Front Page Titles (by Subject) SECTION VII. a: THE EPIDEMICS OF HIPPOCRATES. - The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen
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SECTION VII. a: THE EPIDEMICS OF HIPPOCRATES. - Hippocrates, The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen 
The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen. Epitomised from the Original Latin translations, by John Redman Coxe (Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1846).
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THE EPIDEMICS OF HIPPOCRATES.
The prefatory remarks of Fœsius to the seven books of Epidemics are deserving of attention, as explanatory of the genuine and other books under this general title.
“There are,” says he, “seven books of Epidemics, in the collection we possess under the name of the Works of Hippocrates; but they are not generally believed to be all derived from the same source. The first and third books are alone regarded as incontestably his. The remainder are greatly inferior to them, even the fifth and the seventh, though all are valuable. The order that characterizes the first and third, (which last is manifestly a continuation of the first,) is not apparent in any of the other five, yet each contains much excellent matter. In the fifth and seventh are numerous surgical observations.”
I had prepared an outline of the whole of these books, but as they are considered among the principal of the writings of Hippocrates, I judged that the medical public would be better pleased to see them in extenso; and as Clifton has given a translation of the whole, I have concluded to make use of it. That gentleman published the first edition of the work in 1734. A second edition appeared in 1752, which is the one here chosen; whether improved, or modified from the former, I know not. I cannot say his translation conforms in every part to the ideas I formed, from perusing the Latin translations of Fœsius and Haller, although it affords generally a sufficiently accurate view of the work. He has not divided his translation into regular books, but gives it as one continuous text, under the general head of “Hippocrates on Epidemical Diseases.” In order to enable the reader to refer to each respective book, either in Fœsius or Haller, I have therefore kept up that division, though otherwise of no importance; and have also to each book given the short prefatory remarks of Haller, and sometimes of Gardeil, as they generally afford a concise view of the purport of the treatise. I may add that I have omitted a number of notes that are added by Clifton, which would too much swell these pages, although many are instructive, and aid in understanding the text itself.—Ed.
THE FIRST BOOK OF EPIDEMICS.
This book, says Haller, is one of the principal works of Hippocrates, and is by all, attributed to him. It is a production worthy of him, although consisting chiefly of a history of diseases, unmixed with medicine. Its value consists in his description of them, and his notice of crises. It contains, under three sections, the statement of the seasons for three years, as occurring at Thasus, followed by the rise of an epidemic state of disease of two years’ continuance; in one of these recurrent fevers predominated, and ardent fevers in the other. To these last belong a large proportion of fourteen patients here recorded, and with mostly a fatal termination. One case is particularly interesting, of a parturient female who recovered after a very prolonged disease.—Haller.
SECTION I. YEAR I.
In Thasus in the autumn, about the equinox, and under the Pleiades, the rains were great, continual, and soft, as when the wind is southerly. The winter mild, with southerly winds, and very little northerly. With these were greater droughts than ordinary, so that the whole winter was, in effect, like the spring. The spring was also affected with southerly winds, but yet was cold, and a little wet. The summer was for the most part cloudy and dry. The Etesiæ blew but little, faintly, and irregularly.
The whole year being thus affected with southerly winds, and greater droughts than ordinary, early in the spring (from the former year’s being different, and affected with northerly winds) some few were attacked with burning fevers of a kind good sort, and a few others with hemorrhages, neither of which proved mortal. Swellings appeared behind the ears, in many on one side, in most on both, without a fever or any confinement, but in some with a little fever. In all they disappeared without either inconvenience or suppuration, contrary to the custom of such tumours from other causes. At this particular time they were naturally soft, large, diffused, without inflammation or pain, and went off universally without any visible signs. Children, young persons, adults, especially those who frequented the public places of exercise, were most subject to them. A few women were also affected. The greatest part had dry coughs, which were soon succeeded by hoarsenesses. Some again after a while had painful phlegmons upon the testicles, sometimes upon one, sometimes upon both. Some had fevers, others none; most of them trouble and fatigue enough: but with respect to the chirurgical part they did very well.
Early in the summer, and from that time till the winter, many of those who had been for a long while somewhat consumptive, were laid up with consumptions; and others, who were doubtful, were then fatally convinced. Others again, where nature tended that way, dated the beginning of it from that time. A great number of such patients dropped off; and I do not remember that any of those who were laid up held out even a moderate time, but died much sooner than is usual in such cases, after having suffered other complaints, and those for a long time, in their fevers, without either fatigue or dying. Of these we shall now treat: for the only, and the greatest of the diseases then reigning, and that proved fatal to many, was the consumption.
The manner in which most of them were affected is as follows. They were seized with continual, acute fevers, attended with a chilliness, but no intermission; of the semitertian kind; the fit being one day moderate, the next vehement, and so increasing to great vehemence. They sweated continually, but not all over. The extremities were very cold, and grew warm again with difficulty. The belly was disturbed with bilious, small, simple, thin, griping stools, and that frequently. The urine thin, without colour, crude, and little in quantity; or else thick, with a small sediment, that did not subside well, but appeared crude and unseasonable. They coughed a little and often, and the matter expectorated was indeed digested, but brought away by little and little, and with difficulty. Where the case was very violent, no digestion happened, but what they spit was continually crude. The throats of most of them were from the beginning and all along painful, red, and inflamed. The rheum that came from them little, thin, and sharp. A consumption and general disorder soon followed. An aversion to all kind of food was continually upon them, but without thirst; and many, before they died, became delirious. Thus the case stood among the consumptive.
In the summer and the autumn many fevers came on, of the continual kind, though not violent; and that to such as had been long ill, but in other respects not worn out. Disorders of the belly likewise happened to many, but such as were very tolerable, and without any remarkable injury. The urine was generally well coloured and clear, but thin, and after a while, about the crisis, digested. Coughs were moderate, and expectoration easy; nor were they so averse to food, but very willing to take what was given them. In a word, these consumptive patients were affected in a manner different from such a state, sweating a little in their chilly fevers; while others were seized with paroxysms in a vague and uncertain manner, never leaving them entirely, but returning as a semitertian. The crisis happened upon the twentieth day at the shortest, in most upon the fortieth, and in many upon the eightieth. In some again it never happened, but the fever went off in an erratic or wandering manner. Here indeed it returned again for the most part, after a short intermission; and after the return came to its crisis in the same periods as before. Many of them held out so long, as to be ill in the winter; but of all here described none but the consumptive died. The rest bore their fevers and other complaints very well and escaped.
SECTION II. YEAR II.
In Thasus, early in the autumn, the weather was unseasonable, and on a sudden grew wet with much northerly and southerly wind, that lasted the whole time of the Pleiades, and even to their setting. The winter was affected with northerly winds; the rains were great and heavy, attended with snow, and for the most part a mixture of fair weather. Thus the whole affair stood; and, with respect to the cold, what happened was not very unseasonable. But after the winter solstice, and when the west wind begins to blow, there was very severe winter weather, with much northerly wind and snow, and abundance of rain without ceasing. Over head it looked stormy and cloudy. This state lasted without remission to the equinox. The spring was cold, northerly, watery, and cloudy; the summer not very scorching. The Etesiæ blew continually; and, about the rising of Arcturus, a great deal of rain fell again on a sudden, with northerly winds. The whole year being thus damp and cold, affected with northerly winds, they passed the winter well for the most part, but in the beginning of the spring many persons (not to say a great many) were taken ill.
First of all appeared humid ophthalmies (or inflammations of the eyes), with weepings, pain, and indigestion. Little concreted matter broke out with difficulty on the eyes of many persons, returned again in most, and went away at last about autumn. In the summer and the autumn, dysenteries, tenesmuses, and lienteries, were complained of; so were bilious purgings, of a thin, crude, griping nature, and much in quantity. Others again were watery; and many complained of painful fluxes that were also bilious, watery, ragged, purulent, and strangurious; not from any fault in the kidneys, but from one humour or complaint coming upon another. They likewise vomited bile, and phlegm, and indigested food. They sweated too in general, the humidity being great every where. To many these things happened without a fever or confinement, to others with a fever, as we shall see hereafter. Where all that is here mentioned happened, they became consumptive, not without pain.
In the autumn and the winter, continual fevers turned out, besides a few that were ardent, diurnal, nocturnal, semitertians, perfect tertians, quartans, and erratics; every one of which happened to many, but ardent fevers to very few, and were the least troublesome: for they were neither taken with bleedings, unless in a very small quantity, and that but seldom, nor with deliriums. In all other respects they bore it well. The crisis happened to most in a very regular manner (intermissions included) in seventeen days generally, without any body’s dying or becoming phrenitic. Tertians were more frequent than ardents, and more troublesome. In all the progress was very regular from the first paroxysm to the fourth, and the seventh proved a perfect crisis, without any relapse. Quartans attacked many at first as a quartan should, and many were seized with it as the crisis of other fevers and diseases. These were of long standing, and indeed longer than usual. Quotidians, nocturnals, and erratics were likewise frequent, and lasted long, both among those who were confined at home, and those who walked about. The major part could not get rid of their fevers during the Pleiades, nor even till winter. Convulsions were also frequent, especially among children, from the beginning, but not without a fever. They came upon fevers likewise, and lasted a long time in general, but without any harm, except where other circumstances had made the case desperate. The other fevers were altogether of the continual kind, without any intermission, and the paroxysms in all like the semitertians, one day better, another day worse; and, of all the fevers that then reigned, these were the most vehement, the most tedious, and the most painful; beginning very mildly, but increasing always, and growing worse and worse upon the critical days. After a little abatement they soon grew bad again, had stronger fits upon the critical days, and were for the most part worse. Shiverings were universally irregular and uncertain, seldom and very little in these, but in other fevers more. Sweats were common, but here least of all, and so far from easing the patient, that on the contrary they did him harm. The extremities were very cold, and could scarce grow warm again. Nor were they altogether watchful, especially in this case, but fell again into comas. The belly in all was disturbed, and in a bad manner, but worst of all by much in these. The urine was for the most part thin, crude, without colour, and after a while appeared a little digested as though critical; or had some consistence in it, but yet was turbid without any sediment or concoction; at least the sediment was but little, and that bad and crude. In fine all these things were bad. The fevers were likewise attended with coughs, but I cannot say that I perceived either good or harm from them. Most of these complaints were tedious and difficult, very irregular and inconstant, and that without coming to a crisis, either in those whose case was desperate, or in those whose case was not so. For, if it intermitted a little at any time, it soon returned again; and in the few that had the benefit of a crisis, it happened not at the soonest before the eightieth day, and to some of these it returned, so that many of them were ill in the winter. In the greatest part it went off without a crisis; and these things happened alike to those who did well, and to those who did not.
As there was a great want of the critical variety that is usual in diseases, the greatest and worst symptom attended many of them to the last, viz.: a general dislike to food, especially where other fatal circumstances appeared. They were not indeed very thirsty out of season, but after a long time, a great deal of pain, and a bad decay, abscesses formed themselves, sometimes too great for the patient’s strength to bear, at other times too little to be of any service; so that a relapse presently followed, and the patient grew worse and worse. Dysenteries, tenesmuses, lienteries, and fluxes were likewise added; and some fell into dropsies. Nauseas and great uneasiness happened with and without these. Whatever was very vehement, either despatched the patient soon, or was of no benefit to him at all. Little eruptions appeared, not equal to the vehemence of the disease, and soon after disappeared again; or swellings behind the ears, that were by no means critical, and so signified nothing. Others were affected in their joints, especially the hip, where it proved critical to a few, but it soon after got the better and returned to its former state.
It proved fatal to persons of every age, but chiefly to children just weaned, and to those of eight or ten years old, and those under the age of puberty. These were thus affected, not without the first circumstances here mentioned, but the first happened to many without these. The only beneficial thing, and the greatest of the signs then existing, and what saved many in the greatest extremity, was the strangury. For this way the disease spent itself; and it was a frequent complaint, especially among those tender patients, as well as among those who were not obliged to lie by their illness, and those who were. This proved a speedy and great change throughout. For, if the belly was affected with ill-conditioned fluxes, they stopped; food in general became agreeable to them; and the fever grew mild after this crisis. But the strangury complaints were lasting and painful; and the urine copious, thick, various, red, and partly purulent, not without pain. All these recovered to a man, as far as I know.
Where no danger is suspected, we are to consider the digestions of what passes off, whether they are all every where considerable or seasonable, good and critical. Digestions imply a quick crisis, and a sure recovery; but crudities, indigestions, and bad abscesses, imply no crisis at all, or else pains, or duration, or death, or returns of the same complaints. But which of these is most likely to happen, must be considered from other things; the duty of a physician being to relate what is past, to understand what is present, and to foretell what is to come. He is also to take special care of two things, viz., to do good in his office, or at least no harm.
The art consists in three particulars, viz., the disease, the patient, and the physician, who is the servant or assistant of the art, and the patient is to concur with the physician in opposing the power of the disease.
Pains and heavinesses about the head and neck, with or without a fever, in phrenitic cases denote convulsions; and æruginous vomitings succeed. Some of these die presently. But in burning fevers and others, a pain of the neck, a heaviness of the temples, a dimness of the sight, or a painful distension of the hypochondre, denote a hemorrhage from the nose. Where the whole head is heavy, attended with heartburns and nauseas, bilious and phlegmatic vomitings succeed. Children are generally attacked thus, and mostly affected with convulsions in these cases. Women are also attacked, and with pains in their private parts. But old persons, and those whose heat is got the better of, are attacked with palsies, madnesses, or blindness.
SECTION III. YEAR III.
In Thasus, a little before the rising of Arcturus, and during its continuance, there fell many great showers with northerly winds; but about the equinox, and to the rising of the Pleiades, little southerly showers. The winter was northerly, and drier than ordinary. The winds cold, and the snows deep. About the equinox the cold was sharpest. The spring was northerly and drier than ordinary; but yet the weather was a little wet and cold. About the summer solstice a little rain with a great deal of cold, to the rising of the Dog-star; from which time to the rising of Arcturus the summer was hot, and the heats were great and scorching, not gradually or at intervals, but continually. The droughts were also great, and the Etesiæ blew. About the rising of Arcturus southerly gentle showers fell to the equinox.
