symmachus, for which he afterwards expressed his deep repentance. See Gibbon’s Roman Empire. The chief record of his reign is in the collection of twelve books of public epistles composed in his name by Cassiodorus. The seat of his government was Ravenna, as mentioned below.
[93.]lykned; rather, added; Lat. ‘posse adstrui uidetur.’
[95-194.]See a translation into modern English of the whole of this passage, in H. F. Stewart’s Essay, pp. 37-41.
[101.]axestow in somme, if you ask particularly; ‘summam quaeris?’
[106, 107.]forsake, deny. have wold, have willed, did wish.
[109.]and that I confesse. Here Chaucer’s version seems to be quite at fault. ‘At uolui, nec unquam uelle desistam. Fatebimur? [MS. C. Et fatebimur.] Sed impediendi delatoris opera cessabit.’
[113.]by me, with regard to me; ‘de me.’
[117.]Socrates; in Plato’s Republic, Book VI: τὴν ἀψεύδειαν . . μισεɩ̂ν, τὴν δ’ ἀλήθειαν στέργειν (485 C).
[120.]preisen, appraise, judge of: ‘aestimandum.’
[131.]Canius, better Canus, i. e. ‘Julius Canus, whose philosophic death is described by Seneca, De Tranquillitate Animi, cap. xiv.’—Gibbon. He has already been mentioned above, Prose iii. l. 40.
[132.]Germeynes sone, the son of Germanicus. This Gaius Cæsar is better known as Caligula, the emperor who succeeded Tiberius.
[143.]famileres, friends, i. e. disciples, viz. Epicurus, in the De Ira Divina, cap. xiii (Stewart).
[154.]Verone, Verona; next to Ravenna, the favourite residence of Theodoric.
[156.]his real maiestee, high treason, lit. ‘his royal majesty’; Lat. ‘maiestatis crimen.’ The king was intent upon repressing all freedom of speech.
[167.]submittede, subdued: ‘summitteret.’
[171.]present, i. e. he would, even in such a case, have been allowed to appear in his defence, would have been called upon to confess his crime, and would have been condemned in a regular manner.
[173.]fyve hundred, nearly 500 miles. Boethius was imprisoned in a tower at Pavia.
[176.]as who seith, nay; i. e. it is said ironically. The senate well deserve that no one should ever defend them as I did, and be convicted for it.
[181.]sacrilege; glossed sorcerie: ‘sacrilegio.’ Sorcery or magic is intended. ‘At the command of the barbarians, the occult science of a philosopher was stigmatised with the names of sacrilege and magic.’—Gibbon. See below, l. 196.
[186.]Pictagoras, Pythagoras. The saying here attributed to him is given in the original in Greek—ἕπου θεῳ̑. Some MSS. add the gloss, i. deo non diis seruiendum. MS. C. has: deo et non diis sacrificandum.
[188.]I, i. e. for me. A remarkable grammatical use.
[190.]right clene: ‘penetral innocens domus.’
[193.]thorugh, i. e. for. Caxton and Thynne read for.
[195.]feith: ‘de te tanti criminis fidem capiunt.’
[198.]it suffiseth nat only . . but-yif, this alone is insufficient . . unless thou also, &c. of thy free wille: ‘ultro.’
[212.]good gessinge, high esteem: ‘existimatio bona.’
[215.]charge, burden, load: ‘sarcinam.’
[219.]by gessinge, in men’s esteem: ‘existimatione.’
[223.]for drede: ‘nostri discriminis terrore.’
[Metre 5. 1.]whele, sphere: ‘orbis.’ Not only were there seven spheres allotted to the planets, but there was an eighth larger sphere, called the sphere of fixed stars, and a ninth ‘sphere of first motion,’ or primum mobile, which revolved round the earth once in 24 hours, according to the Ptolemaic astronomy. This is here alluded to. God is supposed to sit in an immoveable throne beyond it.
[3.]sweigh, violent motion; the very word used in the same connexion in the Man of Lawes Tale, B 296; see note to that passage.
[4.]ful hornes, i. e. her horns filled up, as at full moon, when she meets ‘with alle the bemes’ of the Sun, i. e. reflects them fully.
[7.]derke hornes, horns faintly shining, as when the moon, a thin crescent, is near the sun and nearly all obscured.
[9.]cometh eft ayein hir used cours, returns towards her accustomed course, i. e. appears again, as usual, as a morning-star, in due course. I think the text is incorrect; for cometh read torneth, i. e. turns. Lat. text: ‘Solitas iterum mutet habenas.’ The planet Venus, towards one apparent extremity of her orbit, follows the sun, as an evening-star; and again, towards the other apparent extremity, precedes it as a morning-star. So Cicero, De Nat. Deorum, ii. 20. 53: ‘dicitur Lucifer, cum antegreditur solem, cum subsequitur autem, Hesperus.’
[11.]restreinest, shortenest; the sun’s apparent course being shorter in winter. Lat. ‘stringis.’
[13.]swifte tydes, short times; viz. of the summer nights.
[19.]Arcturus, a Boötis, in the sign Libra; conspicuous in the nights of spring.
[20.]Sirius, or Canis Maioris, or the Dog-star, in the sign of Cancer; seen before sun-rise in the so-called dog-days, in July and August. It was supposed that the near approach of Sirius to the Sun caused great heat.
[21.]his lawe, i. e. ‘its law’; and so again in his propre.
[28.]on. Caxton and Thynne rightly read on.
[29.]derke derknesses, obscure darkness: ‘obscuris . . . tenebris.’ Not a happy expression.
[31.]covered and kembd: ‘compta.’ Cf. kembde in Squi. Ta. F 560.
[37.]erthes, lands; the pl. is used, to translate ‘terras.’
[41.]bonde, i. e. the chain of love; see Bk. ii. Met. 8. l. 15.
[Prose 5. 1.]borken out, barked out; ‘delatraui.’ MS. A. changes borken into broken. The glossaries, &c., all seem to miss this excellent example of the strong pp. of berken. Borken appears as a pt. t. pl. in the King of Tars, l. 400. The A. S. pp. borcen appears in the A. S. Leechdoms, ed. Cockayne, i. 170, l. 17.
[14.]oo . . king. The original is in Greek—ε[Editor: illegible character]ς κοίρανος ἐστὶν, ε[Editor: illegible character]ς βασιλεύς: quoted from Homer, Iliad, ii. 204, with the change from ἔστω to ἐστίν.
[18, 19.]thy citee, i. e. the city of heaven; note the context.
[887.]‘And, to augment all this the more.’
[890-966.]This is all Chaucer’s own; so also 994-1008.
[916.]a blaunche fevere, a fever that turns men white; said jocosely. Lovers were supposed to be pale; Ovid, Art. Am. i. 729. Cotgrave is somewhat more precise. He gives: ‘Fievres blanches, the agues wherewith maidens that have the green sickness are troubled; hence, Il a les fievres blanches, either he is in love, or sick of wantonness.’ In the Cuckoo and the Nightingale, l. 41, we find: ‘I am so shaken with the feveres white.’
[932.]beet; beat thy breast (to shew thy repentance). Cf. P. Plowm. B. v. 454.
[956.]A proverb. ‘The more haste, the worse speed (success).’ Cf. Bk. iii. 1567, and The Tale of Melibeus, B 2244.
[969.]‘A bon port estes arrivés’; Rom. de la Rose, 12964.
[977.]Fil. ii. st. 27: ‘Io credo certo, ch’ ogni donna in voglia Viva amorosa.’
[1000.]post, pillar, support; as in Prol. A 214.
[1002.]Cf. ‘The greater the sinner, the greater the saint.’
[1011.]Understand he. ‘He became, as one may say, untormented of his wo.’
[1024.]cherl, man. ‘You are afraid the man will fall out of the moon! Alluding to the old notion that the spots on the moon’s surface represent a man with a bundle of sticks. See the curious poem on this subject in Wright’s Specimens of Lyric Poetry, p. 110; also printed in Ritson’s Ancient Songs, i. 68, and in Böddeker’s Altenglische Dichtungen, p. 176, where a fear is expressed that the man may fall out of the moon. Cf. Temp. ii. 2. 141; Mids. Nt. Dr. v. 1. 249; and see Alex. Neckam, ed. Wright, pp. xviii, 54.
[1026.]‘Why, meddle with that which really concerns you,’ i. e. mind your own business. Some copies needlessly turn this into a question, and insert ne before hast.
[1038.]‘And am I to be thy surety?’
[1050.]Scan: ‘And yet m’ athink’th . . . m’asterte.’ The sense is: ‘And yet it repents me that this boast should escape me.’
[1051.]Deficient in the first foot: ‘Now | Pandáre.’ So in l. 1069.
[1052.]‘But thou, being wise, thou knowest,’ &c. In this line, thou seems to be emphatic throughout.
[1058.]Read désiróus; as in Book ii. 1101, and Sq. Ta. F 23.
[1070.]Pandare is here trisyllabic; with unelided -e.
[1078.]The same line occurs in the Clerk. Ta. E 413.
[1088.]‘And is partly well eased of the aching of his wound, yet is none the more healed; and, like an easy patient (i. e. a patient not in pain), awaits (lit. abides) the prescription of him that tries to cure him; and thus he perseveres in his destiny.’ Dryveth forth means ‘goes on with,’ or ‘goes through with.’ The reading dryeth, i. e. endures, is out of place here, as it implies suffering; whereas, at the present stage, Troilus is extremely hopeful.
[586.]were never, never would be; were is in the subjunctive mood.