During this state of the weather, in the winter, paraplegias began and attacked many, some of whom died in a short time: for the disease was very epidemical. In other respects they were well. But in the very beginning of the spring burning fevers came on, and continued to the equinox, and even to the summer. Most of those escaped who were seized presently after the beginning of the spring and summer, and some few died: but when the autumn and wet weather set in, they proved mortal to many. These fevers were of such a nature, that where any one bled freely and plentifully at the nose, he was saved by it more than by any thing else; and not one of those who were taken thus died this season, so far as I know. For Philiscus, and Epaminon, and Silenus, bled but a few drops at the nose the fourth and fifth day, and died. Most of them were seized with shiverings about the crisis, especially where there had been no hemorrhage, and with the shivering came on a sweat about the head and shoulders. Others again were attacked with a jaundice the sixth day, and these were relieved either by a discharge by urine or stool, or a plentiful hemorrhage, as Heraclides was, who lived with Aristocydes. Not but he bled at the nose, and had the benefit of the other evacuations too; and so was freed the twentieth. It fared otherwise with the servant of Phanagoras; for, as none of these things happened to him, he died. Hemorrhages were very frequent, especially among young persons and adults; and, where nothing of this kind happened, it very often proved fatal. Those who were more advanced in years had the jaundice, or a disorder in their belly, or a dysentery, as Bion, who lived with Silenus. In the summer, dysenteries were epidemical; and, even where hemorrhages had happened, some were at last seized with dysenteries, as Eraton’s boy, for instance, and Myllus; for they, after a great hemorrhage, fell into a dysentery, and recovered. This humour was particularly redundant in many. For, where there was no hemorrhage at the crisis, the tumours behind the ears disappeared, and upon this a weight was felt in the left side of the belly, and at the extremity of the hip. Pain coming on after the crisis, and thin urine passing off, they began to bleed a little. Thus Antiphon, the son of Critobulus, had the twenty-fourth day a separation of humours by bleeding; his disorder ceased, and about the fortieth he got quite rid of it. Many women were taken ill, but less than the men, and died less. Many of them had hard labours, and after the birth were taken ill again, and for the most part died, as Telebolus’s daughter, who died the sixth day after her delivery. A great many had their menses come down in their fevers; others bled at the nose, and many young girls had the first appearance of their menses then. Others again bled at the nose, and had their menses too, as Dætharsis’s daughter, for instance, a maid, who had them then for the first time, and also bled plentifully at the nose. Nor do I remember any died, where any one of these happened well. All of my acquaintance miscarried that chanced to be with child. The urine was in general well coloured but thin, and with a small sediment. The stools were thin and bilious. And in many, where there was a crisis in other respects, it terminated in a dysentery, as in Xenophanes and Critias. The urine was watery, much, clear, and thin; and even after the crisis, where there was a good sediment, and in other respects a laudable crisis, a dysentery came upon some, as particularly upon Bion who lived with Silenus, Critias with Xenophanes, Areton’s boy, and Mnesistratus’s wife, who were all afterwards seized with a dysentery. Query? Whether it was owing to the watery urine?
About the rising of Arcturus a crisis happened to many the eleventh day, nor did the fever return again in the natural and usual way of returns; but they were comatose at this time, especially children, of whom fewer died than any. But about the equinox, to the rising of the Pleiades, and even in the winter, burning fevers continued. About the same time too a great many became phrenitic, and went off; and a few in the summer. These burning fevers pointed out the prognostics from the beginning, where the case was desperate. For immediately an acute fever came on from the first, with gentle shiverings, watchings, ramblings, thirst, nauseas, and anxiety. They sweated a little about the forehead and collar-bone, but nobody all over. Great deliriums attended, with fears and dejectedness; the extremities were coldish, the toes and fingers especially. The paroxysms were upon equal days, and in many the greatest pains upon the fourth. The sweats were generally somewhat cold. The extremities did not recover their warmth, but were livid and cold; nor did they then complain of thirst. The urine was black, little, and thin; the body bound. No hemorrhage from the nose, where this was the case, but only a few drops; nor did any of these relapse, but died the sixth day in a sweat. As to the phrenitics, all the circumstances here mentioned did not happen to them, but the crisis came on generally the eleventh day, and in some the twentieth. Where the frenzy did not immediately appear from the beginning about the third or fourth day, but things went on moderately at first, there the fever raged most upon the seventh.
The number of diseases was now very great, and those who died of them were chiefly children, young persons, adults, and such as had smooth bodies, white skins, straight hair, black hair, and black eyes. The lazy and indolent died likewise, and so did those whose voice was either high, small, or rough, and where there was any impediment in the speech, or a choleric temper. Many women of this kind died too. But, during this situation, some were preserved by the four following particulars, viz., by bleeding plentifully at the nose; by making a great deal of water with a large and good sediment; by considerable bilious stools; or by falling into a dysentery. These proved critical to a great many, not singly indeed, but jointly, though not without much trouble. However all such escaped whose case was thus. Women, too, and maids were subject to every one of these symptoms; and where any of them happened well, or where the menses came down plentifully, it proved a salutary crisis, and none of them died. For, as to Philon’s daughter, who bled freely at the nose, she died the seventh day, after having eat a very improper and unseasonable supper.
In acute fevers, and especially burning fevers, involuntary tears are a sign of a hemorrhage from the nose, if other circumstances denote not death. In this case, they are a sign of death and not a hemorrhage.
In a fever painful swellings behind the ears sometimes neither fall nor suppurate, though the fever goes off entirely. In this case a bilious looseness, or a dysentery, or thick urine with a sediment, is salutary, as in the case of Hermippus of Clazomenæ.
Critical circumstances, by which we distinguish, are either alike or unlike, as in the case of the two brothers, who lived by Epigenes’s Theatre, and were taken ill the same hour. The eldest had his crisis the sixth day; the youngest, the seventh; both of them relapsed the same hour. It intermitted five days, and after the return both were entirely freed the seventeenth. Many had a crisis the fifth, an intermission seven days, and another crisis the fifth. Others again had their crisis upon the seventh, an intermission seven days, and the last crisis the third day after the return. Some had a crisis the seventh, an intermission three days, and another crisis the seventh. Others again had a crisis the sixth, and an intermission six days: after this an attack for three days; then, an intermission one day, and the next a return and crisis the same day; as Euagon the son of Daitharsus. To some it came to a crisis the sixth, intermitted seven, and was determined the fourth day after the return, as in Aglaidas’s daughter. The greatest number of those who were taken ill this season were thus affected; and I know of none that escaped without a relapse, according to the natural course of relapses. Neither do I know of any that miscarried, where the relapses happened in this manner; nor of any, thus affected, who had returns again. But many died the sixth day, among whom were Epaminondas, Silenus, and Philiscus, the son of Antagoras.
Where any tumours happened behind the ears, the crisis came on the twentieth; the tumours subsided universally where no suppuration followed, and were turned upon the bladder. But in Cratistonax’s case, who lived by Hercules’ Temple, and in that of Scymnus, the fuller’s maid-servant, where a suppuration happened, they died. In some the crisis happened the seventh, the intermission nine days, and another crisis the fourth day after the return. In others the crisis happened the seventh, the intermission six days, and the other crisis seven days after the return; as it did to Phanocritus, who lived by Gnathon, the painter. But in the winter, about the winter solstice, and even to the equinox, the burning fevers and phrensies remained, and were very mortal. The crisis happened to many the fifth day from the beginning, and after an intermission of four days the fever returned again, and five days after this the other crisis came on, in all fourteen days. Thus it happened to most children, and to those of a more advanced age. Sometimes the crisis came on the eleventh, the return the fourteenth, and the perfect crisis the twentieth. But, if any were seized with shiverings upon the twentieth, it was then protracted to the fortieth. The greatest part shivered upon the first crisis; and those who shivered at the beginning shivered again at the crisis, and the relapses after the crisis. But shiverings happen least in the spring, more in the summer, more still in the autumn, and most of all in the winter. The hemorrhages also ceased.
The knowledge of diseases is to be learnt from the common nature of all things, and from the nature of every individual; from the disease, the patient, the things that are administered, and the person that administers them; for the case becomes easier or more difficult accordingly. We are to consider likewise the whole season in general, and the particular state of the weather, and of every country; the customs, the diet, the employments, the ages of every one, the conversations, the manners, the taciturnity, the imaginations, the sleeps, the watchings, and the dreams; and how far vellications, itchings, and tears are concerned; and what the paroxysms are; and what the evacuations by stool, or urine, or spitting, or vomiting may be; and what changes may happen from one disease to another, and the separations that end in death or life. Sweat, cold, shiverings, coughs, sneezings, sighings, breathings, belchings, flatuses (secret and audible), hemorrhages, and hemorrhoids, are also to be considered, together with their respective consequences.
Of fevers, some are continual, others affect us in the day, and intermit at night; or continue in the night, and leave us in the day. There are likewise semitertians, tertians, quartans, quintans, septans, and nonans; but the acutest, the strongest, the most dangerous, and the most fatal, are the continual. The safest, the easiest, and the longest of any is the quartan; for it is thus not only in its own nature, but also frees us from other great diseases. The semitertian is attended with acute disorders, and is more fatal than any of the rest. Add to this, that consumptive persons, and those who have been long ill of other distempers, are most subject to it. The nocturnal is not very dangerous, but tedious. The diurnal longer, and sometimes tends to a consumption. The septan is long, but not dangerous; the nonan longer, but not dangerous. A true tertian comes to its crisis soon without danger; but a quintan is the worst of all; for coming before or upon a consumption, it is death. In every one of these fevers, as well continual as intermitting, there are forms, conditions, and paroxysms to be considered. For instance, a continual, sometimes flowers as it were, at the beginning, becomes very vehement, and grows worse and worse; but about the crisis, and at the time of the crisis, becomes weaker. Sometimes again it begins mildly and secretly, increases and grows worse every day, but about the crisis, and during that time, breaks out vehemently. At another time it begins mildly, increases more and more, and, coming to its full strength by a certain time, remits again at the crisis, and during all that time. These things happen in every fever and every disease.
The diet should likewise be regulated by these considerations. And there are many other considerable signs of the like nature with these, some of which we have treated of already, and the rest shall be considered hereafter. But whoever undertakes this province in good earnest should try and inquire which of them is acute and mortal, and which recoverable; where food is proper, and where it is not; without omitting the time, the quantity, and the quality.
Where the paroxysms are upon equal days, there the crisis is upon equal days; and where they are upon unequal, there the crisis is so too.
The first critical day of the periods that terminate upon equal days is the fourth, then the sixth, the eighth, the tenth, the fourteenth, the twenty-eighth, the thirtieth, the forty-eighth, the sixtieth, the eightieth, and the hundredth. The first of those that terminate upon unequal days is the third, then the fifth, the seventh, the ninth, the eleventh, the seventeenth, the twenty-first, the twenty-seventh, and the thirty-first. And if a crisis happens otherwise, or out of these mentioned days, a relapse is to be feared, and even death. It is also to be considered, that the crises that shall happen at these times will be salutary or fatal, or there will be a turn for the better or the worse. As to erratic fevers, quartans, quintans, septans, and nonans, their critical periods are also to be considered.
Philiscus, who dwelt by the wall, took to his bed the first day. An acute fever, a sweat, and an uneasy night followed. The next day he was worse in all respects; but in the evening had a good discharge from a glyster, and afterwards a quiet night. The third day betimes, and till noon, his fever seemed to have left him, but in the evening it returned with vehemence, attended with a sweat, a thirst, a dry tongue, black urine, an uneasy night, no sleep, and much delirium. The fourth day, worse in all respects. Black urine; but an easier night, and the urine well-coloured. The fifth, about noon, a few drops of pure blood from the nose. The urine very various, with round seed-like particles floating up and down, without any sediment. A suppository brought away a little wind. A restless night. Little sleeps, with rambling discourse. The extremites cold all over, without any return of warmth. Black urine. A little sleep. In the day loss of speech, a cold sweat, and the extremities livid. Died about the middle of the sixth day.
His breath was all along drawn back, as it were, deep, and seldom. Upon the spleen was a round swelling. Cold sweats continually. The paroxysms upon equal days.
Silenus, who lived upon the sea-shore, near to Eualcides’s, was seized with a violent fever after labour, and drinking, and unseasonable exercise. It began with pain in the loins, a heaviness in the head, and a stiffness in the neck. His stools the first day were bilious, simple, frothy, deep-coloured, and many. His urine black, with a black sediment. A thirst came on, with a dry tongue, and no sleep in the night. The second day, an acute fever. More stools, thinner, and frothy. Black urine. An uneasy night. Rambled a little. The third, worse in all respects. A distension of both the flanks, reaching to the navel, but softish withal. His stools thin and blackish. The urine turbid and blackish. No sleep in the night. He talked much, laughed, sung, and could not contain himself. The fourth, no alteration. The fifth, his stools were simple, bilious, smooth, and greasy. His urine thin and transparent. His understanding recovered itself a little. The sixth, a little sweat about the head, the extreme parts cold and livid. Much tumbling and tossing. No evacuation by stool or urine. The fever acute. The seventh, loss of speech. No warmth in the extremities. No urine. The eighth, a cold sweat all over, with little, red, round eruptions, like pimples in the face, that remained without coming to suppuration. From a gentle stimulus of the belly a great discharge of thin, and as it were undigested fæces, with pain; and what came away by urine was acrid and painful. The extremities a little warmer. Light sleeps, with a comatose disorder. Loss of speech. Thin transparent urine. The ninth, no alteration. The tenth, drank nothing. A coma, with light sleeps. From the belly, the same discharge as before. A great deal of thick urine, that came away gushing, and afterwards let fall a white sediment, like ground barley; the extremities cold again. The eleventh, he died.
His breath was all along, from the beginning, deep and seldom; his flanks continually palpitating; and his age about twenty.
Herophon was seized with an acute fever, and had a small discharge downwards, with a tenesmus at the beginning, but afterwards his stools were thin, bilious, and frequent. No sleep. Black, thin urine. The fifth, betimes in the morning, he grew deaf, and was worse in all respects. His spleen swelled, and his flanks were distended. His stools were small and black; and his head rambled. The sixth, he was delirious, sweated at night, was cold, and delirious still. The seventh, was cold outwardly, thirsty, and delirious; at night came to himself, and slept. The eighth, was feverish, but not so swelled in his spleen; and came perfectly to himself. A swelling appeared in the groin for the first time, on the same side with the spleen; after which a pain seized him in both his legs. He rested pretty well; his urine was well-coloured, and had a small sediment. The ninth, he sweated, and was cured. The fifth, it returned again, and immediately his spleen swelled. The fever was acute, and his deafness returned. Three days after this, the spleen and deafness grew better; his legs were uneasy, and a sweat came on in the night. The crisis happened the seventeenth, without his being delirious after the return.
In Thasus, Philinus’s wife was seized with a fever and shivering, the fourteenth day after her delivery of a daughter, her affairs going on very well, without any reason for complaint in other respects. The upper part of the stomach, the right hypochondre, and her private parts grew painful from the first. Her cleansings stopped. However, by help of a pessary she grew easier; but the pain in her head, neck, and loins remained. She could get no sleep; was cold in her extremes; and a thirst succeeded. Her belly was in a manner burnt up, and discharged very little. Her urine was thin, and without colour at first. The sixth, she was very delirious at night, and then came to herself again. The seventh, was thirsty; and her stools were bilious and deep-coloured. The eighth, a shivering came on, with an acute fever, and many convulsions followed, with pain. She also talked much out of the way; got up to receive a suppository; had a great discharge downwards of bilious matter; but no sleep. The ninth, was convulsed. The tenth, came a little to herself. The eleventh, slept, remembered every thing, but in a little time grew lightheaded. After the convulsions made a great deal of water in a little while (the servants, or those about her, seldom reminding her), of a thick and white kind, like what appears upon shaking water that has subsided after standing a long time, but had no sediment; in colour and consistence like that which is made by a beast of burden, so far as I saw. About the fourteenth she trembled all over, talked much, and came a little to herself; but soon became lightheaded again. About the seventeenth, lost her speech; and the twentieth, died.
Epicrates’s wife, who lived by Archigetes’s, just before her labour, was taken with a violent shivering, and could not grow warm again, as I was informed. The next day, she was much the same. The third, she was delivered of a daughter, and every thing went on well. The second day after the birth an acute fever seized her, with pains in the pit of her stomach and private parts, which were mitigated by a pessary; but a pain in the head, neck, and loins continued, without any sleep. Her stools were small, bilious, thin, and simple. Her urine thin and blackish. The sixth day after she had been taken, at night she grew delirious. The seventh, was worse in all respects; watchful, delirious, thirsty; and had bilious, deep-coloured stools. The eighth, shivered, and slept much. The ninth, no alteration. The tenth, a pain in her legs and the pit of her stomach again, with a heaviness in her head, but without a delirium. She slept more, but had no stool. The eleventh, the urine was better coloured, and the sediment large. She felt herself lighter. The fourteenth shivered again, and was very feverish. The fifteenth, vomited bilious yellow matter, pretty often; sweated, and missed her fever; but at night it returned violently. Her water was thick, and with a white sediment. The sixteenth, worse again, rested badly, got no sleep, and was lightheaded. The eighteenth, was thirsty, and the tongue burnt up. No sleep; much lightheadedness; pain in the legs. About the twentieth, betimes in the morning, shivered a little, and was comatose or stupified; slept quietly; vomited a little bilious black matter; and grew deaf in the night. About the twenty-first, a pleuritic pain came on quite through the left side, with a gentle cough. The urine was thick, turbid, reddish, and did not subside after standing. In other respects she was easier, but not without her fever. Her throat was inflamed and painful immediately from the first; the uvula was contracted; and the rheum remained sharp, biting, and salt continually. About the twenty-seventh, the fever left her; the urine broke, but the side was painful. About the thirty-first, the fever came on again; her stools were bilious and stimulating. The fortieth, she vomited a little bile, and was entirely freed from her fever the eightieth.
Cleonactis, who lived above the Temple of Hercules, was taken ill with a violent fever of the erratic kind. He had a pain of the head and the left side from the beginning, and in the other parts of his body pains like those that proceed from weariness. The paroxysms of the fever were very irregular, sometimes with, sometimes without, a sweat; but for the most part they appeared upon the critical days more than upon others. About the twenty-fourth, he was cold at his fingers’ ends; vomited bilious yellow stuff pretty often, and soon after æruginous; and was better in every respect. About the thirtieth, he bled from both nostrils, irregularly, a little at a time, to the crisis. He had neither an aversion to food, nor a thirst all the time, nor want of sleep; and his urine was thin, though not without colour. About the fortieth, it appeared reddish, and had a large sediment, very red, that relieved him. After this it changed several ways, and sometimes had a sediment, at other times none. The sixtieth, there was a great, white, smooth sediment; all the complaints abated; his fever intermitted; and his urine was thin again, but well-coloured. The seventieth, he had no fever, and it intermitted ten days. The eightieth, a shivering came on, and an acute fever. A great sweat followed; the sediment in his urine was red and smooth; and he obtained a perfect crisis.
Meton was taken ill of a very acute fever, with a heaviness and pain in his loins. The second day, he had a good discharge downwards, from drinking a pretty large quantity of water. The third, a heaviness in his head, with thin, bilious, reddish stools. The fourth, worse in all respects. A little blood from the left nostril twice. A restless night. Stools, as before. Blackish urine, with a blackish cloud floating up and down, without any sediment. The fifth, a great deal of pure blood from the left nostril; a sweat, and a crisis; but after the crisis, want of sleep, lightheadedness, and thin blackish urine. After bathing the head he slept, and came to himself; had no relapse afterwards, but frequent hemorrhages, even after the crisis.
Erasinus, who lived by the Torrent of Bootes, grew very feverish after supper, and had a very bad night. The first day he was easy, but in pain in the night. The second, worse in all respects, and at night lightheaded. The third, uneasy, and very delirious. The fourth, exceeding ill, and had no sleep at night, but dreamed and talked, and was afterwards remarkably worse, frightened, and impatient. The fifth, betimes in the morning, was composed and came perfectly to himself, but before noon was so raving mad, that he could not contain himself. His extreme parts were cold, and somewhat livid; his urine stopped; and about sunset he died.
This patient’s fever was continually upon him, with sweats; his flanks were tumefied, distended, and painful; his urine black, with round clouds that subsided not; his belly not bound; his thirst perpetual, but not great; and before he died, he was convulsed much and sweated.
Criton, in Thasus, was seized, as he was walking, with a violent pain of his foot from the great toe, and obliged to go to bed the same day. A chilliness ensued, with nauseas, a gentle heat, and at night a delirium. The second day, the whole foot was swelled, and a redness appeared about the ankle with the skin stretched. Little black spots (or pimples) appeared likewise. An acute fever came on, with violent ravings. His stools were unmixed, bilious, and very frequent. The second day of his illness he died.
The Clazomenian, who lived by Phrynichides’s well, was seized with a violent fever, attended from the beginning with a pain of the head, neck, and loins; and immediately after with a deafness. No sleep; the fever acute; the flanks tumefied, but without any great distension; and the tongue dry. The fourth day, he was delirious at night. The fifth, was uneasy, and worse in every respect. About the eleventh, a little remission. His stools from the beginning to the fourteenth, were thin, large, and watery, without fatiguing him. After this they stopped. The urine all along was thin indeed, but of a good colour, and had many clouds here and there, without subsiding. But about the sixteenth day, his urine was a little thicker, with a small sediment. He was somewhat relieved, and came more to himself. The seventeenth it was thin again. Swellings arise behind both the ears, attended with pain. He got no sleep, but was delirious, and had a pain in his legs. The twentieth, the fever left him. The crisis came on without a sweat, and he recovered himself perfectly. About the twenty-seventh, a violent, but short, pain of his right hip seized him. The swellings behind the ears neither subsided nor suppurated, but were painful. The thirty-first, many watery stools, with pain and difficulty, as in a dysentery. The urine thick; the swellings went away. But, about the fortieth, a pain of the right eye came on with a dulness of sight, that went off again.
Dromeadas’s wife, the second day after she had been brought to bed of a daughter, and had no reason to complain of her other affairs, was seized with a shivering and an acute fever. The hypochondres began to be painful the first day. A nausea came on, with horrors and tossings, nor could she afterwards sleep. She fetched her breath deep and seldom, and immediately drew it back again. The second day after the shivering she had a very good stool; her urine was thick, white, and turbid, as when it is shook after standing a long time, but had no sediment. No sleep in the night. The third day about noon she shivered again, and was very feverish. The urine, as before; the flanks painful, with nauseas; an uneasy night, and no sleep. She was also in a coldish sweat all over, but presently grew warm again. The fourth, the hypochondres were a little easier, but the head heavy and painful, with somewhat of a stupidness. A few drops from the nose; a dry tongue, and thirsty; the urine thin and oily; and with these a little sleep. The fifth, she was thirsty and qualmish. The urine as before, and the body bound. About noon was very lightheaded, and presently after came to herself again. Upon getting up was somewhat stupid, and a little cold; slept in the night, and was lightheaded. The sixth day betimes in the morning she shivered again, and presently grew warm; sweated all over, but the extremities were cold; grew lightheaded, and breathed deep and seldom. Soon after convulsions came on from the head, and she went off presently.
A man who was a little feverish got his supper and drank plentifully, but in the night brought up all again. An acute fever followed, with a pain of the right hypochondre, and a gentle softish inflammation tending outwards. He rested badly; his urine at first was thick, red, and had no sediment after standing; his tongue dry, but not very thirsty. The fourth, an acute fever, with pain all over. The fifth, smooth, oily urine in great quantity. A raging fever. The sixth, in the evening, he was very lightheaded, and had no sleep in the night. The seventh, was worse in all respects. The urine, as before. He talked much, and could not contain himself. The belly, being stimulated, discharged watery turbid stuff with worms. An uneasy night. Betimes in the morning a shivering, and acute fever; a hot sweat followed, and the fever seemed to go off. He slept but little, and upon waking was cold, spit much, and in the evening was very delirious. Soon after he vomited black stuff, a little bilious. The ninth, was cold again, very delirious, and got no sleep. The tenth, had a pain in his legs, and was in all respects worse and delirious. The eleventh, died.
A woman that lived upon the shore, three months gone with child, was taken with a violent fever, and immediately complained of pain in her loins. The third day she had a pain in her neck, head, collar-bone, and right hand; and in a short time lost her speech. Her right hand was convulsed, and became paralytic. She grew very delirious, had an uneasy night, and got no sleep, but discharged a little bilious unmixed matter downwards. The fourth, she recovered her speech, but the convulsions remained as before, with pains all over. About the hypochondre a painful swelling appeared. She could get no sleep; grew lightheaded; discharged downwards; and her urine was thin, but not well-coloured. The fifth, a violent fever; a pain in the hypochondre; great lightheadedness; bilious stools; a sweat at night, and no fever. The sixth, she came to herself, and was better every way; but about the left collar-bone the pain remained. A thirst came on; the urine was thin, and she got no sleep. The seventh, tremblings followed, with something of stupidness. She was also a little delirious, and the pain about the collar-bone and left arm remained. In other respects she was better, and came to herself perfectly. The intermission lasted three days without any fever. The eleventh, it returned, with shivering and great vehemence. About the fourteenth, she vomited bilious yellow matter pretty often; fell into a sweat, and was cured.
Melidia, who lived by the Temple of Juno, complained of a violent pain in her head, neck, and breast; and presently after an acute fever came on. Her menses came down a little, with a continual pain in all those parts. The sixth she was comatose, qualmish, chilly, and red about the cheek, with something of a delirium. The seventh, sweated; the fever intermitted; the pains remained; the fever returned again; and she slept a little. Her urine was constantly thin, but well-coloured; her stools thin, bilious, acrid, very small, black and fetid; the sediment in the urine white and smooth. She fell into a sweat, and had a perfect crisis the eleventh.
THE THIRD BOOK OF EPIDEMICS.
Fœsius, p. 1059. Haller, i. p. 138. Gardeil, ii. p. 92.
This book, says Haller, is alike in value and in manner with the preceding, of which it appears to be a continuation;a the first twelve cases manifestly belong to it. The latter portion has reference to a pestilential constitution: not that a true plague accompanied with carbuncles and buboes is here described; but because all diseases then occurring were of the highest malignity. Not one of the sixteen cases mentioned in this part had symptoms of the true plague, although gangrene was not unfrequent in conjunction with the fever, so that entire limbs fell off.
Gardeil, in a short note, says, “that the lovers of ancient lore will find at the end of each case (the first twelve), certain hieroglyphics constituted of five or six letters each, that may be regarded as algebraic signs, to designate briefly the practical result of each observation, and relating more particularly to prognostic.”
These characters, Fœsius informs us, are found in several manuscripts, but are wanting in others; and that we are ignorant whether they are from Hippocrates, or from his school; or if they are not of a later origin. They are anterior to Galen, for he mentions them. Fœsius introduces them. As a mere matter of curiosity, I thought of giving them a place here; but their want of utility led me to forego my first intention.—Ed.
Pythion, who lived by the Temple of the Earth, was taken with a trembling in his hands, which was succeeded the same day by an acute fever and delirium. The second, worse in all respects. The third, no alteration. The fourth, a little, simple, bilious discharge downwards. The fifth, worse in all respects. Little sleeps; no stool. The sixth, a variety of spitting, with something upon the red. The seventh, his mouth was drawn aside. The eighth, worse in all respects. The tremblings remained. The urine from the beginning to the eighth day thin and without colour, with a little suspended cloud in it. The tenth, he sweated, spit matter a little digested, and had a crisis. The urine was whitish about this time, and, forty days after, an abscess appeared by the anus, which was succeeded by the strangury.
Hermocrates, who lived by the new wall, was seized with a very acute fever, and began to have a pain in his head and loins, with a moderate distension of the hypochondre. The tongue was burnt up from the beginning. Presently after, he grew deaf; and could get no sleep. His thirst was moderate, and his urine thick and red, without a sediment after standing. His stools were large and burnt. The fifth, thin urine, with a cloud that did not fall. At night he was lightheaded. The sixth, a jaundice; worse in all respects, and lightheaded still. The seventh, great restlessness. The urine thin, and like the former. The succeeding days, very little alteration. About the eleventh every thing seemed to abate. A coma began. The urine was thick, reddish, thin towards the bottom, and subsided not. He came to himself by little and little. The fourteenth, he was neither feverish, nor sweated, but slept, and came perfectly to himself. The urine much the same. About the seventeenth, he relapsed, grew hot, and the days following had an acute fever, with thin urine. About the twentieth another crisis. The fever went off, but without sweating. An aversion to food lasted all the time. He came to himself, but could not speak. His tongue was dry, but without thirst. He laid comatose. About the twenty-fourth grew hot again, and discharged much thin matter downwards. The days following an acute fever, with a burnt tongue. The twenty-seventh, he died.
This patient was deaf all along; his urine thick and red without a sediment, or thin and colourless, with a little cloud; and he could taste nothing.