[611.]Thascry, for The ascry, the alarm. Ascry occurs in Wyclif, Prov. vii. 6.
[615.]latis, lattice. The reading yates, gates, is wrong, as shewn by l. 617.
[618.]Dardanus, ancestor of Priam. Cf. Dardanidae, i. e. Trojans, Verg. Aen. i. 560, ii. 72, &c. Troy had six gates, according to Guido; the strongest of these was Dardanus; see the allit. Destruction of Troy, ed. Panton and Donaldson, l. 1557, Lydgate, Siege of Troy, b. ii. c. 11, and Shakespeare’s Prologue to his Troilus.
[621.]happy, fortunate. It was a lucky day for him.
[627.]a pas, at a foot-pace; see Prol. A 825, and l. 620 above.
[637.]an heven, a beautiful sight; cf. Sq. Ta. F 558.
[639.]tissew, lace, twisted band; from F. tistre, to weave.
[642.]The shield was covered with horn, sinews or nerf, and skin or rind.
[651.]‘Who has given me a love-potion?’
[656.]for pure ashamed, for being completely ashamed, i. e. for very shame. A curious idiom.
[666.]envýous, envious person; accented on y, as in l. 857.
[677.]Ma | de; two syllables. The first foot is imperfect.
[681.]The astrological term ‘house’ has two senses; it sometimes means a zodiacal sign, as when, e. g. Taurus is called the ‘house’ or mansion of Venus; and sometimes it has another sense, as, probably, in the present passage. See Chaucer’s treatise on the Astrolabe, pt. ii. § 37, on ‘the equations of houses.’ In the latter case, the whole celestial sphere was divided into twelve equal parts, called ‘houses,’ by great circles passing through the north and south points of the horizon. The first of these, reckoning upwards from the eastern horizon, was called the first house, and the seventh house, being opposite to it, was reckoned downwards from the western horizon. The first and seventh houses were both considered very fortunate; and it is here said that Venus was in her seventh house, i. e. was just below the western horizon at the moment when Criseyde first saw him. The same planet was also ‘well disposed,’ i. e. in a favourable sign of the zodiac; and at the same time was ‘pleased (or made propitious) by favourable aspects’ of other planets, i. e. other planets were favourably situated as regards their angular distances from Venus. Moreover, Venus was no foe to Troilus in his nativity, i. e. she was also favourably situated at the moment of his birth.
[716.]Imitated from Le Rom. de la Rose, 5765-9, q. v.
[746.]‘I am one (who is) the fairest.’ The -e in fairest-e is not elided neither is the -e in wist-e in l. 745.
[750.]I. e. ‘I am my own mistress.’
[752.]lese, pasture; ‘I stand, unfastened, in a pleasant pasture.’ From A. S. lǣsu. Cf. Ho. Fame, 1768. It does not mean ‘leash,’ as usually said; Chaucer’s form of ‘leash’ is lees, as in Cant. Ta. G 19.
[754.]chekmat, check-mate, as in chess; see Book Duch. 659. Bell sees a pun in it; ‘check to my mate,’ i. e. wife; but it remains to be shewn that the form mate (wife) was known to Chaucer, who spells it make (Cant. Ta. E 2080).
[759.]I. e. ‘I am not a nun,’ nor vowed to chastity.
[767, 769.]sprat, for spredeth, spreads, pres. t.; spradde, pt. t. Cf. Boethius, Bk. i. Met. 3. 9-12.
[777.]According to Bell, MS. Harl. 1239 also has why, i. e. wherefore, a reason why, cause.
[784.]Cf. ‘S’il fait folie, si la boive;’ Rom. Rose, 12844.
[797.]‘No one stumbles over it;’ for it is too unsubstantial.
[802.]‘Yet all things seem to them to be harmful, wherein folks please their friends.’
[807.]‘Nothing venture, nothing have.’
[830.]hertes lust, heart’s pleasure; to rente, by way of rent.
[831.]no wight, to no one; dat. case.
[861.]See Hazlitt’s notes on the proverb—‘Many talk of Robin Hood, that never shot in his bow,’ &c.
[866.]‘Who cannot endure sorrow deserves no joy.’
[867.]‘And therefore let him, who has a glass head, beware of stones cast in battle.’
[882.]let, short for ledeth, leads (Stratmann).
[884.]The MSS. end the line with syke. It has been pointed out that syke is not a perfect rime to endyte, whyte, but only an assonance. It is difficult to believe Chaucer guilty of this oversight; and hence I would suggest, with all submission to the critics, that possibly Chaucer wrote syte. The M. E. syte means to be anxious, and occurs in the Cursor Mundi, 11675; where Joseph says to Mary:—‘Bot I site for an other thing That we o water has nu wanting,’ i. e. but I am anxious about another thing, that we lack water. The sb. site, grief, occurs in the Midland dialect as well as in Northumbrian; see site in Stratmann. As the word is unusual, it would naturally be altered by the scribes to the familiar syke, to sigh, with a cognate meaning.
[920.]‘And loude he song ageyn the sonne shene;’ Kn. Ta. A 1509.
[959.]‘Unless lack of pursuit is the cause (of failure),’ &c.; cf. 1075.
[964.]hameled, cut off, docked; cf. P. Pl. Crede, 300.
[1001.]‘Your ill hap is not owing to me.’
[1017.]Read And úpon mé, where me is emphatic.
[1022.]When people’s ears glow, it is because they are being talked of; according to folk-lore. See Brand’s Popular Antiquities, ed. Ellis, iii. 171.
[1026.]‘Sed lateant uires, nec sis in fronte disertus;’ Ovid, Art. Am. i. 463.
[1027.]‘Quascunque adspicies, lacrimae fecere lituras;’ Ovid, Heroid. iii. 3.
[1033.]‘Or always harp one tune.’
[1041.]‘Humano capiti,’ &c.; Horace, Ars Poet. 1-5. pyk, a pike (fish), as in the Balade to Rosemounde, 17.
[1062.]Accent Mínervá on the first and third syllables.
[1075-7.]it made, was the cause of it. ley, lied.
[1107.]hoppe, dance. ‘I always dance in the rear.’
[1108.]to-laugh (H2, to lagh, Cm. to law), laughed exceedingly. I know of no other example. A better form is to-lough; see l. 1163, and Pard. Ta. C 476.
[1119.]spek-e, might speak, should say; pt. t. subjunctive.
[1123.]sent, i. e. sendeth, sends; the pt. t. is sent-e or send-e.
[1177-8.]Avysed, she took notice; pt. tense. So also fond, found, which Bell takes to be a pp.; but the pp. is founden. Coude good, knew what was becoming. So, in l. 1197, Can he means ‘has he skill.’
[1201, 1204.]sowe, to sew the pieces of parchment together. Tyrwhitt remarks, s. v. sowe; ‘It was usual, and indeed necessary, formerly to sew letters, when they were written upon parchment; but the practice continued long after the invention of paper.’ plyte, to fold it up.
[1229.]‘A cushion, beaten with gold;’ cf. Kn. Ta. A 979.
[1238.]A proverb: ‘slight impressions soon fade.’
[1249.]Tyrwhitt, s. v. somme, boggles over this line, but it is quite right. Bell takes occasion to speak of the ‘rugged lines’ to be found in this poem; which is true enough of his own peculiar text. In Beowulf, l. 207, we have fiftēna sum, one of fifteen, where the cardinal number is used; and this is the usual idiom. But the ordinal number is used also. In St. Juliana, p. 79, we read that ‘te sea sencte him on his thrituthe sum,’ the sea drowned him and ‘thirtieth some’ of his men, which I understand to mean ‘and twenty-nine of his men,’ the master being the thirtieth; but Mr. Cockayne and Mr. Bradley make it mean ‘him and thirty others.’ So again, in Sir Tristrem, 817, we have: ‘He busked and made him yare hi[s] fiftend som of knight,’ he made ready for himself his ‘fifteenth some’ of knights, which I should explain to mean a band of fifteen knights, himself included, or, himself being the fifteenth. Some in such phrases has a collective force. However, the examples in Bosworth and Toller’s A. S. Dict., s. v. sum, shew that this mode of expression is also sometimes used exclusively of the leader.
[1274.]on to pyke, for her to pick upon, or pick at; i. e. for her to pull out; see l. 1273. See examples in Halliwell, s. v. pike, of ‘to pyke out thornes,’ to pick out thorns.
[1276.]Cf. ‘to strike while the iron is hot;’ see Melibeus, B 2226.
[1289.]‘But therein he had much to heave at and to do.’
[1291.]‘And why? for fear of shame.’ Cm. has for speche, i. e. for fear of talk or scandal.
[1315.]accesse, attack, as of fever. See New E. Dict.
[1343.]refreyde, grow cool; cf. Balade to Rosemounde, l. 21.
[1349.]after his gestes, according to his deeds, or adventures.
[1390.]forbyse, to give (thee) instances. Hardly a correct form; it should rather be forbysne, short for forbysnen, as the verb is formed from the sb. forbysne, A. S. forebȳsen, an example, instance. The word was obsolescent.
[1398.]Deiphebus (= Dé’phěbús) is always trisyllabic.
[1410.]He means that he would do more for him than for any one, ‘except for him whom he loves most,’ i. e. Troilus.
[1427.]‘With spur and whip,’ i. e. with all expedition.
[1495.]word and ende, beginning and end; cf. iii. 702, v. 1669. The right phrase is ord and ende, where ord is ‘beginning;’ but it would seem that, by Chaucer’s time, word had been corruptly substituted for the obsolescent ord. See Monk. Ta. B 3911, and the note.
[1534.]triste, station for a huntsman to shoot from. See Tristre in Stratmann.
[1554.]renne, to run, like an excited madman.
[1564.]‘Bon fait prolixite foïr;’ Rom. de la Rose, 18498.
[1581.]‘Although it does not please her to recommend (a remedy).’
[1594.]To mowen, to have it in her power; A. S. mugan.
[1650.]for my bettre arm, not even to save my right arm.
[1661.]him thar nought, ‘him needeth not,’ he need not do.
[1735.]An obscure allusion. ‘Perhaps it means, in regard for the king and queen, his parents;’ Bell. My own guess is different. I think it quite possible that Chaucer is referring to the two ‘crowns’ or garlands, one of roses and one of lilies, about which so much is said in his early work entitled the Lyf of Seint Cecile, afterwards called the Second Nonnes Tale (see G 270). Thus Pandarus, with his usual impudence, conjures Criseyde to pity Troilus by two solemn adjurations, viz. for the sake of Him who gave us all our souls, and by the virtue of the two heavenly crowns which an angel once brought to a chaste couple. He thus boldly insinuates that the proposed meeting is of the most innocent character. This I take to be the whole point of the allusion.
[1737.]‘Fie on the devil!’ I. e. despise detraction.
[1738.]com of, come off; we now say ‘come on!’ See ll. 1742, 1750.
[1751.]‘But now (I appeal) to you.’
[1752.]cankedort, a state of suspense, uncertainty, or anxiety; as appears from the context. The word occurs nowhere else. Only one MS. (H2) has the spelling kankerdort, usually adopted in modern editions; Thynne has cankedorte, but it needs no final e. The etymology is unknown nor do we even know how to divide it. There is a verb kanka, to shake, be unsteady, &c., in Swedish dialects (Rietz), and the Swed. ort is a place, quarter; if there is any relationship, kanked-ort might mean ‘shaky place,’ or ticklish position. Another theory is that canker relates to canker, a cancer, disease, and that dort is related to Lowl. Sc. dort, sulkiness. But this is assuming that the right spelling is canker-dort, a theory which the MSS. do not favour. Neither does the sense of ‘ill-humour’ seem very suitable. As I am bound, in this difficult case, to suggest what I can, I must add that it is also possible to suppose that cankedort is of French origin, answering to an O. F. quant que dort, lit. ‘whenever he is asleep (?),’ or ‘although he is asleep (?);’ and hence (conceivably) meaning ‘in a sleepy state.’ The phrase quant que, also spelt kan ke (and in many other ways) is illustrated by a column of examples in Godefroy’s Dictionary; but its usual sense is ‘as well as,’ or ‘whatever’; thus kan ke poet=as well as he can. Or can we make it=com ki dort, like one who sleeps?
[584.]goosish, goose-like, silly. This delicious epithet was turned into gofysshe by Thynne, and modern editions perpetuate the blunder. Tyrwhitt derived gofish from F. goffe, a word which is much later than Chaucer, and was probably merely adapted from Ital. goffo, stupid. The Century Dict. goes a step further, inserting a second f, and producing a form goffish, against all authority. Cf. Parl. Foules, 568, 586.
[601.]stewe, small chamber, closet; cf. G. Stube.
[602.]‘Where he was shut in, as in a coop.’
[609.]‘There was no dainty to be fetched’; they were all there.
[614.]Wade; this is the hero mentioned in the Merch. Tale, E 1424; see note.
[617-620.]Cf. Boethius, Bk. iv. Pr. 6. 60-68.
[622.]‘Without her leave, at the will of the gods.’
[624.]bente, i.e. curved, crescent; see l. 549. Cf. Boeth. Bk. I. Met. 5. 6, 7.
[625.]The Moon, Saturn, and Jupiter were all in conjunction in Cancer, which was the mansion of the moon. We are to understand that this caused the great rain.
[640.]ron, rained; so also in l. 677. The usual pt. t. is reinede, but we also find roon, ron, as in P. Plowm. B. xiv. 66 (C. xvi. 270), and in Trevisa, tr. of Higden, ii. 239. The pt. t. of A. S. rignan, rīnan, is usually rīnde; but the strong pt. rān occurs in the Blickling Glosses.
[648.]a game, in game; a = an, on; Cm. has on.
[671.]The wyn anon, the wine (shall come) at once; alluding to the wine drunk just before going to bed. See Prol. A 819, 820.
[674.]‘The voidè being drunk, and the cross curtain drawn immediately afterwards.’ The best reading is voyde or voydee. This seems to be here used as a name for the ‘loving-cup’ or ‘grace-cup,’ which was drunk after the table had been cleared or voided. Properly, it was a slight dessert of ‘spices’ and wine; where spices meant sweetmeats, dried fruits, &c. See Notes and Queries, 2 S. xi. 508. The traverse was a screen or curtain drawn across the room; cf. Cant. Ta. E 1817; King’s Quair, st. 90. See Additional Note, p. 506.
[690.]This refers to the attendants. They were no longer allowed to skip about (run on errands) or to tramp about noisily, but were packed off to bed, with a malediction on those who stirred about. Traunceth, tramps about, is used of a bull by Gower, C. A. ii. 72. In Beaumont and Fletcher, Fair Maid of the Inn, v. 2, we find—‘but, traunce the world over, you shall never,’ &c. For traunce, Thynne reads praunce, which has a similar sense. Morris explains traunce here as a sb., which seems impossible.
[695.]The olde daunce, the old game; see Prol. A 476.
[696.]sey, saw; perhaps read seye, subj., might perceive. If so, read al, i.e. every.
[702.]‘Beginning and end;’ see note to bk. II. 1495.
[711.]I. e. or else upset everything; cf. the phrase, ‘all the fat is in the fire.’
[716.]Mars and Saturn both had an evil influence.
[717.]combust, quenched, viz. by being too near the sun; see Astrolabe, pt. ii. § 4. Venus and Mercury, when thus ‘combust,’ lost their influence. let, hindered.
[721.]Adoon, Adonis; see Ovid, Met. x. 715.
[722.]Europe, Europa; see Leg. of Good Women, 113, and note.
[725.]Cipris, Venus; see Ho. Fame, 518.
[726.]Dane, Daphne; see Kn. Ta. A 2062.
[729.]Mercúrie, Mercury; Herse, daughter of Cecrops, beloved by Mercury. Her sister, Aglauros, had displeased Minerva (Pallas); whereupon Minerva made Aglauros envious of Herse. Mercury turned Aglauros into stone because she hindered his suit. See Ovid, Met. ii. 708-832.
[733.]‘Fatal sisters;’ i. e. the Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. ‘Which spun my destiny, before any cloth (infant’s covering) was made for me.’ See Kn. Ta. A 1566; Leg. G. Wom. 2629.
[764.]Let sleeping dogs lie; a proverb.
[773.]‘To hold in hand’ is to feed with false hopes, to delude by pretended love.
[775.]Lit. ‘and make him a hood above a cap.’ A calle (caul) was a close-fitting cap, a skull-cap. To put on a hood over this evidently means to cover up the eyes, to cajole, to hoodwink.
[791, 797.]shal, owe to. sholde love, i. e. are reported to love.
[813-836.]Founded on Boethius, lib. II. Pr. 4. ‘Quàm multis amaritudinibus humanae felicitatis dulcedo respersa est! . . . Anxia enim res est humanorum conditio bonorum, et quae uel numquam tota proueniat, uel numquam perpetua subsistat. . . . Ad haec, quem caduca ista felicitas uehit, uel scit eam, uel nescit esse mutabilem. Si nescit, quaenam beata sors esse potest ignorantiae caecitate? Si scit, metuat necesse est, ne amittat, quod amitti potest non dubitat; quare continuus timor non sinit esse felicem. . . . quonam modo praesens uita facere beatos potest?’ See the E. version, ll. 86, 56, 109.
[839.]‘Why hast thou made Troilus distrust me?’
[853, 854.]‘Danger is drawn nearer by delay.’ We say, ‘Delays are dangerous.’ Cf. Havelok, l. 1352. abodes, abidings, tarryings.
[855.]Néc’, with elided e, forms the first foot. ‘Every thing has its time;’ cf. Eccl. iii. 1.
[861.]farewel feldefare, (and people will say) farewell, fieldfare! Cf. Rom. Rose, 5510. In the Rom. Rose, it refers to false friends, who, when fortune frowns, say ‘Go! farewell fieldfare,’ i. e. Begone, we have done with you. As fieldfares come here in the winter months, people are glad to see them go, as a sign of approaching summer. In the present case, the sense appears to be that, when an opportunity is missed, the harm is done; and people will cry, ‘farewell, fieldfare!’ by way of derision. We might paraphrase the line by saying: ‘the harm is done, and nobody cares.’
[885.]blewe, blue; the colour of constancy.
[890.]‘Hazle-bushes shake.’ This is a truism known to every one, and no news at all; in like manner, your ring will tell him nothing, and is useless.
[901.]feffe him, enfeoff him, bestow on him. whyte, fair.
[919.]at pryme face, at the first glance; primâ facie.
[931.]At dulcarnon, at a non-plus, in extreme perplexity. Dulcarnon, as pointed out by Selden, in his Pref. to Drayton’s Polyolbion, represents the Pers. and Arab. dū’lkarnayn, lit. two-horned; from Pers. dū,[ ] two, and karn, horn. It was a common medieval epithet of Alexander the Great, who was so called because he claimed descent from Jupiter Ammon, whose image was provided with horns like a ram. Speght rightly says that Dulcarnon was also a name for the 47th prop. of Euclid, Book I, but gives a false reason and etymology. The real reason is plain enough, viz. that the two smaller squares in the diagram stick up like two horns. And, as this proposition is somewhat difficult for beginners, it here takes the sense of ‘puzzle;’ hence Criseyde was at Dulcarnon, because she was in perplexity. Speght refers to Alex. Neckam, De Naturis Rerum; see Wright’s edition, p. 295.