He that lived in Dealces’s Garden, felt a heaviness in his head, and a pain of the right temple a long time; and, upon an occasion given, was seized with a violent fever, and carried to bed. The second day a little pure blood from the left nostril, and a good stool. The urine thin and various, with a cloud suspended, almost like ground barley and seed. The third, an acute fever. Black, thin, frothy stools, with a livid sediment in them. He was also a little soporose, and bore rising up with difficulty. The sediment of the urine turned livid, and somewhat glutinous. The fourth, bilious yellow vomitings in a small quantity, and after a little resting æruginous or violet. A little pure blood from the left nostril. The stools and urine as before. A sweat about the head and collarbone. The spleen tumefied. A pain of the same thigh. A softish distension of the right hypochondre. No sleep in the night. A little rambling. The fifth, more stools, black and frothy, with a black sediment. No sleep in the night; ramblings. The sixth, black, fat, glutinous, fetid stools. Slept, and came more to himself. The seventh, a dry tongue, and thirsty. No sleep, but ramblings. The urine thin, and not well-coloured. The eighth, black, small, compacted stools; slept, and came to himself; and was not very thirsty. The ninth, shivered, burned, sweated, was cold, delirious, and convulsed (or distorted) in his right eye; with a dry tongue, thirst, and watching. The tenth, very little alteration. The eleventh, came to himself perfectly, lost his fever, and slept. The urine was thin about the crisis. The fever intermitted two days, and returned again the fourteenth. No sleep that night, but strong deliriums. The fifteenth, turbid urine, as when it is shook after standing. A raging fever, with strong deliriums, and no sleep. A pain in the knees and legs. Black stools, by means of a suppository. The sixteenth, thin urine, with a suspended cloud. Was lightheaded. The seventeenth, early in the morning, was cold in the extreme parts, and covered up. The fever raged; a sweat came on all over, that relieved him; he came more to himself upon it, but was not free from his fever or his thirst. He also vomited bilious yellow stuff in a small quantity, and had a stool; soon after which, black thin stuff came away in a small quantity. The urine was thin and not well-coloured. The eighteenth, he did not come to himself, but was comatose. The nineteenth, no alteration. The urine thin. The twentieth, slept, came to himself perfectly, sweated, lost his fever and thirst; but the urine was thin. The twenty-first, rambled a little, and was a little dry. A pain attacked him in the flanks, and a continual palpitation about the navel. The twenty-fourth, a sediment in the urine; and he came perfectly to himself. The twenty-seventh, a pain in the right hip. Thin urine, with a sediment; and in other respects very easy. About the twenty-ninth, a pain in the right eye. The urine thin. The fortieth, stools of a phlegmy white nature, and pretty often. A great sweat all over, and a perfect crisis.
Philistes, in Thasus, had a pain of his head a long time, and at last, being somewhat stupid, was forced to lie down; but continual fevers coming on from drinking-bouts, the pain grew worse, and in the night his last fever first seized him. The next day he vomited bilious yellow matter, at first in a small quantity, and afterwards æruginous in a larger. His body was open, but he could get no rest in the night. The second, he grew deaf, his fever raged; his right flank was distended and turned inwards. The urine thin and transparent, with a seed-like cloud suspended. About noon he was a little mad. The third very uneasy. The fourth convulsed, and in all respects worse. The fifth betimes in the morning he died.
Chærion, who lived near Demænetus, was seized with a violent fever from a drinking-bout, and immediately complained of a heaviness and pain in his head. No sleep. Thin stools, somewhat bilious. The third day, a violent fever. The head trembled, especially the lower lip, and soon after he shivered, was convulsed, and very lightheaded. An uneasy night. The fourth, was easy, and slept a little, but rambled. The fifth, was in pain, worse in all respects, and delirious. A bad night again, and no sleep. The sixth, no alteration. The seventh, shivered, burned, sweated all over, and had a crisis.
This patient had all along bilious, small, unmixed stools; and thin well-coloured urine, with a cloud suspended. About the eighth, the colour was better, and it had a white but little sediment. He came to himself. The fever intermitted, and returned the ninth. About the fourteenth, he was very feverish again, and sweated. The sixteenth, vomited a pretty deal of bilious yellow matter. The seventeenth, shivered again, was very hot, sweated, lost his fever, and had another crisis. The urine was better-coloured after the relapse and the crisis, and had a sediment; nor was he delirious in his relapse. The eighteenth, he was a little hot, and a little dry. His urine thin, with a suspended cloud; and he rambled a little. The nineteenth, was free from the fever, but had a pain in his neck. A sediment in the urine, and a perfect crisis the twentieth.
Euryanax’s daughter, a maid, was seized with a violent fever. She had no thirst all along, nor eat any thing; but had a little discharge downwards. The urine was thin, small, and not well-coloured. At the beginning of the fever a pain came about the anus. The sixth day, neither fever, nor sweat, and yet a crisis; the complaint about the anus suppurating a little, and breaking at this time. The seventh, after the crisis she shivered, was a little hot, and sweated. The eighth day after the crisis she shivered again, but not much; and afterwards her extremities were always cold. About the tenth, after the sweat that then was upon her, she grew lightheaded, but recovered herself again presently; occasioned, as they said, by her tasting a bunch of grapes. It intermitted the twelfth day, and again she was very delirious. Her stools were bilious, small, unmixed, thin, and acrid. She got up often. The seventh day after the last delirium she died.
This patient complained at the beginning of a pain in her throat, which was inflamed all along, with the uvula drawn up; and of a great rheum, that was withal a little sharp. She coughed too, but brought nothing away digested. She had an aversion to every thing, and not the least desire to any thing, all along; had no thirst, and drank nothing worth speaking of; was silent, and said nothing. Her mind was much dejected, and in a despairing way, and her constitution seemed inclinable to a consumption.
The woman with the quinsy, that was by Aristion’s, who first complained of her tongue, lost her speech, and her tongue was both red and dry. The first day a chilliness came on, with heat afterwards. The third, a shivering, a burning, and a reddish hard swelling upon the neck and breast on both sides. Her extremities cold and livid. Her breathing difficult, with great elevation of the breast. The drink came through her nose, and she could not swallow. Her evacuations by stool and urine were stopped. The fourth, was worse in every respect. The fifth, she died of her quinsy.
The young man, who lived upon the Lyars Market, was taken with a violent fever, after weariness, labour, and running more than usual. The first day he had many thin, bilious stools. His urine was thin and blackish. No sleep, and considerable thirst. The second, worse in all respects. More stools, unseasonably. No sleep. Rambled a little, and sweated a little. The third, was uneasy, dry, qualmish, with great anxiety, tossings, and ramblings. The extremities livid and cold. The soft part of his belly gently distended on both sides. The fourth, no sleep; was worse. The seventh, he died, in about the twentieth year of his age.
The woman by Tisamenus, who was seized with the iliac passion, was extremely uneasy, vomited much, could not contain what she drank, was in pain about the flanks, and the lower parts of her belly, and in continual torment. She had no thirst, but yet grew hot. Her extremities were continually cold. A loathing, and watchfulness came on; her urine was thin and little; and her stools crude, thin, and small. Nothing being able to relieve her, she died.
A woman, who miscarried of a child, among those that were about Pantimis, was seized the same day with a violent fever. Her tongue was dry and thirsty, nor could she get any sleep. Her stools were thin, many, and crude. The second, she shivered, was very feverish, had many stools, and no sleep. The third, her pains increased. The fourth, she was lightheaded. The seventh, she died.
Her belly was all along lax; her stools many, thin, and crude; and her urine but little and thin.
Another, that miscarried about the fifth month, had a violent fever too, which at the beginning was attended with a coma, and again a watchfulness; together with a pain of the loins, and a heaviness of the head. The second day, a few, thin, and at first unmixed, stools. The third, more and worse. No sleep in the night. The fourth, was lightheaded, frightened, dejected, had the right eye drawn on one side, and a little cold sweat about the head. The extremities were also cold; the fever exasperated, and a violent delirium succeeded, but went off again presently. She had no thirst, but was watchful, and had many unseasonable stools all along. Her urine was little, thin, and blackish; her extremities cold, and somewhat livid. The sixth, no alteration. The seventh, she died in a frenzy.
The woman that lived upon the Lyars Market, after she had been delivered, with a great deal of pain, of her first child (a son), was seized with a violent fever, and immediately from the beginning was thirsty, qualmish, and in great pain about the pit of her stomach. Her tongue was dry; her stools thin and few; and no sleep. The second day she shivered a little, burned, and had a little cold sweat about the head. The third, was uneasy. Her stools crude, thin, and many. The fourth, shivered again; was worse in all respects; and could get no sleep. The fifth, uneasy. The sixth, no alteration, but many liquid stools. The seventh, shivered again, burned, was very thirsty, and extremely restless. About the evening sweated all over, but it was cold. The extremities were cold too, and could not get warm again. Shivered once more at night. The extremities remained cold. No sleep. A little delirious, but came to herself again presently. The eighth about noon, grew hot, dry, comatose, qualmish, and vomited bilious matter with a little yellow in it. A restless night, and no sleep. A great deal of urine in a gushing manner, and without her knowledge. The ninth, every thing remitted, but the coma did not go off. In the evening she shivered a little again, and vomited a little bilious matter. The tenth, another shivering, an acute fever, and no sleep. In the morning early made a deal of water, that subsided. The extremities were warm again. The eleventh, vomited æruginous bilious matter, and not long after shivered again. The extremities grew cold again. In the evening sweated, shivered, vomited much, and had an uneasy night. The twelfth, vomited much black, fetid matter; hiccuped often; was dry, and uneasy. The thirteenth, vomited much black, fetid matter again; shivered, and about noon lost her speech. The fourteenth, bled at the nose, and died.
This patient was all along loose in her body, and chilly. Her age, about seventeen.
At this part, Fœsius begins with the account of the “Status Pestilens,” the χαταϛασις λοιμωδης, of Hippocrates. Haller calls it “Constitutio Temporis Pestilens,” and Clifton, “The Malignant State.” As this pestilential constitution has by many been considered as a description of the plague at Athens, as given by Thucydides, Clifton has shown, I think conclusively, that Hippocrates has no reference to it, in this detail. It may be interesting to many to read Thucydides’ account, with the objections of Clifton, in connexion with this part of the Third Epidemics.—Ed.
The year was southerly, showery, and perpetually calm: but, greater droughts than ordinary happening some time before, much rain fell about the rising of Arcturus with the southerly winds. The autumn was gloomy, cloudy, and very wet. The winter southerly, wet, and mild; but a considerable while after the solstice, near the equinox, the weather was very severe; and, even about the equinox, northerly winds set in, and snow that lasted not long. The spring was again southerly and calm. A great deal of rain fell continually to the rising of the Dog-star. The summer was serene and hot, attended with great suflocating heats. The Etesiæ blew faintly and by intervals. About the rising of Arcturus much rain fell again, with the wind northerly. The year being thus southerly, damp, and mild, the winter proved healthy to all but consumptive people, as we shall see by and by.
Early in the spring, with the cold weather that then set in, came a great many erysipelases, some from evident causes, others unaccountably; of a bad sort, and fatal to many. Many complained of pain in their throats, and impediments in their speech; of burning fevers, with frenzies, aphthas in the mouth, tubercles upon the private parts, inflammations of the eyes, carbuncles, disorders of the belly, aversions to food, with thirst in some, in others not; turbid urine, in abundance, and of a bad sort; comas for the most part, and again watchings; crises not at all in many, or with difficulty; dropsies, and consumptions not a few. These were the epidemical diseases, of which there were some ill of every kind, and many never recovered it. The manner of their illness was as follows.
Many had erysipelases (that came from evident causes), upon very slight and trifling wounds, all over the body, especially about the head in those who were near sixty, if they were but a little neglected. Many again, while under cure, had great phlegmons formed, round which the erysipelas spread considerably, and in a short time. In most of them the matter that was separated turned to suppuration, and great fallings off of flesh, tendons, and bones ensued. The humour that was collected there was not like pus, but a certain kind of putrefaction, with a copious running of great variety. Now, wherever any of these happened about the head, the hair of the whole head and chin came off, and the bones were laid bare, and fell off, attended with great discharges. These things happened sometimes with, sometimes without, a fever, and were more terrible than dangerous. For, wherever any of these disorders were digested and turned to suppuration, there most of them did well; but where the phlegmon and erysipelas went off without any such abscess, there many of them died. The like circumstances happened, whatever part of the body it fell upon in its way. In many a flux happened upon the arm and whole elbow. Where it fell upon the ribs, it affected them either before or behind. Some had the whole thigh, or the leg, or the foot, laid bare: but the most dangerous of these was, when they fell upon the pubes or private parts. This was the nature of their attack, when either ulcers, or any other cause, occasioned the erysipelas. Many of them had it in fevers, before fevers, and upon fevers. To these, where any of them went off by suppuration, or by a considerable purging, or a discharge of laudable urine, it proved critical; but where none of these happened, and they disappeared without any signs, it proved fatal. Thus the case stood among many with respect to the erysipelas in the spring, which continued also through the summer, and during the autumn. The tubercles in the throat were very troublesome too to some persons, and so were the inflammations of the tongue, and the abscesses of the teeth. The voice, when it was vitiated and obstructed, was likewise another sign to many, especially to those who began to be consumptive, and to those who had burning fevers and phrensies.
These fevers and phrensies began early in the spring after the cold weather that then happened, and a great number were laid up with them at that time. They also proved very acute and mortal. The state of the fevers was thus. At the beginning they were troubled with comas, nauseas, horrors, acute fevers, but little thirst, and no delirium. They also bled a little at the nose, and the paroxysms for the most part were upon equal days. About the time of the paroxysms came on loss of memory, great languidness, and loss of speech. The fingers and toes were always cold, but much more so about the paroxysms, and the warmth returned again slowly and imperfectly. They came to themselves again, and spoke; but either a continual coma, without sleep, was upon them, or painful watchings. A great many were troubled with crude thin stools in abundance. The urine was plentiful and thin, without any thing critical or beneficial in it; nor did any thing else of a critical kind happen to those who were thus affected; for they had neither a good hemorrhage, nor any critical separation of what is usual to pass off; but every one died, (as fate would have it,) in a vague and uncertain manner, about the time of the crisis for the most part; some held out a longer time, but died at last, without speaking, and many sweating. Thus the case was among those who were mortally ill; and there was but little difference in the phrensies. For they were entirely without thirst or madness, as in other phrensies, but were taken with a kind of stupid delirium, and died with the heaviness upon them. There were also other fevers, of which we shall take notice. Aphthas, and ulcers in the mouth, were frequent; and great fluxes upon the private parts, with ulcerations, tubercles, outwardly and inwardly; swellings in the groin; inflammations of the eyes that were humid, of long duration, and painful; besides little tumours upon the eyelids, outwardly and inwardly, called Συϰα, that destroyed the sight in many persons. The like happened upon other ulcers, and upon the private parts. There were also many carbuncles in the summer, and other large pustules of the putrid kind, called Σηψ; many large herpes’s or tetters, and many complaints in the belly too, that did a great deal of harm. In the first place many were seized with painful tenesmus’s, especially children, and those who were under the age of puberty, most of whom died. Many also had lienteries, and dysenteries, but these without much pain. The discharges were of the bilious, fat, thin, and watery kind; and in many the distemper took this turn, sometimes with, sometimes without, a fever. There were likewise cruel gripings and twistings of the guts, with intolerable pain. Many things that were in the body and suppressed were let out, but these discharges did not carry off the pains. What was administered met with great difficulty; for purges were very injurious to most. Of these that were thus affected many died in a short time, and many again held out longer. In a word, all that were ill, whether of acute or chronical complaints, died chiefly of disorders of the belly; for the belly was the general receiver of all. There was, as far as I could observe, an aversion to food in every body, in all the forementioned diseases. In many, especially of this sort, and the like; and among others of those who were mortally ill, some were thirsty, others not. Of those who had fevers and other disorders no one drank intemperately, but with respect to this regulated themselves as the physician would have them. The urine was much, and that not in proportion to the drink taken in, but vastly more; and that which came away was very bad in its quality; having neither thickness, nor digestion, nor was the body well cleansed by it. Whereas in many cases cleansings by the urine that are good are very beneficial. To the greatest part they now implied corruption or colliquation, disorder, pains, and the want of a crisis. Comas likewise happened, particularly in the phrensies and the burning fevers; not but they happened too in all the other capital diseases, where a fever attended; but in many, a heavy coma followed, or little and gentle sleeps, all the time.