[934.]It, i. e. Dulcarnon, or Euclid’s proposition. ‘It seems hard, because the wretched pupils will not learn it, owing to their very sloth or other wilful defects.’
[936.]This = this is; as elsewhere. fecches, vetches.
[947.]Understand be; ‘where (I hope) good thrift may be.’ Cf. 966.
[978.]fere, fire; as in Bk. i. 229. Usually fyre.
[979.]fond his contenaunce, lit. found his demeanour, i. e. composed himself as if to read.
[1010.]wivere, viper; O. F. wivre (F. givre), from Lat. uipera. The heraldic wiver or wyvern became a wondrous winged dragon, with two legs; wholly unlike the original viper. See Thynne’s Animadversions, &c., ed. Furnivall, p. 41.
[1013.]‘Alas! that he, either entirely, or a slice of him.’
[1021.]‘That sufferest undeserved jealousy (to exist).’
[1029.]after that, accordingly; his, its.
[1035.]See note to Bk. ii. 784.
[1046.]ordal, ordeal, trial by ordeal, i. e. by fire or water. See Thynne’s Animadversions, ed. Furnivall, p. 66.
[1056.]wreigh, covered; A. S. wrāh; see wrīhen in Stratmann.
[1064.]shoures, assaults. Bell actually substitutes stouris, as being ‘clearly the true reading.’ But editors have no right to reject real words which they fail to understand. Shour sometimes means a shower of arrows or darts, an assault, &c.; cf. A.S. hildescūr, a flight of missiles. In fact, it recurs in this sense in Bk. iv. 47, where Bell again turns it into stoure, against authority.
[1067.]‘For it seemed to him not like (mere) strokes with a rod . . . but he felt the very cramp of death.’
[1106.]al forgeve, all is forgiven. stint, stopped.
[1154.]bar him on honde, assured him.
[1177.]‘For a crime, there is mercy (to be had).’
[1194.]sucre be or soot, may be like sugar or like soot, i. e. pleasant or the reverse. We must read soot (not sote, sweet, as in Bell) because it rimes with moot. Moreover, soot was once proverbially bitter. ‘Bittrore then the sote’ occurs in Altenglische Dichtungen, ed. Boddeker, p. 121; and in Rutebuef’s Vie Sainte Marie l’Egiptianne, ed. Jubinal, 280, we find ‘plus amer que suie;’ cf. Rom. Rose, 10670: ‘amer Plus que n’est suie.’
[1215.]Cf. ‘Bitter pills may have sweet effects;’ Hazlitt’s Proverbs.
[1231.]Bitrent, for bitrendeth, winds round; cf. iv. 870. wryth, for wrytheth, writhes.
[1235.]‘When she hears any shepherd speak.’
[1249.]‘And often invoked good luck upon her snowy throat.’
[1257.]welwilly, full of good will, propitious.
[1258.]Imeneus, Hymenæus, Hymen; cf. Ovid, Her. xiv. 27.
[1282.]‘Mercy prevails over (lit. surpasses) justice.’
[1344.]‘Or else do I dream it?’
[1357.]sooth, for sooth is, i. e. it is true.
[1369.]Bell takes scripture to mean the mottos or posies on the rings. Perhaps this is right.
[1374.]holt, holds; ‘that holds it in despite.’
[1375.]‘Of the money, that he can heap up and lay hold of.’ For mokren, cf. Chaucer’s Boethius, Bk ii. Pr. 5. 11. Pens, pence, is a translation of Ital. denari, money, in the Filostrato, Book iii. st. 38.
[1384.]the whyte, silver coins; the rede, gold coins.
[1389.]Myda, Midas; see Wyf of Bathes Tale, D 951.
[1391.]Crassus; wantonly altered to Cresus in Bell’s edition, on the ground that the story is told of Croesus. But Chaucer knew better. M. Crassus, surnamed Dives (the Rich), was slain in battle against the Parthians, bc 53. Orodes, king of Parthia, caused molten gold to be poured into the mouth of his dead enemy, saying, ‘Sate thyself now with that metal of which, in life, thou wast so greedy;’ Cicero, Att. vi. 1. 14; Floras, iii. 11. 4.
[1407.]‘And to counterbalance with joy their former woe’
[1415.]The cock is called a common astrologer (i. e. astronomer), because he announces to all the time of day; cf. Non. Pr. Ta. B 4043; Parl. Foules, 350. Translated from ‘vulgaris astrologus;’ Alanus.
[1417, 9.]Lucifer, the morning-star, the planet Venus. Fortuna maior, the planet Jupiter. Mars and Saturn were supposed to have an evil influence; the Sun, Mercury, and Moon, had no great influence either way; whilst Jupiter and Venus had a good influence, and were therefore called, respectively, Fortuna maior and Fortuna minor. See G. Douglas, ed. Small, ii. 288. The MSS. have that anoon, (it happened) that anon; but this requires us to suppose so awkward an ellipsis that it is better to read than, answering to whan.
[1428.]Almena, Alcmena; a note in MS. H. has: ‘Almena mater Herculis.’ Alcmena was the mother of Hercules by Jupiter. Jupiter lengthened the night beyond its usual limit. Plautus has a play on the subject, called Amphitruo, as Jupiter personated Amphitryon.
[1437-9.]ther, wherefore; ‘wherefore (I pray that) God, creator of nature, may bind thee so fast to our hemisphere,’ &c. A similar construction occurs in l. 1456.
[1453.]bore, aperture, chink; ‘for every chink lets in one of thy bright rays.’ See New E. Dict.
[1462.]Engravers of small seals require a good light.
[1464.]Tytan, Titan, frequently used as synonymous with the sun; as in Ovid, Met. i. 10. Chaucer has confused him with Tithonus, the husband of Aurora, whom he denotes by dawing in l. 1466, and by morwe in l. 1469.
[1490.]Read wer-e, in two syllables. these worldes tweyne seems to mean ‘two worlds such as this.’
[1495.]This somewhat resembles Verg. Ecl. i. 60-4.
[1502.]‘Even if I had to die by torture;’ as in Bk. i. 674.
[1514.]mo, others; see note to Cler. Ta. E 1039.
[1546.]‘Desire burnt him afresh, and pleasure began to arise more than at first.’ Cf. the parallel line in Leg. Good Wom. 1156: ‘Of which ther gan to breden swich a fyr.’ Yet Bell rejects this reading as being ‘not at all in Chaucer’s manner,’ and prefers nonsense.
[1577.]‘Christ forgave those who crucified him.’
[1600.]Cf. Æneid. vi. 550:—
[1625.]From Boethius, lib. ii. Pr. 4: ‘Sed hoc est, quod recolentem uehementius coquit. Nam in omni aduersitate fortunae infelicissimum genus est infortunii, fuisse felicem.’ Cf. Dante, Inf. v. 121; Tennyson, Locksley Hall—‘That a sorrow’s crown of sorrow is remembering happier things.’
[1634.]Cf. Rom. de la Rose, 8301-4; from Ovid, Art. Amat. ii. 13.
[1642.]Ne I, read N’I. rakle, behave rashly; it is plainly a verb, formed from the adj. rakel. Morris inserts ben after rakel, to the ruin of the scansion. Cf. Norweg. rakla, to ramble, totter, be unsteady (Aasen); Swed. dial. rakkla, to rove (Rietz); Icel. reka, to drive.
[1649.]I shal, I owe; A.S. ic sceal.
[1687.]comprende, comprehend; F. comprendre. This is clearly the right form. In the Sq. Ta. F 223, though the MSS. have comprehende, it is obvious that comprende is the real reading.
[1703.]Pirous, i. e. Pyroeis, one of the four horses that drew the chariot of the sun. The other three were Eöus, Æthon, and Phlegon; see Ovid, Met. ii. 153.
[1705.]‘Have taken some short cut, to spite me.’
[1732.]‘To the extent of a single knot.’ It would not be necessary to explain this, if it were not for Bell’s explanation of knot as ‘gnat.’
[1734.]y-masked, enmeshed; cf. A.S. masc, a mesh.
[1744-68.]Paraphrased from Boethius, lib. ii. Met. 8; but note that the lines italicised are transposed, and represent ll. 1744-1750:
[1764.]halt to-hepe, holds together, preserves in concord. Bell and Morris have the corrupt reading to kepe. To hepe, to a heap, became the adv. to-hepe, together. It occurs again in Ch. Astrolabe, Part I. § 14, and in Boethius, Bk. iv. Pr. 6. 182. Cf. ‘gaderen tresor to-hepe,’ Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, p. 325; ‘han brought it to-hepe,’ P. Ploughman’s Crede, l. 727.
[1766.]‘That Love, by means of his power, would be pleased,’ &c.
[1779.]In tyme of trewe, in time of truce; as in Boccaccio, Fil. iii. st. 91. Bell wrongly has Out of Troy. Morris alters trewe to trewes; but see Bk. iv. l. 1312.
[1805.]These are four of the seven deadly sins; see Pers. Tale.
[1807.]lady, i. e. Venus, called Dionaea as being daughter of Dione; Æneid. iii. 19. Cf. Homer, Il. v. 370.
[1809.]The nine Muses. Helicon was a long way from Mount Parnassus; but see notes to Anelida, 15, and Ho. Fame, 521.