Many other kind of fevers were also epidemical, such as tertians, quartans, nocturnals, continuals, chronicals, erratics, inconstants, and such as were attended with nauseas and inquietude. All these brought with them great uneasiness: for the belly was in most cases much disturbed, horrors came on, and sweats that were not critical. As to the urine, that was as we have already described it. A great many of them were likewise tedious; the abscesses, that happened here, not proving critical as at other times. Add to this, the crises were universally very difficult, and sometimes not at all; or proved very tedious, especially to these. A few of them were determined in about eighty days; but to the greatest part they went off at random. A few of these died of a dropsy, without being confined to their beds. Many were afflicted with tumours that came upon other diseases, and above all those who were consumptive. For the greatest, most difficult, and most fatal was the consumption. Many of these, beginning in the winter, obliged a great number to keep their beds, while some of them bore it standing. Early in the spring most of those who were laid up died, and none of the rest got rid of their coughs. They abated indeed in the summer, but in the autumn they were all laid up, many died, and most of them were ill a long time. The greatest number of these began to be extremely ill presently after these complaints, and had frequent horrors, continual acute fevers very often, and unseasonable sweats. Many were cold continually: the cold was great too, and they could hardly get warm again. The belly was bound many ways, and presently again became humid; all that oppressed the lungs passing downwards. A great deal of urine was made, but not good; bad colliquations appeared; coughs were frequent all along, and much came away digested and moist, and with tolerable ease. But if they were a little in pain, the discharge from the lungs was then very gentle in all. The throat was not much affected with acrid, nor did salt humours do any harm. What came from the head was viscid, white, moist, and frothy. But the greatest evil of all, in these and other cases, was, what we have taken notice of before, a dislike to food: for they had no pleasure in eating and drinking, but passed the time very free from thirst. There was also a heaviness in the body, and a coma. A great many swelled, and fell into dropsies, were troubled with horrors, and before they died grew delirious.
Those who fell into consumptions were the smooth, the whitish, the lentil-coloured, the reddish, the gray-eyed, the leucophlegmatic, and those whose shoulders stuck up behind. Nor did women of these kinds escape. The melancholic, and the sanguine suffered too. These were affected with burning fevers, phrensies, and dysenteries; the young men, with tenesmuses; the phlegmatic, with long diarrhœas; and the bilious, with sharp and fat purgings. To all the above-mentioned the most troublesome time was the spring, which proved fatal to great numbers; the summer was the easiest, and fewest died; but in the autumn, and during the Pleiades, a great many died of quartans.
The summer happening as it ought, is, in my opinion, of great service: for summer diseases cease upon the coming in of winter, and winter diseases upon the coming in of summer. Though the summer that then was, was not well-conditioned, but on a sudden hot and southerly and calm; yet changing to another constitution or season was of service. And indeed I look upon it to be a great part of the art to be able to consider properly what has been already wrote. For he who knows, and makes use of, these things, does not seem to me capable of any great mistakes in his profession. But then he ought to be well acquainted with the condition of every season, and also with the disease; the good that is common to the season or the disease, and which disease will be long and fatal, long and safe, acute and fatal, acute and safe; and likewise the order of the critical days. These things he ought to consider and predict from; because they are able to supply him. And he who is acquainted with these things will know whom, when, and how to diet, or manage the rest.
THUCYDIDES UPON THE PLAGUE AT ATHENS.
In the very beginning of summer, the Peloponnesians, with two-thirds of their allies, invaded Attica, as they had done the first year of the war, under the conduct of Archidamus the son of Zeuxidamus king of Sparta; and, after encamping, wasted the country about them. They had not been many days in Attica, before the plague first broke out among the Athenians, after having before that visited, as the report went, Lemnos and many other places: but so great a plague and mortality was never yet known, in the memory of man. The physicians were so far from being able to cure it at first, for want of knowing the nature of it, that they themselves died faster than others, as being most familiar with the sick; nor could any other art of man make head against it. All supplications to the gods, and inquiries of oracles, and the like, signified nothing; so that, at last, overcome with the distemper, they left them all off. It began, by report, first in that part of Ethiopia that lies above Egypt, and so came down into Egypt and Lybia, and a great part of the King of Persia’s dominions. Athens was seized with it on a sudden, but first in Piræus; which occasioned a report that the Peloponnesians had thrown poison into the wells; for at that time they had no springs or fountains there. Afterwards it came up into the high city, and proved much more mortal than before. Now let every man, physician or private person, say, according to his knowledge, what the origin of this distemper might be, or what causes might be sufficient to produce so great an alteration. For my own part, having been ill of it myself, and seen others that were so too, I shall now declare what the manner of it was, that, if ever it should happen again, nobody who reflects upon it, may be at a loss through ignorance.
The year was universally allowed to be the healthiest and freest from other diseases of any; and, if any one was sick before, all his illness was converted to this. Others, who were in perfect health, were taken suddenly, without any apparent cause, with violent heats in their heads, and with redness and inflammations in their eyes. Their tongues and throats within became immediately bloody; their breath in great disorder and offensive. A sneezing and a hoarseness ensued; and, in a short time, the pain descended into the breast, attended with a violent cough. When it was once settled about the mouth of the stomach, a retching, and vomiting of bilious stuff, in as great a variety as ever was known among physicians, succeeded, but not without the greatest anxiety imaginable. Many were seized with a hiccup, that brought up nothing, but occasioned a violent convulsion, which in some went off presently, but in others continued much longer. The body outwardly was neither very hot to the touch, nor pale, but reddish, livid, and flowered (as it were) all over with little pimply eruptions, and ulcers; but inwardly the heat was so exceedingly great, that they could not endure the slightest covering, or the finest linen, or any thing short of absolute nakedness. It was also an infinite pleasure to them to plunge into cold water; and many of those who were not well attended did so, running to the wells, to quench their insatiable thirst: not that it signified whether they drank much or little; a great uneasiness and restlessness attending them, together with a continual watching. While the distemper was advancing to the height, the body did not fall away, but resisted the vehemence of it beyond expectation; so that many of them died the ninth and the seventh day of the inward burning, some strength yet remaining; or, if they held out longer, many of them afterwards died of weakness; the distemper descending into the belly, and there producing violent ulcerations, and fluxes of the simple or unmixed kind. For the disease went through the whole body, beginning first in the head; and, if any escaped, where the case was very desperate, this was denoted by the extremities being affected: for it broke out upon the private parts, the fingers and toes; and many came off with the loss of those parts. Some, again, lost their eyes; others were seized, immediately upon their getting up, with an absolute forgetfulness of every thing, not knowing themselves, or those that were most familiar; the appearance, or the nature, of the distemper being greater than words can possibly express, and harder to be borne than human nature is accustomed to. Nor indeed was it any of those diseases that are bred among us, as appeared very plain from this circumstance. For the birds and beasts that feed on human flesh, though many carcasses laid abroad unburied, either came not to them, or tasting died. The manifest defect or scarcity of such fowl was a proof of this; for they were neither seen any where else, nor about any of the carcasses: but the dogs, being brought up among us, made the case yet more evident. The disease therefore (to pass over many strange particulars that happened differently in different persons) was in general such as I have described it; and as to other usual distempers, none of them were then troublesome; or, if any appeared, they all centered in this. Some of them died for want of attendance, and some again with all the care imaginable. Nor was there any (to say) certain remedy, which, upon application, must have helped them: for, if it did good to one, it did harm to another. Nor was there any difference in bodies, as to strength or weakness, to enable them to resist it; but it swept all away, what care or method soever was taken. The terriblest circumstance of all was the dejection of mind in those that found themselves beginning to be ill (for, growing immediately desperate, they gave themselves over much more, without making any resistance); and their dying like sheep, infected by their care and concern for others, increased their despair; the greatest mortality proceeding this way. For, if they were unwilling to visit others through fear, they died by themselves without assistance (by which means many families became desolate, for want of somebody to take care of them); or, if they visited, they likewise died, especially those who had virtue or humanity enough to do any friendly offices: for such out of shame would not spare themselves, but went in to their friends, especially after it came to that pass that even the domestics, wearied with the lamentations of those that died, fell ill themselves, overcome with the greatness of the calamity. But those that were recovered had much compassion on those that were dying, and on those that lay sick, as having known the misery themselves, and now were in a secure and safe situation: for it never seized the same person twice, so as to be mortal. Others, therefore, esteemed them happy, and they themselves, through excess of present joy, conceived a kind of small hope never to die of any future sickness.
The bringing provisions from the country to the city was an additional grievance, and equally affected those who came with them into the city. For, having no houses, but dwelling, at that time of the year, in stifling booths or huts, the mortality was now without any form or order; dead men, and those that were just expiring, lying upon one another in the streets, while men half dead lay about every well, desiring a little water. The temples, also, where they dwelt in tents, were also full of the dead that died there: for, oppressed to the last degree by the violence of the distemper, and not knowing what course to take, men grew equally careless both of holy and profane things. All the laws relating to funerals, that had been observed before, were now violated and confounded; every one burying where he could find room. Many, for want of necessaries, after so many deaths before, were become even impudent in the article of funerals. For, when one had made a funeralpile, another, getting before him, would throw on his dead, and set fire to it: and, while one was burning, another would come, and throwing him upon it that he had brought along with him, would go away again.
The great licentiousness, which was also used here in other respects, began at first from this disease. For what a man would before dissemble, and not acknowledge to be done for the sake of pleasure, he now durst freely own, seeing before his eyes such quick revolutions of things, rich men dying suddenly, and succeeded by others not worth a groat; so that they thought it better to have a speedy enjoyment of their estates and pleasures, as men that held their lives and fortunes alike by the day. As to laborious works, no man was forward to undertake any thing noble or laudable; not knowing whether he should live to finish it; but what any man knew to be delightful, and every way conducing to pleasure, that was made both profitable and honourable; neither the fear of the Gods, nor the laws of men, restraining any. For, with respect to the one, they concluded, from what they saw, that it was all the same whether they worshipped, or not worshipped; all men dying without distinction; and, with respect to the other, no man expected his life would last until the law could punish him for his misbehaviour. But they thought there was now, over their heads, some greater judgment decreed against them, before which fell, it was but fit they should enjoy some little part of life. Such was the calamity that came upon the Athenians, and oppressed them greatly; their men dying of the disease within, and the enemy wasting the country without.
conclusion of the history of the plague at athens.
CLIFTON’S PROOF OF THIS NOT BEING THAT DESCRIBED BY HIPPOCRATES
Clifton having in his preface attempted to overthrow the opinion of this Plague, being the same as Hippocrates has described under his Pestilential Constitution, his reasons are placed here, for the consideration of the reader.—Ed.
“To correct a mistake that several learned men have run into, I have added (by way of comparison), at the end of the malignant or pestilential year, the account of the plague of Athens by Thucydides, by which the reader will plainly see, that Hippocrates never intended a description of that plague, or of any other properly so called, but only of the raging ill-conditioned fevers, and other severe complaints, that then went about. There are indeed some circumstances concurring with Thucydides, such as the inflammations of the eyes, with sometimes a total loss of the sight; the disorders of the belly, and the private parts, &c.; but then no notice is taken of the violent heats in the head, the bloodiness of the throat, the sneezings and the hoarseness, the vomitings and the hiccups, the plungings into cold water and despondencies, (to pass by many other particulars,) mentioned by Thucydides; circumstances, that it was not possible for so curious an observer as Hippocrates to forget or overlook. Add to this, that the description here given contains nothing uncommon for such a country, or inconsistent with such a sultry wet season, and is supported by cases not at all from Athens, but from places far remote, and more upon the Thracian coast than any where else, such as Thasus and Abdera; places that Hippocrates chiefly resided at. Whereas, if the plague of Athens had been here intended, the cases would have been all related from the very place itself, and in a manner quite different from the present. I therefore conclude, that our learned countryman, Prideaux,a and all others of his opinion, are very much mistaken, when they look upon this section in Hippocrates, as a description of that terrible plague. But to consider the point a little farther. Thucydides observes, that the distemper broke out first in Lemnos, and many other places, before it came to Athens, beginning (by report) in that part of Ethiopia that lies above Egypt, and so came down into Egypt and Libya, and a great part of the King of Persia’s dominions. Nor did it leave the Greek islands till some considerable time after. Accordingly we find a letter from Artaxerxes to Hystanes, the Persian governor of the Hellespont, complaining of the plague being got among his army, and desiring at any rate the assistance of Hippocrates. Now this seems to be the same plague described by Thucydides; and yet, in the life of Hippocrates wrote by Soranus, we find another account very different; for the plague there mentioned, that gained him so much honour, is said to have begun among the Illyrians and Pœonians, and so came down into several parts of Greece. Now the Illyrians were a people that inhabited that part of the country which we call Servia, and Albania, bordering upon Dalmatia, Dardania (or Bosnia), Macedonia, and Pœonia; and the Pœonians bordered upon Macedonia to the south, Illyris to the north, Dardania to the west, and Thracia to the east; so that this plague (if any such there was) seems to have travelled from the north to the south; whereas the other travelled directly contrary, or at least from the southeast to the northwest. I conclude, therefore, that, if the Illyrian story is true, the description here given answers better to the state of diseases then; but that the whole story is false I am more inclined to believe, because the plague of Athens was the only one in those days recorded by men of credit. It is true, the Illyrians might have reason enough to complain of a very sickly season, and other countries might be attacked with the same, or even worse, disorders; all which might proceed from the plague originally, for any thing I can say to the contrary. For, as Thucydides observes, Lemnos and many other places were infected as well as Athens, the skill of the physicians availing nothing; and, if his account be true, the same winds that brought it there (supposing the wind to have had a share in the affair) might easily have carried it farther, Lemnos being but a little step from the Thracian shore one way, and the south parts of Macedonia another; though, in travelling there, the force and virulence of it might be so far broke as to produce no more than a very sickly season. But whether the malignant time here mentioned was actually at the time of the plague, or very near it, this at least is certain, that wet seasons, sultry heats, and calm weather, are always attended with bad diseases; and such was the year now in question; but, for want of a date (a great omission in Hippocrates) the precise time cannot certainly be known, though there is a great deal of room to believe, both from the title itself, χαταϛτασις λοιμωδης, (which, however, Galen suspects as spurious) and the nature of the diseases there mentioned (which certainly were of a very bad, or, if you please, malignant sort), that it was drawn up much about that terrible time, and perhaps the very year of the plague; yet not as a description of the plague itself (for then it would have been ϖεϱι λοιμου), but only of a malignant year, not many degrees removed from the other.”