[1817.]‘As it pleases my author to relate.’
[556.]‘Then think I, this would injure her reputation.’
[583.]‘But if I had so ardent a love, and had thy rank.’
[588.]Cf. the phrase ‘a nine days’ wonder.’ Lat. nouendiale sacrum; Livy, i. 31.
[600.]‘Audentes Fortuna iuuat;’ Æneid. x. 284; ‘Fortes Fortuna adiuuat’; Terence, Phormio, i. 4. 26.
[602.]‘Unhardy is unsely;’ Reves Ta. A 4210.
[603.]For litel, MS. H. and Thynne have lite. It makes no difference, either to the sense or the scansion.
[607.]for ferd, for fear (H2. for drede; Thynne, for feare). Properly for ferde, as in Ho. Fame, 950; but often shortened to for ferd. Ferde or ferd is tolerably common as a sb., but some scribes hardly understood it. Hence MSS. Cl. and H. have of-fered, i. e. greatly frightened.
[618.]Cf. Kn. Ta. A 1163-8; and the notes.
[622.]‘Boldly stake the world on casts of the dice.’ Cf. Cant. Tales, B 125, C 653, and the notes.
[627.]Nearly repeated in Kn. Tale, A 1010.
[630.]‘The devil help him that cares about it.’
[659-61.]From Boccaccio, Fil. iv. st. 78; cf. Æneid. iv. 188.
[683.]‘And expected to please her.’ For pitous Ioye represents ‘pietosa allegrezza,’ Fil. iv. st. 80.
[684.]‘Dear enough at a mite;’ cf. note to L. G. Wom. 741.
[692.]on every syde; ‘d’ogni partito;’ Fil. iv. 81. I suppose it means, literally, ‘on every side;’ Troy being subject to attacks at various points.
[708-14.]Certainly genuine; found also in Fil. iv. 84.
[716.]Deficient in the first foot.
[735.]Dr. Furnivall says that MSS. Cl., H., and others have here misplaced a stanza, meaning that ll. 750-6 should have come next, as shewn by Boccaccio’s text. But only MS. Cm. has such an order, and it is quite certain that the other MSS. are right. The order in Boccaccio’s text furnishes no real guide, as Chaucer often transposes such order; and it is odd that only this one instance should have been noted. It is better to consider the order in MS. Cm. as wrong, and to say that it transposes the text by placing ll. 750-6 after l. 735, and gives a somewhat different version of ll. 750-2.
[736.]ounded, waved, wavy; see Ho. Fame, 1386, and note. Cf. ‘Tear my bright hair,’ &c.; Shak. Troilus, iv. 2. 112.
[750.]Cf. note to l. 735. MS. Cm., which inserts this stanza after l. 735, begins thus:—
[762.]This line, giving the name of Criseyde’s mother, is not in Boccaccio (Fil. iv. stt. 89-93). I do not know where Chaucer found the form Argyve; in Statius, Theb. ii. 297, Argia is the name of the wife of Polynices, and Ch. calls her Argyve; see Bk. v. l. 1509 below.
[769, 70.]by-word, proverb: ‘plants without a root soon die.’
[782.]ordre, order. She will pass her life in mourning and abstinence, as if she had entered a religious order.
[790.]Elysos, Elysium. It looks as if Chaucer was thinking of Vergil’s ‘Elysios . . campos;’ Georg. i. 38; for the story of Orpheus and Eurydice occurs in Georg. iv. 453-527. Cf. Ovid, Met. x. 1-85.
[829.]cause causinge, the primary cause. ‘Causa causans, a primary or original cause; causa causata, a secondary or intermediate cause;’ New E. Dict., s. v. Causa.
[831.]Wher, short for whether; as in Cant. Ta. B 3119, &c.
[836.]‘Extrema gaudii luctus occupat;’ Prov. xiv. 13. See note to Man of Lawes Ta. B 421.
[842.]The first foot is deficient: ‘Peyn | e tor | ment,’ &c.
[843.]‘There is no misery that is not within my body.’
[850.]resport, regard; see note to l. 86 above.
[865.]Compare the similar lines in Kn. Ta. A 1400, 1.
[866.]men, weakened form of man, takes a sing. verb.
[870.]Bi-trent, winds round; see note to iii. 1231.
[884.]into litel, within a little, very nearly.
[887.]fawe, gladly; cf. Cant. Ta. D 220.
[907.]bane, destruction; see Kn. Ta. A 1097, 1681.
[927.]‘Be to him rather a cause of the flat than of the edge,’ i. e. of healing rather than of harming. A curious allusion which is fully explained by reference to the Squieres Tale, F 156-165. See also note to the same, F 238.
[947-1085.]This passage is not in Boccaccio, but some of it is in Boethius; see below.
[963-1078.]A considerable portion of this passage is copied, more or less closely, from Boethius, lib. v. Pr. 2 and Pr. 3. The correspondences are all pointed out below. Chaucer’s own prose translation should be compared. For example, the word wrythen (l. 986) appears in that also (Bk. v. Pr. 3. 15).
[963-6.]‘Quae tamen ille, ab aeterno cuncta prospiciens, prouidentiae cernit intuitus, et suis quaeque meritis praedestinata disponit;’ Boeth. v. Pr. 2 (end).
[968.]grete clerkes; such as Boethius, Saint Augustine, and bishop Bradwardine; see Non. Pr. Ta. B 4431, 2.
[974-80.]‘Nam si cuncta prospicit Deus, neque falli ullo modo potest, euenire necesse est, quod prouidentia futurum esse praeuiderit. Quare si ab aeterno non facta hominum modo, sed etiam consilia uoluntatesque praenoscit, nulla erit arbitrii libertas;’ Boeth. v. Pr. 3. 981-7 (continued): ‘neque enim uel factum aliud ullum, uel quaelibet existere poterit uoluntas, nisi quam nescia falli prouidentia diuina praesenserit. Nam si res aliorsum, quam prouisae sunt, detorqueri ualent, non iam erit futuri firma praescientia.’ 988-994 (continued): ‘sed opinio potius incerta: quod de Deo credere nefas iudico.’
[996.]I. e. who have received the tonsure.
[997-1001.]‘Aiunt enim, non ideo quid esse euenturum, quoniam id prouidentia futurum esse prospexerit: sed è contrario potius, quoniam quid futurum est, id diuinam prouidentiam latere non posse;’ Boeth. v. Pr. 3. 1002-1008 (continued): ‘eoque modo necessarium hoc in contrariam relabi partem. Neque enim necesse est contingere, quae prouidentur; sed necesse esse, quae futura sunt, prouideri.’ 1009-1015 (continued): ‘Quasi uero, quae cuiusque rei caussa sit, praescientiane futurorum necessitatis, an futurorum necessitas prouidentiae, laboretur.’ 1016-1022 (continued): ‘At nos illud demonstrare nitamur, quoquo modo sese habeat ordo caussarum, necessarium esse euentum praescitarum rerum, etiam si praescientia futuris rebus eueniendi necessitatem non uideatur inferre.’
[1023-9](continued): ‘Etenim si quispiam sedeat, opinionem quae eum sedere coniectat ueram esse necesse est: atque è conuerso rursus, (1030-6) si de quopiam uera sit opinio, quoniam sedet, eum sedere necesse est. In utroque igitur necessitas inest: in hoc quidem sedendi, at uerò in altero ueritatis.’ 1037-1047 (continued): ‘Sed non idcirco quisque sedet, quoniam uera est opinio; sed haec potius uera est, quoniam quempiam sedere praecessit. Ita cùm caussa ueritatis ex altera parte procedat, inest tamen communis in utraque necessitas. Similia de prouidentia futurisque rebus ratiocinari patet.’ 1051-78 (continued): ‘Nam etiam si idcirco, quoniam futura sunt, prouidentur; non uero ideo, quoniam prouidentur eueniunt: nihilo minus tamen à Deo uel uentura prouideri, uel prouisa euenire necesse est: quod ad perimendam arbitrii libertatem solùm satis est. Iam uero quam praeposterum est, ut aeternae praescientiae temporalium rerum euentus caussa esse dicatur? Quid est autem aliud arbitrari, ideo Deum futura, quoniam sunt euentura, prouidere, quam putare quae olim acciderunt, caussam summae illius esse prouidentiae? Ad haec, sicuti cum quid esse scio, id ipsum esse necesse est: ita cum quid futurum noui, id ipsum futurum necesse est. Sic fit igitur, ut euentus praescitae rei nequeat euitari.’
[1094.]ferd, fared; not the pp. of faren (l. 1087), but of the weak verb feren (A. S. fēran). The correct pp. of faren is faren. See Stratmann.
[1105.]‘A man may offer his neck soon enough when it (i. e. his head) must come off.’
[1136.]‘Beyond the nature of tears.’
[1139.]Myrrha, daughter of Cinyras, king of Cyprus, who was changed into a myrrh-tree; Ovid, Met. x. 298. The tree wept tears of myrrh; id. x. 500.
[1146.]hir-e (MS. Cl. here), their, is here dissyllabic. unswelle, cease to swell, as in Bk. v. 214.
[1147.]‘All hoarse, and exhausted with shrieking.’ forshright is the pp. of forshriken, to shriek excessively. Bell wrongly has for shright; but shright is not a noun. The Ital. has ‘con rotta voce,’ with broken voice; Fil. iv. st. 116.
[1153.]‘Being always on the point of departing.’
[1162.]‘Whether it was sad for him.’
[1174.]Cf. ‘And bisily gan,’ &c.; Prol. A 301.
[1179.]preignant (F. preignant, pregnant, Cotgrave), catching hold of tightly, hence, forcible; pres. part. of prendre, to seize. Quite distinct from pregnant when representing Lat. praegnans.
[1181.]woon, hope, resource. This answers to Early E. wān (see Stratmann), and is allied to Icel. ván, hope, expectation; cf. Icel. væna, to hope for, to ween. The word is monosyllabic, and the long o is ‘open,’ as shewn by its riming with noon, goon, from A. S. nān, gān. Bell quite fails to explain it, and Morris suggests ‘remedy,’ without assigning any reason. It is common in Rob. of Gloucester, with similar rimes, and does not mean ‘custom’ or ‘habit’ or ‘manner,’ as suggested in Mr. Wright’s Glossary, nor has it any connection with M.E. wone, custom, which was dissyllabic, and had a short vowel in the former syllable; but it means, as here, ‘hope’ or ‘resource.’ For example: ‘tho he ne sey other won’ = when he saw nothing else to be done; Rob. Glouc. ed. Hearne, p. 12; ed. Wright, l. 275. ‘And flowe in-to hor castles, vor hii nadde other won,’ i. e. no other resource; id. p. 19, ed. Hearne, l. 442. This is one of the rather numerous words in Chaucer that have not been rightly understood.
[1185.]twighte, plucked; pt. t. of twicchen.
[1188.]‘Where the doom of Minos would assign it a place.’ Boccaccio here uses the word inferno (Fil. iv. 120) to denote the place where Troilus’ soul would dwell; which Rossetti explains to mean simply Hades. Chaucer’s meaning is the same; he is referring to Æneid. vi. 431-3.
[1208.]Atropos is the Fate who cuts the thread of life; see note to v. 7.
[1237.]a forlong wey, two minutes and a half, to speak exactly; see note to C. T., A 3637.
[1241.]Either slayn is here expanded into slayen, or the pause after this word does duty for a syllable, in the scansion.
[1242.]ho, stop, cease; see Kn. Ta. A 1706.
[1244.]ther-e is here made into a dissyllable.
[1245.]morter, mortar. The Century Dict. quotes from Dugdale’s Hist. of St. Paul’s (ed. Ellis), p. 27: ‘A mortar was a wide bowl of iron or metal; it rested upon a stand or branch, and was filled either with fine oil or wax, which was kept burning by means of a broad wick [at funerals or on tombs].’ It was named from its similarity in shape to the mortar in which things were pounded. I remember the word in common use; it came to denote what is now called a night-light, and the word night-light seems to have nearly displaced it. In this modern contrivance, the old ‘mortar’ is sometimes represented by a paper casing. The term was frequently applied, not merely to the saucer which held the grease, but to the light itself, which sometimes took the shape of a short candle. Cotgrave explains F. mortier as ‘a kind of small chamber-lamp.’ Instead of morter, MS. Cm. has percher, which meant a kind of wax candle placed upon a branch or bar called a perche (perch).
[1295.]‘About that (there) is no question.’ Cf. l. 1694.
[1374.]wether, sheep. I.e. it is advisable to give the wolf a limb of a sheep, in order to save the rest.
[1377.]grave, incise, make an impression upon.
[1380.]moble (H., H2. moeble), movable property; cf. F. meubles.
[1404.]‘Whilst he is making his divination; and I will make him believe.’ Ll. 1401-14 are due to a passage in Guido; see allit. Destruction of Troy, 8101-40.
[1406.]amphibologyes, ambiguities. A more correct form is amphiboly, from Gk. ἀμϕιβολία; see New E. Dict. The ambiguous character of the old oracular responses is well known.
[1411.]‘When he started away from Delphi for fear.’ Cf. l. 607.
[1422.]See note to Book i. 463.
[1425.]the selve wit, the same opinion.
[1435.]clere, clear of woe, free, light. MS. H. has chere.
[1453.]‘The bear has one opinion, and his leader another.’
[1456.]Repeated in Kn. Ta. A 2449; see note.
[1459.]‘With eyes like Argus;’ i. e. seeing everywhere. Argus had a hundred eyes; Ovid, Met. i. 625.
[1483.]fere, frighten, terrify; as in Bk. ii. 124.
[1505.]‘To lose the substance, for the sake of something accidentally representing it;’ as when the dog dropped the piece of meat, in his anxiety to get the shadow (or reflected image) of it. As to the famous words substance and accident, see note to Pard. Ta. C 539.
[1525.]go we, let us go; also written gowe, P. Plowm. B. Pr. 226.
[1538-40.]Juno caused Athamas, the husband of Ino, to run mad. As Ovid tells the story, Juno descended into hell, and crossed the Styx, in order to persuade the fury Tisiphone to haunt Athamas. Hence the mention of the Styx was readily suggested. See Ovid, Met. iv. 416-561, esp. l. 434. Styx was not, as Chaucer says, ‘the pit of hell,’ but a river that flowed through it.
[1544.]Satiry and Fauny, Satyri and Fauni, Satyrs and Fauns. Chaucer was probably thinking of Ovid, Met. vi. 392-4, where the Fauni, Satyri, and Nymphae are described as ‘ruricolae, siluarum numina.’ For halve goddes, we now say demigods.
[1548.]Simois, a river of Troas; Æneid. i. 100.
[1560.]laye, would lie; subj. The e is elided.
[1562.]take, take place, be made. Thynne has be take, but be clogs the line, and is not in the MSS.
[1584.]‘Vincit qui patitur;’ see Frank. Ta. F 773.
[1585.]‘He who will have what he wants must give up what he likes.’ Such seems to be the sense intended. Leef means ‘dear.’ One of Heywood’s proverbs is—‘Nought lay down, nought take up;’ and very similar to this is—‘Nothing venture, nothing have.’ For the second leef, MS. H. has lyfe, a reading adopted by Bell and Morris. This takes all point out of the saying, and does not seem applicable to the case. Ll. 1587 and 1588 repeat the saying in another form, and confirm the reading in the text. Cf. Boeth. Bk. ii. Pr. 4. 98.
[1591, 2.]Lucina, i. e. Diana, or the moon; cf. Kn. Ta. A 2085. ‘Before the moon pass out of the sign of Aries beyond that of Leo.’ In order to this, the moon would have to pass wholly through Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, and Leo, thus traversing a distance represented by about 4 signs, or a third part of the whole zodiac: this would take up about the third part of 28 days, or more than 9 days. This brings us, as Criseyde says, to the 10th day (l. 1595). Such a method of counting is natural enough to those that watch the moon’s course; and lovers are generally credited with taking a special interest in that luminary; cf. l. 1608. In the sequel, a good deal turns upon this ‘tenth day.’ Cf. ll. 1320, 1328, 1685; V. 239, 642, 681, 1103, 1206.
[1608.]Cynthia, i. e. Diana, the moon; Ovid, Met. ii. 465.
[1612.]‘To lose one opportunity, in order to gain another.’
[1620.]pure, very; as in Kn. Ta. A 1279.
[1628.]‘Who can hold a thing that tries to get away?’
[1645.]‘Res est solliciti plena timoris amor;’ Ovid, Her. i. 12.
[1667-73.]In Boccaccio, a stanza of a similar character is assigned to Troilus, not to Criseyde.
[1677.]poeplish; Boccaccio (Fil. iv. st. 165) has popolesco, which Rossetti translates by ‘low-bred.’ Florio’s Ital. Dict. has: ‘popolesco, popular, of the common people.’
[1682.]Here fórtun-è is trisyllabic.
[541.]‘O house, formerly called the best of houses.’ Bell and Morris place the comma after houses.
[552.]As to kissing the door, see note to Rom. Rose, 2676.
[601.]Referring, probably, to Statius, Theb. i. 12—‘Quod saeuae Iunonis opus.’ But this refers to the wrath of Juno against Athamas rather than against Thebes.
[642.]‘Wherefore, if, on the tenth night, I fail (to have) the guiding of thy bright beams for a single hour,’ &c.
[655.]Here Thynne’s reading, Lucina, is obviously correct; see Bk. iv. 1591. By the common mistake of writing t for c, it became Lutina, and was then changed into Latona. But Latona was Lucina’s mother.
[664.]Pheton, Phaethon; alluding to Ovid, Met. ii. 34, 47, &c.
[744.]Prudence is here represented with three eyes, to behold present, past, and future; but Creseyde had but two eyes, and failed to see what was to come. Cf. ‘rerum fato Prudentia maior;’ Georg. i. 416.
[763.]‘I call it felicity when I have what satisfies me;’ cf. the parallel passage in Prol. A 338; and Boeth. Bk. iii. Pr. 2. 6-8.
[769.]knotteles; ‘like a thread in which there is no knot.’
[784.]‘Nothing venture, nothing have.’
[805.]In Lydgate’s Siege of Troye, we are told that Diomede brought 80 ships with him ‘fro Calidonye and Arge;’ Bk. ii. ch. 16, in the catalogue of the ships. The English alliterative Romance omits this passage. Arge is the town of Argos, ruled over by Diomede; Homer, Il. ii. 559. Calidoine is Calydon, in Ætolia, of which city Tydeus, father of Diomede, was king; see l. 934, and ll. 1513-5 below.
[806.]This description seems to be mainly Chaucer’s own. It occurs again, much amplified, in Lydgate’s Siege of Troy, Bk. ii. ch. 15, where it precedes the description of Priam. Boccaccio says that she had ‘lucent eyes and an angelic face’ (Fil. i. st. 28), with which cf. l. 816. He also describes her as ‘Accorta, savia, onesta, e costumata,’ which Rossetti translates by ‘Discerning, wise, honourable, and high-bred’ (Fil. i. 11); cf. ll. 820, 821.[ ]
[827.]Troilus is described by Guido delle Colonne; see the translations, in the alliterative Destruction of Troy, ed. Panton and Donaldson, l. 3922, and in Lydgate’s Siege of Troye, Bk. ii. ch. 16.