We now return to Hippocrates.—Ed.
In Thasus, the son of Parion, who lived above the Temple of Diana, was seized with an acute fever, which at first was continual, burning, and attended with thirst. He was from the beginning comatose, and again watchful. His belly loose. His urine thin. The sixth day oily urine, with ramblings. The seventh, worse in all respects; no sleep; the urine as before; lightheadedness, together with bilious, fat, stools. The eighth, he bled a little at the nose; vomited æruginous stuff in a small quantity; and slept a little. The ninth, no alteration. The tenth, a remission of all the symptoms. The eleventh, a sweat, but not all over. He grew cold all over, and in a short time warm again. The twelfth, an acute fever; many bilious, thin stools; a thin cloud in the urine; and a rambling head. The seventeenth, great uneasiness, having had no sleep, but his fever did not increase. The twentieth, a sweat all over; no sleep; bilious stools; an aversion to food; and a coma. The twenty-fourth, a relapse. The thirty-fourth, no fever; the body not bound; but he grew hot again. The fortieth, no fever; the body bound, but not long; an aversion to food; a gentle fever again, but in the erratic way continually, sometimes present, sometimes not; for, if it left him or if he was easier, it returned again. What he eat was of the worst kind, and in a great quantity. After the return he slept badly, and was lightheaded. The urine was then thick, but turbid and bad. The body sometimes bound, sometimes lax. He was also continually feverish, had many thin stools, and the hundred and twentieth day he died.
This patient’s belly was constantly, from the first day, either lax with many bilious liquid stools, or bound with hot and undigested matter. The urine bad all along; and a coma for the most part, with pains, watchings, loathing of food, and a burning fever continually.
In Thasus, the woman that lived by the cold Spring, after being delivered of a daughter, and not cleansed, was taken with an acute fever the third day, and a chilliness. But, long before she was brought to bed, she had been laid up with a fever, and aversion to food. After the shivering, the fever became continual, and acute, attended with a sense of horror or chilliness. The eighth day and the following she was lightheaded, but came to herself again presently, and had many thin, watery, bilious stools, without thirst. The eleventh, she came to herself again, but was inclined to a stupidness; made a great deal of thin and black urine; and kept awake. The twentieth, was a little cold outwardly, and warm again presently; rambled a little, and kept awake. Her stools as before; and her urine watery, and plentiful. The twenty-seventh, neither fever, nor stool, but not long after a violent pain of the right hip that lasted long. She grew feverish again, and made watery urine. The fortieth, the hip was a little easier; but she had a continual cough, and very humid; no stool; a dislike to food; and the urine as before. The fever not entirely off, and the paroxysms in the erratic way, sometimes present, sometimes not. The sixtieth, the cough ceased without any sign; no concoction appearing in what was spit, nor any separation of what is usual, but the right jaw was convulsed. She was also comatose, and lightheaded again, but came to herself presently. Her aversion to food still continued; the jaw came to itself; the stools were a little bilious; the fever increased, not without chilliness; and the days following she lost her speech, recovered herself again, spoke, and died the eightieth.
This patient’s urine was all along black, thin, and watery. A coma came on, with fasting, despondency, watchings, anger, impatience, and melancholy.
In Thasus, Pythion, who lived above the Temple of Hercules, after labour, and weariness, and careless eating, was taken with a great shivering, and an acute fever. His tongue was dry, thirsty, bilious. No sleep. His urine blackish, with a thin cloud above, and no sediment. The second day about noon his extremities were cold, especially his hands and head. He lost his voice, and could not speak; was short-breathed; in a little time grew warm; was thirsty; had a quiet night; and sweated a little about the head. The third, a quiet day. In the evening, about sunset, he grew a little cold; had a very restless night and no sleep; and voided little hard pellets. The fourth, in the morning early, he grew easy again, but about noon worse in all respects. He was also cold; lost his voice and speech too; was worse and worse; in time grew warm again; made black urine, with a little floating cloud; had a quiet night, and slept. The fifth, he seemed to be easier, but complained of a weight in the belly with pain; was thirsty; and had an uneasy night. The sixth, in the morning early, he was quiet, but about sunset his pains increased, and he was worse; but, after a good discharge in the evening from a glyster, slept in the night. The seventh, he was qualmish in the day, and a little impatient; made oily urine; at night was much out of order, rambled, and got no sleep. The eighth, slept a little betimes in the morning, but presently grew cold, lost his speech, and breathed but faintly and less and less. In the evening was hot again, and delirious; but, as the day advanced, was a little easier. His stools simple, small, and bilious. The ninth, was comatose, and qualmish, when he was raised, but not very thirsty. About sunset was very restless, rambled, and had a bad night. The tenth in the morning early was speechless, very cold, very feverish, sweated much, and died.
His pains were upon equal days.
He that had a phrensy and was laid up the fifth day, vomited much green thin matter; was feverish and chilly; sweated much and continually all over; and had a weight and pain in the head and neck. He had also thin urine, with little clouds scattered up and down, that subsided not; thundering stools; rambled much; and got no sleep. The second day betimes in the morning he lost his speech; was very feverish; sweated, but did not lose his fever; trembled all over; and at night was convulsed. The third, was worse in all respects. The fourth, died.
In Larissa, one who was bald was taken suddenly with a pain in his right thigh, and nothing that was applied to it did him any good. The first day an acute and burning fever, which abated a little, but the pain still continued. The second, the pain of the thigh abated, but the fever increased. He was also somewhat impatient, without sleep, cold in his extreme parts, and made a great deal of water, but not good. The third, the pain of the thigh ceased, but he grew lightheaded upon it, greatly disordered, and full of tossing. The fourth, about noon, he died in a very acute manner.
In Abdera, Pericles was taken with an acute, continual, fever and pain. A great thirst succeeded, and a qualmishness; nor could he contain what he drank. He was also somewhat large-spleened, and heavy-headed. The first day, blood came from the left nostril; the fever raged much; and his urine was turbid, thin, copious, without a sediment after standing. The second, worse in all respects, but the urine was thick indeed, and rather subsided; and with respect to his qualmishness he was easier, and slept. The third, the fever abated. The urine was increased, digested, and had a great sediment. The night was pleasant. The fourth day about noon, a great hot sweat all over. The fever was carried off by it, and returned not again.
In Abdera, a virgin, who lived upon the Holy Way, was seized with a burning fever, thirst, and watchfulness. Her menses came down then for the first time. The sixth day she was very sick at her stomach, high-coloured, shivering a little, and restless. The seventh, no alteration. The urine thin indeed, but well-coloured; the belly quite easy. The eighth, she was deaf, very feverish, watchful, qualmish, shivering a little, but yet in her senses, and made the same urine. The ninth, and the following days, no alteration. The deafness remained. The fourteenth, the mind was disordered, and the fever abated. The seventeenth, she bled much at the nose; the deafness abated a little; but the following days she was qualmish, deaf, and lightheaded. The twentieth a pain in her feet came on; her deafness and delirium went off; she bled a little at the nose, sweated, and lost her fever. The twenty-fourth, she relapsed, and was deaf again; the pain in her feet remained, and she grew delirious. The twenty-seventh, sweated much, and lost her fever and deafness; the pain in her feet remained a little, but in other respects the crisis was perfect.
In Abdera, Anaxion, who lived by the Thracian Gates, was seized with an acute fever. His right side was continually in pain, attended with a dry cough, that brought nothing up the first days. A thirst came on, with a want of sleep, and urine that was well-coloured, much, and thin. The sixth day he was lightheaded, and received no benefit from warm applications. The seventh, was very uneasy. The fever increased, and the pains abated not. The cough was very troublesome, and a difficulty of breathing came on. The eighth, he was blooded in the arm, and that plentifully, as he ought. The pains abated, but the dry cough still continued. The eleventh, the fever abated; he sweated a little about the head; coughed still; and brought away from the lungs something more humid. The seventeenth, he began to spit a little concocted matter, and was relieved; but was thirsty, and the lungs were not well cleansed. The twentieth, he sweated, lost his fever, and after the crisis was easier. The twenty-seventh, the fever returned; and much digested matter came away by coughing. The urine had a large white sediment; the thirst went off, and sleep came on. The thirty-fourth, he sweated all over, had no fever, and was perfectly freed.
In Abdera, Heropythus was taken with a pain in his head as he was upon his legs, and not long after was forced to lie down. His house was by the upper path. An acute burning fever came on, with a vomiting of much bile at the beginning; a thirst; great uneasiness; and thin black urine, sometimes with, sometimes without, a cloud atop. The night was uneasy; the paroxysms of the fever uncertain; and for the most part out of the common course. About the fourteenth day he grew deaf; the fever increased; the urine, as before. The twentieth, and the following days, he was very lightheaded. The fortieth, bled much at the nose, and came more to himself. The deafness remained still, but was less. The fever abated. The following days he bled again often, and a little at a time. About the sixtieth his bleedings stopped; but in the right hip was a violent pain; the fever increased; and not long after pains attacked all the lower parts. It happened too, that the fever was either greater, and the deafness considerable, or that, upon an abatement of these, the pains in the lower parts, about the hip, were stronger. About the eightieth, there was a general remission, but it did not go quite off. The urine was well-coloured, and had a good sediment; and the deliriums were abated. About the hundredth, a great discharge of bilious matter downwards, that did not cease presently. These were succeeded by dysenteric complaints and pain; though in other respects he was very easy. In fine, the fever went off, the deafness ceased, and upon the hundredth day a perfect crisis happened in this burning fever.
Nicodemus, in Abdera, after venery and drinking, was seized with a violent fever. In the beginning he was qualmish, heartburnt, thirsty, with a burnt tongue, and thin black urine. The second day the fever increased. He was also chilly; qualmish; got no sleep; vomited bilious yellow stuff; made the same urine as before; had a quiet night, and slept. The third, every thing abated, and he was easy; but about sunset he was taken with an uneasiness again, and had a bad night. The fourth he shivered; was very feverish; in pain all over; made thin urine, with a cloud in it; and was very delirious. The seventh, easy again. The eighth, all the other complaints abated. The tenth, and the following days, he complained of pains, but not so much as before; and both pains and paroxysms were all along rather upon equal days. The twentieth, white thick urine, that subsided not upon standing; a great sweat; the fever seemingly spent: but about sunset he grew hot again, and had the same pains, with chilliness, thirst, and a little rambling. The twenty-fourth, much white urine, with a good sediment; and a great hot sweat all over, that put an end to the fever, and produced a good crisis.
A peevish, melancholy woman, in Thasus, was taken, after grieving upon some occasion, with watchings, dislike to food, thirst, and great uneasiness, while standing and walking about. She lived near Pylades’s, upon the Plain. The first day, as the night came on, she grew fearful, talked much, desponded, and had a little fever. The next morning early was much convulsed, and, upon the convulsions intermitting, was lightheaded, and talked obscenely. Her pains were many, great, and constant. The second day, no alteration; no sleep; the fever higher. The third, the convulsions ceased, but the coma and delirium remained. She waked again, got up, and could not contain herself; was very lightheaded, and very feverish. The same night she had a plentiful sweat, but not all over; the fever however left her; she slept, came to herself perfectly, and had a crisis. About the third day the urine was black and thin, and the cloud in it for the most part round and floating. At the crisis her menses came down plentifully.
In Lariffa, a maid was seized with an acute burning fever, attended with want of sleep, thirst, a fuliginous (or sooty) dry tongue, and urine that was well-coloured, but thin. The second day she was uneasy, and got no sleep. The third, had several watery stools, and the following days the like, without fatigue. The fourth, the urine was thin, a little in quantity, with an elevated cloud that subsided not. A delirium at night. The sixth, she bled very freely at the nose; shivered a little; sweated plentifully and hot all over; and the fever came to its crisis. But in the course of the fever, and upon the crisis happening, her menses came down then for the first time, she being a young virgin.
She was all along qualmish, subject to horrors, red in the face, and had a pain in her eyes, with a heaviness in her head. The crisis happened without a relapse, and her pains upon equal days.
Apollonius, in Abdera, was ill a long time, but not so as to be confined. He was a large-bowelled man, had an old pain about the liver a long while, and was at that time troubled with a jaundice, bloated, and of a whitish complexion. Upon eating beef and drinking intemperately, he was at first seized with a little warmth, and went to bed. But upon using milk plentifully, both goat’s and sheep’s, boiled and raw, and a bad diet withal, all his complaints were made considerably worse. For his fever was exasperated, and of what he took in, very little to speak of passed through him. His urine was thin and little; his sleep, nothing at all; but a bad kind of inflation, a violent thirst, a coma, a painful elevation of the right flank, a coldishness all about the extremities, a little rambling, with a forgetfulness of what he had said, and at last a strong delirium laid hold of him. About the fourteenth day from the time that he shivered, grew hot, took to his bed, and was mad; he bawled out, was greatly disordered, talked much, and then was silent. After this he grew comatose, and had many bilious, unmixed, crude stools. His urine was black, little, and thin; his uneasiness great; his stools various, sometimes black, little, and thin; at other times fat, crude, and acid; and at last milky to appearance. About the twenty-fourth he was easier; in other respects no alteration, but came a little to himself, (whereas, from the time he laid down, he remembered nothing) and presently after lost himself again. Every thing hurried on for the worse. About the thirtieth, he was very feverish; had many small stools; was delirious; cold in his extremities; and dumb. The thirty-fourth, he died.
This patient, during my attendance, was all along disordered in his belly; his urine thin and black; and he was comatose, watchful, cold in his extremities, and perpetually delirious.
A woman in Cyzicus, who was delivered with much difficulty of two daughters, and not well cleansed afterwards, was taken at first with a chilliness and acute fever, attended with a weight and pain of the head and neck. She could get no sleep from the beginning; was silent, sullen, and inflexible. The urine was thin, and without colour. She was also thirsty, and for the most part qualmish and uneasy. The belly irregular, sometimes loose, and sometimes bound. The sixth day at night she was very delirious, and got no sleep. About the eleventh, was mad, and came to herself again. The urine black, thin, and, after a while, oily. The stools many, thin, and turbid. The fourteenth, she was much convulsed; cold in her extreme parts; lost her senses; and had a suppression of urine. The sixteenth, was dumb; and the seventeenth, died.