[836.]Troilus was second to Hector in prowess (Bk. ii. 158, 644), but not in courage (Bk. i. 474).
[837.]durring don, daring to do, courage; where durring is a sb. formed from durren, to dare. So in l. 840, to durre don is ‘to dare to do.’ It is quite a mistake to regard durring don as a compound word, as is usually done by such as are ignorant of Middle English grammar. Spenser borrowed the phrase, but may have misunderstood it. In the Globe edition of Spenser, derring-doe occurs with a hyphen, in Shep. Kal. Oct. l. 65, but as two words, in F. Q. ii. 4. 42, vi. 5. 37. In F. Q. ii. 7. 10, we find ‘in der-doing armes,’ which I leave to be explained by the omniscient critic.
[852.]See the parallel line, Squi. Ta. F 294; cf. Bk. iii. 674.
[883.]as who seyth, so to speak.
[892.]Manes, the departed spirits or shades of the dead. He means that even these will dread the Greeks. The idea that they are the ‘gods of pain’ is taken from Vergil, Æn. vi. 743; cf. Statius, Theb viii. 84. Boccaccio merely has ‘tra’ morti in inferno’; Fil. vi. st. 16.
[897.]ambages, ambiguities; adapted from Boccaccio’s ‘ambage’ (Fil. vi. st. 17), which Ch. has to explain.
[911-938.]These lines are fairly close to the original.
[934.]See note above, to l. 805. B. has: ‘Di Calidonia e d’ Argo;’ Fil. vi. st. 24.
[937.]Tydeus, father of Diomede, is one of the chief heroes in the Thebaid of Statius, which describes the struggle between Eteocles and Polynices (called Polymites in l. 938) for the possession of Thebes Tydeus and Polynices married sisters, the daughters of Adrastus, king of Argos; hence their alliance. For the death of Tydeus in battle, see the conclusion of Book viii of the Thebaid. See ll. 1480-1501 below.
[971.]Orcades, the Orkney islands, very remote from Rome; Juvenal, Sat. ii. 161. Inde, India, remote from Rome in the other direction; Vergil, Æn. vi. 794. Here the point of view is transferred from Rome to Troy.
[975.]She was a widow; Bk. i. 97. In l. 977, she lies boldly.
[992.]‘When I see what I have never seen yet (viz. Troy taken), perhaps I will do what I have never yet done (i. e. think of a second husband).’
[1013.]This incident is not in Boccaccio; but it occurs in Guido delle Colonne, which Chaucer must therefore have consulted. The alliterative Destruction of Troy duly records the circumstance, ll. 8092-4:—
[1016.]I. e. Venus was seen as ‘the evening-star.’
[1018, 9.]Cynthea, i. e. the moon; Bk. iv. 1608. In Bk. iv. l. 1591, Criseyde had promised to return before the moon passed out of the sign Leo. This was now on the point of happening; the moon was leaving Leo, to pass into Virgo.
[1020.]Signifer, the ‘sign-bearer,’ the zodiac. ‘This forseide hevenish zodiak is cleped the cercle of the signes;’ Astrolabe, pt. i. § 21. The zodiac extended, north and south, to the breadth of 6 degrees on both sides of the ecliptic line, thus forming a belt 12 degrees wide. This included numerous bright stars, such as Regulus (a Leonis) and Spica Virginis (a Virginis), here called ‘candles.’ Chaucer may have found the word Signifer in Claudian, In Rufinum, i. 365.
[1039.]he wan, he took in battle. Thynne reads she; but he is right. Diomede got possession of Troilus’ horse, and sent it to Criseyde; whereupon she said that Diomede might keep it for himself. Note that Chaucer refers us to ‘the story’ for this incident; by which he means the Historia Troiana of Guido. But Guido only goes as far as to say that Diomed sent Troilus’ horse to Criseyde; the rest is Chaucer’s[ ] addition. See the allit. Destruction of Troy, ll. 8296-8317; and Lydgate’s Siege of Troye, Bk. iii. ch. 26, ed. 1557, fol. R 4, back. Cf. Shak. Troilus, v. 5. 1: ‘Dio. Go, go, my servant, take thou Troilus’ horse, Present the fair steed to my lady Cressid.’ The incidents of the ‘broche’ and ‘pensel’ are Chaucer’s own; see Bk. iii. 1370-2.
[1043.]pencel, short for penoncel, a little pennon or banner; here it means that Diomede wore a sleeve of hers as a streamer on his helmet or arm. This was a common custom; cf. Shak. Troil. v. 2. 69, 169. ‘Pensell, a lytel baner;’ Palsgrave; and see P. Plowm. C. xix. 189.
[1044.]the stories elles-wher, i. e. in another part of Guido’s Historia, viz. in Book xxv; see the allit. Destruct. of Troy, ll. 9942-9959, and Lydgate’s Siege of Troye, Bk. iv. ch. 30, ed. 1557, fol. U 4.
[1051.]I cannot find this in Guido.
[1062.]‘My bell shall be rung;’ my story shall be told.
[1104.]I. e. ‘on the morrow of which.’
[1107.]Cf. ‘laurigero . . . Phoebo’; Ovid, Art. Am. iii. 389.
[1110.]‘Nisus’ daughter,’ i. e. Scylla, changed into the bird ciris, which some explain as a lark; see Leg. Good Wom. 1908, and note; Ovid, Met. viii. 9-151; Vergil, Georg. i. 404-9.
[1114.]noon, noon, mid-day; the time for dinner (see l. 1129, and Cant. Ta. E 1893). See my note to Piers Plowm. C. ix. 146.
[1133.]cape, gape; see Miller’s Tale, A 3444, 3841 (footnotes).
[1140.]1. yate, i. e. port-cullis. As nought ne were, as if there were no special reason for it. I. e. I will make them do it, without telling them why.
[1151.]Deficient in the first foot; hardly a good line.
[1155.]‘Think it not tedious to (have to) wait.’
[1162.]fare-cart, cart for provisions; cf. our phrase ‘to enjoy good fare.’ It might mean ‘travelling-car,’ but that is inapplicable. B. has simply ‘carro;’ Fil. vii. 8.
[1163-9.]Cf. Romeo’s speech in Rom. v. 1. 1-11.
[1174.]‘The happiness which you expect will come out of the wood,’ i. e. if it comes at all. A jocular form of expressing unlikelihood. There is evidently a reference to some popular song or saying; compare the Jeu de Robin in Toynbee’s Specimens of Old French, p. 224. In the Rom. of the Rose, 7455, we have an allusion to a ‘ioly Robin,’ who was a gay dancer and a minstrel, and the exact opposite of a Jacobin friar. Shakespeare’s clown in Twelfth Night (iv. 2. 78) sings of a ‘jolly Robin’ whose lady ‘loves another.’ And Ophelia sang ‘bonny sweet Robin is all my joy;’ Haml. iv. 5. 187.
[1176.]Another proverbial saying. ferne yere, last year; see fern, fürn, in Stratmann, and cf. A. S. fyrngēarum frōd, wise with the experience of past years, Phœnix, 219. Last year’s snow will not be seen again.
[1190.]He persuades himself that the moon is to pass well beyond the end of the sign Leo; thus allowing another day.
[1222.]by potente, with a stick, or staff with a spiked end and crutch-like top; cf. Somp. Ta. D 1776. A potent, in heraldry, is a figure resembling the top of a crutch, consisting of a rectangle laid horizontally above a small square. See Rom. of the Rose, 368.
[1274.]‘Whereas I daily destroy myself by living.’
[1313.]rolleth, revolves; see Pard. Ta. C 838; Somn. Ta. D 2217.
[1335.]‘And for that which is defaced, ye may blame the tears.’
[1354.]‘I sigh with sorrowful sighs.’ MS. Cm. has sikis I sike.
[1368.]‘I can only say that, being a receptacle for every sorrow, I was still alive.’ cheste, box; like that of Pandora.
[1372.]‘Until I see the contents of your reply.’
[1431.]‘Bottomless promises;’ i. e. that held nothing.
[1433.]See the parallel line, Kn. Ta. A 1838, and note.
[1450.]Sibille, the Sibyl, the prophetess; not here a proper name, but an epithet of Cassandra. Cf. Æneid. vi. 98.
[1464.](Ll. 1457-1512 are not in Boccaccio.) The story of Meleager and the Calydonian boar-hunt is told at length in Ovid, Met. viii. 271, &c.; whence Chaucer doubtless took it; cf. l. 1469 with Met. viii. 282. The ‘mayde,’ in l. 1473, was Atalanta.
[1480.]Chaucer seems to be mistaken here. Tydeus, according to one account, was Meleager’s brother; and, according to another, his half-brother. He does not tell us to what ‘olde bokes’ he refers.
[1483.]moder; his mother Althaea; see Ovid, Met. viii. 445.
[Book I.]Polynices and Tydeus meet, and become allies.
[II.]Tydeus sets out on an embassy to Eteocles at Thebes, and escapes an ambush by the way (ll. 1485-1491). He spares Mæon, one of his 50 assailants, and sends him to Thebes with the news, whilst he himself returns to Argos instead of proceeding to Thebes (1492-3).
[III.]Maeon (also called Haemonides, as being the son of Haemon, Bk. iii. l. 42) returns to Thebes, and relates how Tydeus had slain 49 men out of 50. At Argos, Amphiaraus, the augur, had concealed himself, hoping to delay the war against Thebes, which he prophesied would be disastrous; but Capaneus forces him from his retirement, and war is resolved upon (1494).
[IV.]The seven chiefs set out against Thebes. The army suffers from thirst, but Hypsipyle, a Lemnian princess, appears, and shews them a river (1495).
[V.]Hypsipyle relates the story of ‘the furies of Lemnos,’ i. e. of the Lemnian women who killed all the men in the island except Thoas, her father, whom she saved. (See Leg. of Good Women, 1467, and note.) While she is speaking, a snake, sent by Jupiter, kills her infant, named Archemorus. The snake is killed by Capaneus (1497, 8).
[VI.]Description of the obsequies of Archemorus, and of the funeral games (1499).
[VII.]Description of the temple of Mars (see Knightes Tale). The allies arrive before Thebes, and the city is attacked. Amphiaraus is swallowed up by an earthquake (1500).
[VIII.]Tydeus is slain, after a great slaughter of his enemies (1501).
[IX.]Hippomedon, after great deeds of valour, is drowned in the river. Death of Parthenopaeus (1502, 3).
[X.]Capaneus is killed by lightning whilst scaling the walls of Thebes (1504, 5).
[XI.]Single combat between Eteocles and Polynices; both are slain (1506-8).
[XII.]Creon forbids the burial of the slain invaders. The wives of the six chieftains seek assistance from Theseus, king of Athens (see Knightes Tale). Argia, wife of Polynices, finds and burns her husband’s body. Theseus slays Creon, and the Thebans open their gates to him (1509-10).
[1485-1491.]From the Thebaid, Bk. i (see above). felawe, comrade, brother-in-law. Polymites, Polynices. Ethyocles, Eteocles.
[1492-8.]From the same, Books ii-v. Hemonides, Haemonides, i. e. Maeon, son of Haemon. asterte, escaped. fifty; but he only slew 49, though attacked by 50. sevene; the seven chieftains, who went to besiege Thebes. holy serpent, the snake sent by Jupiter. welle, (apparently) the stream Langia, which refreshed the army (end of Bk. iv). The furies, the furious women of Lemnos, who killed all the males (but one) in the island.
[1499-1505.]From the same, Bks. vi-x. Archimoris, Archemorus, infant son of Hypsipyle; honoured by funeral games. Amphiorax, Amphiaraus; see Bk. ii. 105, and note to Anelida, 57. Argeyes, Argives, people of Argos. Ypomedon, Hippomedon; Parthonope, Parthenopaeus; see note to Anelida, 58. Cappaneus, Capaneus; see note to Anelida, 59.
[1506-1512.]From the same, Bks. xi, xii. Argyve, Argia, wife of Polynices; cf. Bk. iv. l. 762, above. brent, burnt; see Kn. Ta. A 990; but Statius says that the Thebans opened their gates to Theseus, who entered in triumph. I find nothing about any harm done to the city on this occasion.
[1514.]But Tydeus was Meleager’s brother; see note to l. 1480.
[1518.]leef, leave it alone. Usually leve.
[1523.]seestow, seest thou; a general observation, not addressed to Cassandra in particular, but to every one at large.
[1527.]Alceste, Alcestis; see Leg. of Good Women, 432.
[1528.]but, except, unless. Yet Bell misunderstands it.
[1530.]housbonde; Admetus, king of Pherae, in Thessaly.
[1545.]smitted, smutted, disgraced; cf. l. 1546.
[1548.]fyn of the paródie, end of the period. Chaucer, not being a Greek scholar, has somewhat mistaken the form of the word; but, in MS. H., parodie is duly glossed by ‘duracion,’ shewing the sense intended. It is from the O.F. fem. sb. perióde, or peryóde, of which Littré gives an example in the 14th century: ‘Peryode est le temps et la mesure de la duracion d’une chose;’ Oresme, Thèse de Meunier. Chaucer, being more familiar with the prefix per- than with the Greek περι-, has dropped the i; and the confusion between per- and par- is extremely common, because both prefixes were denoted, in contracted writing, by the same symbol. We may give up the old attempts at explaining the word otherwise, as we know that the glosses are usually due to the author. ‘The end of the period of Hector’s life was nigh at hand.’
Observe that parodye is here equated to terme.
[1558.]From Guido; according to whose account Hector, having taken a prisoner, was conveying him through the throng, when Achilles thrust him through with a spear in a cowardly manner, stealing up to him unperceived. See allit. Dest. of Troy, ll. 8649-8660; Lydgate, Siege of Troy, Bk. iii. ch. 27, fol. S 2, back; Shak. Troil. v. 6. 27, 8. 1.
[1634.]kalendes, an introduction to the beginning; see note to Bk. ii. 7.
[1653.]Lollius; this incident is in the Filostrato, viii. st. 8; I do not find it in Guido.
[1669.]word and ende, beginning and end; see note to Monk. Ta. B 3911; and note to Bk. ii. 1495.
[1689.]‘To present your new love with.’
[1760.]See note to Book i. 463.
[1764.]Here the story practically ends. Beyond this point, the lines taken from Boccaccio are less than twenty.
[1771.]Dares, i. e. Guido, who professes to follow Dares; see note to Book Duch. 1070.
[1778.]I. e. Chaucer was beginning to think of his Legend of Good Women.
[1786.]Here begins the Envoy (interrupted by ll. 1800-1827). Compare the last three lines of the Filostrato (ix. 8):—
[1787.]‘Whereas may God send power to him that wrote thee to take part in composing some “comedy,” before he die.’
[1789.]‘Do not envy any (other) poetry, but be humble.’
[1791.]Imitated from the concluding lines of the Thebaid, xii. 816:—
The sense is—‘And kiss their footsteps, wherever you see Vergil, &c. pass along.’ The reading space is ridiculous; and, in l. 1792, the names Virgíle, &c., are accented on the second syllable. Steppes means ‘foot-prints,’ Lat. uestigia; see Leg. Good Women, 2209.
[1792.]An important line. Chaucer, in this poem, has made use of Statius (see l. 1485), Ovid (in many places), Vergil (occasionally), and Homer (not at first hand). Lucan seems to be mentioned only out of respect; but see note to Bk. ii. 167. He is mentioned again in Boethius, Bk. iv. Pr. 6. 159.
[1796.]mismetre, scan wrongly. This shews that Chaucer was conscious of his somewhat archaic style, and that there was a danger that some of the syllables might be dropped.
[1797.]red, read (by a single person). songe, read aloud, recited in an intoned voice.
[1802.]thousandes is to be taken in the literal sense. On one occasion, according to Guido, Troilus slew a thousand men at once. See the allit. Destruction of Troy, 9878; Lydgate, Siege of Troy, fol. U 3, back, l. 7.
[1806.]So in Guido; see allit. Destr. of Troy, 10302-11; Lydgate, Siege of Troye, Bk. iv. ch. 31. Cf. l. 1558, and the note.
[1807-1827.]These three stanzas are from Boccaccio’s Teseide, xi. 1-3. where, however, they refer to Arcita:—
[1809.]holownesse translates ‘concavità.’ For seventh, B. has ‘ottava,’ eighth. The seventh sphere is that of Saturn, from which he might be supposed to observe the motion of Saturn and of all the inferior planets. But surely eighth is more correct; else there is no special sense in ‘holownesse.’ The eighth sphere is that of the fixed stars; and by taking up a position on the inner or concave surface of this sphere, he would see all the planetary spheres revolving within it. (The ‘spheres’ were supposed to be concentric shells, like the coats of an onion.) The ‘erratic stars,’ or wandering stars, are the seven planets. As to the music of their spheres, see notes to Parl. Foules, ll. 59 and 61.
[1810.]in convers leting, leaving behind, on the other side. When, for example, he approached the sphere of Mars, it was concave to him; after passing beyond it, it appeared convex. Some modern editions of the Teseide read connessi (connected parts), but the right reading is conuessi (convex surfaces), for which Chaucer substitutes convers. See converse in the New E. Dictionary.
[1815.]Cf. Parl. Foules, 57. Boccaccio had in mind Cicero’s Somnium Scipionis.
[1825.]sholden, and we ought; we is understood.
[1827.]sorted, allotted; Ital. ‘sortio.’
[1828-1837.]Chiefly from Il Filostrato, viii. 28, 29.
[1838-1862.]These lines are Chaucer’s own, and assume a higher strain.
See four more similar comparisons in Halliwell’s Dict., s. v. Cherryfair.
[1856.]moral Gower. This epithet of Gower has stuck to him ever since; he moralises somewhat too much.
[1857.]Strode. Concerning this personage, Leland discovered the following note in an old catalogue of the worthies of Merton College, Oxford: ‘Radulphus Strode, nobilis poeta fuit et versificavit librum elegiacum vocatum Phantasma Radulphi.’ In the introduction to his edition of ‘Pearl,’ p. l., Mr. Gollancz says: ‘This Ralph Strode is identical with the famous philosopher of that name whose philosophical works hold an important place in the history of medieval logic. He was also famous in his time as a controversialist with Wiclif, and from Wiclif MSS., still unprinted, it is possible to gain some insight into Strode’s religious views.’ He was, perhaps, related to the philosopher N. Strode, who is mentioned at the end of pt. ii. § 40 of the Treatise on the Astrolabe as being the tutor, at Oxford, of Chaucer’s son Lewis.
[1863-5.]From Dante, Paradiso, xiv. 28-30:—