In Thasus, Dealces’s wife, who lived upon the plain, was taken with a chilliness and acute fever, occasioned by sorrow. She was covered up from the beginning, and, without ever speaking to the last, felt about with her hands, plucked off, scratched, and gathered the nap of the clothes; cried, and presently after laughed; got no sleep; had no stool, though the belly was stimulated with something; drank a little at the request of others; made a little thin water; was but moderately feverish to the touch; and cold in her extremities. The ninth, was very delirious, and soon after recovered herself, but was silent. The fourteenth, her breathing was deep and seldom, long and short. The seventeenth, another stimulus was used to the belly; after which what was drank passed through, without any gathering together, or stoppage. She was insensible of every thing; and her skin was distended and dry. The twentieth, she talked much, and again recovered herself, but was afterwards dumb, and breathed short. The twenty-first she died.
This patient’s breathing was all along deep and slow. She was insensible of every thing; was always covered up; and either talked much, or was silent to the last.
In Melibæa, a young man, heating himself a long time with drink and venery to excess, was taken with a chilliness, a nauseousness, and want of sleep, but without a thirst. The first day, he had many stools, with a great flux of humours, and the following days many watery ones. The urine was thin, little, and without colour. The breathing seldom, deep, and long. The hypochondres distended, but somewhat soft, and that for a considerable length on both sides. He had also a continual palpitation of the heart to the last; made oily urine; rambled moderately; was composed again and quiet. His skin was dry and distended; his stools many, thin, bilious, and fat. The fourteenth, was worse in all respects; rambled, and raved much. The twentieth, was mad; threw his limbs about; made no water, and scarce kept his drink. The twenty-fourth, died.
THE SECOND BOOK OF EPIDEMICS.
Fœsius, p. 944.
It would seem from Haller’s prefatory remarks, that Galen refers to certain books, which he insists must have been formed by Thessalus, from the common-place book of Hippocrates. The first section of the present one, pays attention to the subject of crises, more carefully and better arranged than any of the Hippocratic books. The other sections are entirely promiscuous. In the second section are some imperfect histories of patients, and of diseases, such as angina, &c. Section third contains the Perinthian epidemic; and predictions are intermingled with the history of diseases. In the fourth section, we have an account of the vessels, pretty much like that in the book “De Ossibus.” The histories of diseases are introduced; among which is to be found a paralytic affection arising from the use of vitiated grain.a The two last sections contain predictions, and a mingled mass of other matters.
There appears to be here, as well as elsewhere, much useless variation in the divisions of these books, as given by Fœsius, Haller, Gardeil, and others, dependent, it may be presumed, on the individual fancy of each. Such diversity, however, renders reference more difficult, and appears to be called for by no solid reason.—Ed.
Gardeil, in some preliminary remarks on this book, says, that it is generally believed that the second, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh books on Epidemics, are not productions of Hippocrates; at least the same order that exists in the first and third, is here defective. We have, however, a commentary by Galen on the sixth book, which he looks upon as being the work of the Father of Medicine. In my opinion, continues Gardeil, the fifth and seventh books are quite as interesting as the sixth, in consequence of a considerable number of surgical observations. We might even be authorized, he adds, to consider all the five books above-mentioned, as the real works of Hippocrates, since we find in them the principles and facts precisely as we read them in the other treatises that are usually acknowledged to be his, such as the one “De Humoribus,” &c. This, however, by no means proves that all the seven books on Epidemics, wherein so little order is preserved, have emanated from the same author to whom we are indebted for several of those we have given, yet all are generally regarded as being nearly of the same period, and as emanating from the same school. Many general propositions are given in an aphoristic form, accompanied with numerous observations.
Clifton, in the beginning of this book, leaves out several pages, amounting to nearly the whole of the first section of Fœsius, stating in a note, that it consists of “aphorisms of various kinds that noways agree with the title of the book, and so are placed under their proper heads in other parts of this work,” &c., to which he makes reference.
I cannot commend his translation on many occasions; a better one, and more accurate to the text, is a desideratum.—Ed.
In Cranon, in the summer, were carbuncles. It rained, during the excessive heats, very much, and continually, but more with the southerly winds. Under the skin were thin sharp humours, which, being confined, grew hot, and caused an itching; after which pustules broke out, like what comes upon a burnt part, and occasioned a sense of burning underneath.
In this city inveterate pains are attended with cold; fresh ones, with heat; and most of them from the blood. Those from the hip are likewise cold.
A woman had the heartburn, and could not be easy; but upon steeping the finest flour of barley in the juice of quince, and eating but once a day, she vomited no more; as was the case of Charion.
Changes, where the change is not for the worse, are of service; as in fevers to vomit after taking a medicine. But where a vomit terminates in something simple and unmixed, there corruption is denoted, as in the case of Dexippus.
Serapis swelled after a looseness, but the exact time of the itching I know not, though it was not long. An abscess in the flank, that mortified, was her death.
Stymargus’s wife swelled too, after recovering from a short looseness designedly stopped, and a miscarriage of a female child four months old.
Moschus, who was much troubled with the stone, had a little tumour like a barley-corn upon his upper eyelid in the part next the ear, which ulcerated inwardly. The fifth and sixth day the matter that was pent in broke out, and the complaints below were taken away. He had also a swelling of the gland by the ear, and another in the neck, right against the upper swelling.
Aristæus’s wife’s brother fatigued himself upon the road when he was hot, and so brought little black swellings, or tubercles, upon his leg, with a continual fever. The next day he sweated, and after that upon the other equal days, without being quit of his fever. His spleen was a little suspected; he bled often from his left nostril, though but little at a time; and was freed. The next day a tumour appeared behind the left ear, and the day after another behind the right, but this was less and grew warm. Both of them subsided gradually, without coming to suppuration.
He that came from Alcibiades had, a little before the crisis, a swelling in his left testicle from a fever. His spleen was large too, and his crisis happened upon the twentieth day. After this he grew a little warm now and then, and his spitting was somewhat florid.
She, who brought up little or nothing to speak of with her cough, was seized with a palsy in her right arm and left leg, without any alteration in her countenance, or understanding, or any other part; and even here it was not vehement. About the twentieth she began to go better, perhaps from the breaking out of her menses, which was then the first time; for she was a young virgin.
Apemantus, and the builder’s father that broke the head, and Nicostratus, did not cough at all, but on the contrary were in pain about the kidneys. Being asked, they confessed they were always eating or drinking.
Hercules swelled the eighth day of his illness.
To one that suckled, pustules broke out all over the body, which, upon leaving off, were dispersed in the summer.
The currier’s wife, that made the leathers, after she had been brought to bed, and to appearance perfectly well delivered, had a part of the membrane, chorion, left behind, which came away the fourth day with great difficulty; a strangury being upon her. Soon after she proved with child again, and had a son. This course lasted many years, and at length her menses stopped. When she was brought to bed, her strangury gradually left her.
Another woman had a pain in her hip before conception, which was cured by conception. The twentieth day after the birth she was in pain again, and delivered of a son.
Another woman with child had little pustules upon the lower part of the right leg, and the thumb of the right hand, in the third or fourth month of her pregnancy; to which the chips of frankincense were applied. But whether she was brought to bed or not, I cannot say; for I left her in her sixth month. She lived, as I remember, at the house of Archelaus, by the precipice.
Antigenes’s wife, who lived with Nicomachus, was delivered of a child all over fleshy, but distinct in the principal parts, and about the bigness of four fingers. It had no bones, and was afterwards thick and round. The mother was asthmatic before her lying-in, and in her delivery vomited a little matter like that which comes from the boil called a felon.
She that was delivered of two daughters after a hard labour, and was not well cleansed afterwards, swelled all over, and became very big in her belly, but fell away in her other parts. The reds continued for six months, and then the whites the rest of the time, in great quantities. These evacuations hindered her conception; but her menses came again pure, unmixed, and in a proper manner.
In lienteries of long standing, an acid belching, where nothing of this kind has happened before, is a good sign; as in the case of Demænetas. Art at this time should try to imitate nature; for such disturbances make a great alteration, and perhaps acid belchings will carry off a lientery.
Lycias, who was cured by drinking hellebore, was at last attacked with a painful swelling of the spleen, and a fever; and the pain reached up to her arm. The splenic vein in the elbow was opened, and beat often. Sometimes again it was not opened, and the pain went off spontaneously, or with a sweat. Upon this going off the spleen reached to the right side; her breathing was doubled within, and not great; she grew lightheaded; was covered up; troubled with wind, but nothing passed downwards, nor by urine; and, before she was delivered, she died.
The swellings, that were produced by a great flux of humours on each side the throat, did not ulcerate, but passed off to the left; the spleen was affected with pain, and there was no crisis.
Hieron’s crisis was the fifteenth day.
Cous’s sister had a swelling upon her liver like the spleen, and died the second day.
Bion bled at the left nostril, after making a very great quantity of urine without a sediment; his spleen being hard, and gibbous. He got over it, but had a relapse.
Those who had the quinsy were thus affected. The vertebræ of the neck turned inwards, in some more, in others less, leaving a manifest cavity outwards; and here the neck upon touching was painful. It was also somewhat lower than the process called the tooth, and not altogether so acute. In some it was very evident by the greatness of the circumference; but the throat was not inflamed, except by the tooth above-mentioned, but subsided. The parts under the jaws swelled, but not as when inflamed; nor were the glands at all inflamed, but in their natural state. The tongue indeed could not easily be stirred, but seemed larger and more prominent; and the veins under it were very evident. They could not swallow, or but with great difficulty; and, if violence was used, the liquor returned by the nose; through which part the voice came likewise. The breathing was not attended with great elevation of the shoulders. In some the veins in the temples, head, and neck were tumefied; and in these, where the pains were renewed and augmented, the temples grew a little hot, though in other respects they were not feverish. The greatest part kept clear of suffocation, unless they desired to swallow their spittle or something else; nor did the eyes sink at all.
Where the tumour affected not any one side, but came directly forward, none of these, so far as I remember, became paralytic, but all recovered. Some grew easy in a very short time, but the greatest part continued forty days, and that without a fever. Many had some remains of the tumour a very long time, as appeared from their swallowing and their voice. The wasting of the uvula was a proof that the distemper was not quite gone off, though they seemed to have nothing bad about them. Where the tumour appeared sideways, there a palsy followed in the part from whence the vertebræ inclined, and they were drawn on one side. These were most evident in the face, the mouth, and the septum of the uvula. Add to this, that the lower jaws were changed in proportion. The palsies did not affect the whole body, as in other cases, but stopped at the hand of the quinsy-side. What they spit was digested, and a hoarseness followed. Where the tumour was direct, they also spit. But where a fever attended, there the difficulty of breathing was much greater, the spittle could not be contained in speaking, and the veins were more tumefied. The feet, which are coldest of all, were remarkably so at this time; and those, who died not immediately, were unable to stand upright: but those, that I was acquainted with, all died.
Coughs began the fifteenth or twentieth day about the winter solstice,a from the frequent changing of the southerly and northerly winds, and snowy weather; some of which lasted but a little time, others longer; and were succeeded by peripneumonies in abundance. Many had a return again before the equinox, forty days for the most part from the beginning. In some indeed they were very short, and went off well; in others, inflammations of the throat, quinsies, palsies, and that disorder of the eyes called nyctalopia, happened, especially among children. The peripneumonies were very short; but inflammations of the throat came at last after coughing, or else held them a little while in the room of the cough. These were of short duration, especially the disorder of the eyes now mentioned; but the quinsies and palsies were either hard and dry, or little, and seldom attended with digested spittings. Some indeed brought away a great deal. Where any took more than ordinary pains in speaking, or fell into a shivering, there a quinsy was generally the consequence. Where any used their hands much, their hands only were paralytic: but where they rode, or walked much, or exercised their legs any other way, there paralytic weaknesses fell upon the loins or legs, with a weakness and pain in the thighs and shins. The hardest and most vehement coughs were such as ended in palsies. All these things happened in the relapses, but not very much in the beginning. In many they remitted about the middle, but did not leave them entirely, and appeared again at the return. Where the voice was broke with coughing, there the greatest part escaped a fever, and some had it but a little. Add to this, that neither peripneumonies, nor palsies, nor any thing else appeared in this case, but the crisis was determined by the voice alone. The disorder of the eyes above-mentioned was as when it comes from other causes, and affected children most. The black of the eye had a great variety, where the pupils were small; but in short it was generally black. The eyes were rather large than small, and the hair straight and black. Women were not equally fatigued with coughing, but a few had fevers. Of these very few came to peripneumonies, and such as did were among the elderly sort; all of whom recovered. The reason of this was, in my opinion, their not going abroad so much, and their not being at all so liable to be seized as men. Quinsies, and those of a very mild kind, happened to two free women, but among the slaves frequently, and, where they were violent, they proved fatal very soon. Many men were also seized, some of whom recovered, others died. In a word, those who were able but to drink had a very mild and easy time; those, who could not speak distinctly besides, had a more troublesome and tedious one. Those, whose veins in the temples and neck were swelled, were somewhat bad; and those, who breathed with great elevation of the shoulders, were very bad: for these grew hot also. The disorders were thus ally’d, or determined, as here described. The first happened without the last, but the last not without the first. They died very soon, after shivering now and then as in a fever. As they were not oppressed with frequent motions or risings to stool, I tried what stimulating the belly, and what bleeding would do, but nothing was of service to speak of. I also bled them under the tongue, and some I gave a vomit to. These things happened always in the summer, as many other things did of the eruptive kind. So painful ophthalmies, when the drought was greater than ordinary, were very common.
Swellings of the glands were likewise common, because the liver was inflamed and out of order; and where they proceeded from an artery ill-disposed, as in the case of Posidonius, it was a bad sign.
We came to Perinthus much about the summer solstice. The winter had been serene and southerly; the spring and summer very dry, to the setting of the Pleiades; or, if any rain fell, it was in small drops. The Etesiæ blew but little, and that not constantly. In the summer many burning fevers raged among the people; during which they were free from vomitings, but subject to thin, watery, frothy stools in abundance, without bile, but not without a sediment now and then in that that was set by, and in that part of it which was exposed to the air. Now, where no alteration happens at any time, as to the appearance of the excrement, it is a bad sign. Many were comatose and lightheaded in their fevers, and some became so after sleeping, but recovered themselves entirely upon getting up. They elevated their shoulders in breathing, but not much. The urine was thin in most, and little in quantity, but in other respects not without colour. Bleedings at the nose were very rare; and so were swellings behind the ears; of which more notice will be taken afterwards. There was no swelling upon the spleen, nor upon the right hypochondre; neither did any great pain, or vehement distension attend it, but yet there was something of an indication, and the crisis happened for the most part upon the fourteenth day, partly by sweat, partly by shivering, with very few relapses. During the drops that fell in the summer, they began to sweat in their fevers, and some fell into them from the beginning without any injury; others about this time, and the crisis went off this way. In the summer fevers, about the seventh, the eighth, and the ninth day, little miliary roughnesses, very like the bites of gnats, appeared upon the body, without any great itching. These lasted to the crisis; but none of the men had them that I saw; nor did any of the women, that had them, die. Their appearance was foretold by a thickness of hearing, and a coma, where they were not very comatose before. These complaints did not last the whole year, but in the summer and to the setting of the Pleiades they were comatose and sleepy, but afterwards more watchful. Nor in fine did they die during this constitution or season. The purging could not be checked even by diet; but one might imagine that an irrational method of cure might be serviceable, though the discharges in some were very great, occasioned by lying on a bed in the cold; for cold ulcerates. The warming such bodies ought to be gradual, without offering any violence to nature; and as to those who are troubled with signs or complaints of this kind, whether more or less, viz., gaping, coughing, sneezing, yawning, stretching, belching, and flatus, all such tend to destruction.
Zoilus, who lived by the wall, was seized with an acute fever from a digested cough. His face was red, and his body bound, unless when loosened by art. His left side was painful, and the left ear very painful; the head not so much. Spitting continually a somewhat purulent matter, he could not get well, but in other respects had a crisis, and discharged much matter by the ear, about the eighth or ninth day. The beginning of the ninth the pain of his ear ceased; but how the crisis could be without a shivering I know not. About his head was a great sweat, and about his ear and left side a fixed burning heat. With the pain of the ear above, the other pain ceased, especially about the shoulder-blade; but first came on a great spitting, which at the beginning was florid, and so on to the seventh or eighth day, and after that difficult and painful. The belly was bound till about the ninth or tenth day; the pain was quite removed, the swelling abated, and little sweats came on, but not critical, as appeared from other circumstances, and the going off. For, when the pain of the ear began, the belly was loose; the abscess from the ear was the ninth, and the crisis the fourteenth, without any shivering the same day. Add to this, that when the ear broke, the spitting became more copious and more digested; but sweats and tetters about the head lasted long, though they dried up (in a manner) the third day.
Whatever disappears without the proper signs makes the crisis difficult, as in the erysipelas that happened to Polemarchus’s maid.
Scopus, upon an acrid, saline, bilious, distillation from the head, an inflammation of the chops, and a bad regimen, was bound in his body, and seized with a continual fever. His tongue was dry; his sleep gone from him; the rim of his belly violently, but equally, distended, the distension proceeding gradually to the bottom of the right side; his breathing, pretty frequent; his hypochondres in pain, both in breathing and turning; and he brought away, without coughing, a thickish matter. Upon taking peplium, the pain went off from the hypochondre, but nothing passed through. The next day two suppositories put up appeared no more; but the urine was thick and turbid, with a smooth and even sediment. The turbidness occasioned no stool; the belly grew softer; the spleen was swelled, pointing downwards; and his drink was mead with vinegar. The tenth, a little watery blood came from the left nostril, which gave him very little relief. In the sediment of the urine was something whitish and thin, sticking to the vessel, that was neither like, nor very unlike, seed, and continued so some little time. The next day (the eleventh), the crisis came on, and he lost his fever. His stools were somewhat viscid, and mixed with bile as they came away. His urine was a great relief to him, both as to quantity and sediment, which, before he began to drink wine, was a little like thin phlegm. Though his stools were little upon the eleventh, they were at the same time viscid, stercoraceous, and turbid.
Query? Whether such a discharge is critical, as in the case of Antigenes in Perinthus?
Hippostratus’s wife, after a quartan of a year’s standing, was taken with a swelling, and was manifestly coldish with it. It went all over her body; a sweat followed upon it, and a crisis. Her menses afterwards came down in great abundance, continued longer than usual (having been stopped before), and seemed unwilling to give over.
In hemorrhages, attended with pulsations, the figure or position of the part is to be studied; and, if they happen in very depending parts, they are always to be elevated. So moderate ligatures in blood-letting promote the evacuation, but violent ones suppress it.
Those who are of a sanguine and somewhat bilious nature are subject to sour belchings, and perhaps at last fall into the black jaundice.
In Ænus, those who lived continually upon leguminous food, whether men or women, became infirm in their legs, and remained so. And those who lived upon vetches, or tares, complained of pain in their knees.
In order to recover the colour and fuse the humours, we should study to put a man in a violent passion; and, upon other occasions, to bring on cheerfulness or timorousness, and the like.
If the whole body is out of order, the cure should be general; if otherwise, particular.
Stymargus’s servant, the Idumæan, upon a distortion of the mouth of the uterus, in her being delivered of a daughter, was seized with a pain in her hip and leg, which grew better by bleeding in the foot; but her body trembled all over. We are therefore to consider the occasion, and the beginning of that occasion, in diseases.
In the fourth section of this second book, we find that from the constant use of some kind of grain, [“ex assiduo leguminum usu, feminæ et masculi, crurum impotentes facti sunt, ac vitam degerunt.”—Fœs., Hal.] several symptoms were induced, not dissimilar to those produced from ergoted rye.—Ed.
THE FOURTH BOOK OF EPIDEMICS.
Fœsius, p. 1120.
Of all the books on Epidemics, says Haller, this one to me appears of the least importance. All is intermingled and confused; imperfect histories of diseases, and aphorisms inadequately confirmed. Some few things appear, which possibly were written by Hippocrates, or were transcribed from him. Galen refers it to the Collectanea of Hippocrates, edited without the corrections of Thessalus,—nor is it unlikely. Much is interspersed respecting the seasons, and the atmospheric changes. Mention is made of the Cynic, who called the author to a patient. Now, as Diogenes was posterior to Hippocrates, and was also the founder of that sect, it is by many supposed, that the author of this book must be some physician posterior to Hippocrates.
Gardeil, in a note to this book, says, it is difficult to determine the country in which the patients herein mentioned are to be assigned, since this is not expressly mentioned. The same may be said of the books that follow. Nor must we, from the title of Epidemics, believe that they are confined to such diseases. They are rather to be viewed as a choice collection of observations.
Outline of contents.—Metastasis of certain humours after the vernal equinox; notice of various patients, some of them of interest; relapses frequent after the autumnal equinox; the state of the atmosphere, and the diseases in winter; frequent abortions; other cases. State of the urine in different persons; notice of the state of the sick towards the end of autumn; interesting case of a young man attacked with copious epistaxis on the third day of his illness, continuing till the sixth, with delirium and coma on the seventh. He seems to have surmounted this, and had a relapse, and that more than once. A discharge from the left ear of a viscous, thick, and ichorous matter, fell upon the teeth, inducing great destruction of the parts adjoining, viz., the palate bones, and upper jaw, and septum nasi, with other effects; the result is not mentioned.—Crises, &c., with detached remarks and cases. A cursory notice of a large star or meteor,a followed by an earthquake. Menstruation during pregnancy not uncommon; case of delivery on the seventh day of seventh month; the woman goes out in four days; injury from, &c. Another case of injury to the jaws and teeth; various cases; a curious one stated of a woman, whose mouth was twisted to the right side, but which was turned to the left in the fifth month of pregnancy. A slave relieved from a swelling and tension of the belly by the return of menstruation, after a suspension of seven years. Observations on errhines, on tumours, on sciatica, &c.; peculiarities or diversity in the onset of diseases; observations on the intestinal evacuations, &c. Diseases occurring at Æno and elsewhere; various results of cough in this state of the air; nyctalopia; decay of the teeth; expectoration; some few aphoristic remarks towards the conclusion.
After the equinox and the setting of the Pleiades, a sort of corroding mucus, that opened the head, broke out above the ear; but in him who was with Leocydes, upon the foot; and in Phanodicus, upon the toes by the sole.
He, whose tibia was cut, had a blackness come upon the part. The ulcer was large on the outside, and the discharge from the hinder part. When it was cleansed, he was seized with a pain of the side and left breast opposite to it, grew feverish, and died of his fever.
The ropemaker complained of a very bilious disorder; and, upon applying caustical (or burning) remedies, he lost a great deal of blood downwards about the equinox.
A very old man, who had a great abscess, held out not above fourteen days.
He, who was marked and burned by Antiphilus, was freed from a bilious ardent fever (of that kind which is called τυφος) the seventh day. Three days after the crisis or thereabouts he spit blood, recovered, and had a relapse afterwards. His first crisis after this was, as it ought to be, about the setting of the Pleiades; and after their setting his biliousness extended to madness. Another crisis happened the ninth day without a sweat, and he got over it.
The Chalcidonian, who was brought from the gates to the market-place, about the equinox, being in pain from a rupture about the right breast, spit up now and then a pale greenish matter. The belly was in good order. A sweat began the seventh, which lasted for the most part to the eighth, and the crisis happened the fourteenth. About the fortieth, swellings appeared behind both ears; nor was it unlikely that a suppuration should follow, though it did not.
Aristodemus was burnt upon his breast; and so was the son of Philis, for an abscess that came after a fall; but he had had a pain higher before this.
After the autumnal equinox relapses happen, and at other times to the winter solstice.
After the summer solstice, the wife of Achelous miscarried the sixth day, being full of blood and chilly. She sweated afterwards, and had a crisis the fourteenth. How many months gone with child I know not. Twenty days after this she said she miscarried of another male child; but, whether she said true or no, I cannot tell.
About the winter solstice the wind was northerly. Jaundices of very deep colours appeared, sometimes with a chilliness, sometimes without. The tongue was burnt up the third day. About the sixth and seventh, great disorders that lasted long. The fourteenth, an astringency in the belly that could not be removed by physic; and no sweats, as is usual in fevers. In some the spleens were small, extended to the right hypochondre, and rumbled upon being touched. Hemorrhages succeeded, and such depurations by urine, but more especially by stool (for the belly had been long bound), as produced a crisis. Where these things did not happen, but the spleens were tumefied, they bled at the left nostril.
After the solstice, rough winter weather, with northerly winds, and in a short time southerly, for fifteen days; and then abundance of snow for fourteen days more. About this season deep-coloured jaundices came on, that terminated not in a clear and evident manner, but returned again. After the snow came southerly winds and gentle showers. Runnings at the nose ensued, with and without a fever. In one person, who had been in moderate pain before, it fell upon the teeth on the right side, the eyebrows, and the eye. They were hoarse too; the throat was inflamed, and the glands called σπογγοι (amygdalæ) swelled, attended with soft swellings about the ears and jaws, that subsided with the fever. Many of these happened above and on each side, at the beginning of the fever; and some had the tonsils swelled in the autumn and the winter. Add to this, branny foulnesses of the skin came on; and many women miscarried all kind of ways, and had hard labours.
A maid, who had a crisis the sixth day, had a relapse the sixth, and another crisis in six days. And in six or eight days all the crises happened at that time.
About the setting of the Pleiades, the wife of Meander, the blind man, spit from the first a pale greenish matter, and soon after, about the sixth day, purulent. The liver swelled, and she had a little purging. What she spit was in a small quantity, white, broad, and like purulent flesh. She had an aversion to food, and died about the twentieth.
Thestor’s servant, in the neighbourhood, was taken with a bilious severe purging, and a distension of the hypochondres, occasioned by something that was caustical. The sixth day after the purging was stopped, she had one large thin stool, fell into a sweat immediately, and had a crisis, without any more purging. The same hour she shivered and grew feverish, but it went off again the same hour.
The wife of Thersander, who was not very leucophlegmatic, fell into an acute fever upon suckling. Her tongue, as other parts were burnt up, was likewise burnt at the same time, and became rough like thick hail. Worms also came out of her mouth. About the twentieth she had not a perfect crisis.
About the setting of the Pleiades, Metrophantus’s son, who was wounded on the head with a brickbat by another boy, was taken with a fever twelve days after; occasioned by rubbing the parts about the wound in cleansing it. A coldness succeeded, and the lips swelled immediately, but the skin beyond the ulcer was in many places very thin. Upon trepanning without delay, neither pus came out, nor was the patient relieved; but upon the left jaw, by the ear, (for here the wound was,) there seemed to be a collection of matter. This, however, went off too without suppuration, and there was immediately a collection in the right arm. The patient died the twenty-fourth.
After the setting of the Pleiades, he who had a pain in his ear lost his speech twenty days after, and became paralytic on the right side, without a fever, but not without sweating. The right ear and the right eye gave way a little, and drew something from the lower part. The eye was distorted to the left with a great deal of pain; the neck became hard, and within three hours was equally painful.
After the setting of the Pleiades, the servant of the Attican, who had been ill with a quartan, had a stupid foolishness fixed upon him.
Another at the same time was taken with a true typhomania; which, upon the hips and legs becoming painful, went off; but what day I know not.
About the same time chillinesses; vomitings; and, after the crisis, aversions to food; bilious discharges; great, hard, painful spleens, and likewise hemorrhages were the complaints of some; and of others, at the same time, hemorrhages from the nose of a pale greenish colour, occasioned by the spleens.
In Cranon, the wife of Nicostratus, who was seized with a fever, complained at once upon the fourteenth day of a paralytic disorder (or imbecility) in her neck and other parts. She had had no stool to the tenth; breathed often and little; could not contain herself, but felt about with her fingers; was delirious, sweated, and had her neck, mouth, eye, and nose drawn to the right side. The sediment in her urine was white, like pulse, at one time; at another, white, stringy, and membranous; and at another, somewhat pale with a greenish cast, like the meal of lentils. Sometimes again the surface would be fat and greasy, and that in a heap, resembling sheep’s wool; and not much dispersed, as a scattered cloud appears in urine. After this her urine would have no sediment at all, but something of this kind. Again, it would have some such sediment, at one time broad and scattered up and down; at another, turbid. Sometimes the cloud would resemble a blackish cloud of some consistence; at another time it would be soft and thin. Again, it would be thin, and of this kind; at another time, like horses’ urine; and at another, dark and shady.
The lad, that was first taken delirious, made thin clear urine; and his evacuations the other way were thin and plentiful, without bile. His tongue was very rough; his fever burning; his belly tumefied; and he could get no sleep. In his ravings upon the eighth day (if I mistake not) he behaved very wantonly, getting up, fighting, and talking very obscenely, contrary to his usual manner. Upon making a great deal of thin water in a gushing manner (for it had been suppressed), sleep came on, together with a continual sweat, that seemed from the circumstances to be critical, much about the tenth day. After this his madness returned, and he died suddenly the eleventh; occasioned (I imagine) by his drinking much neat wine a little before his madness. His age was about twenty.
In the autumn, Eumenes’s wife vomited black bile, as was also evident from the smell. A fever ensued with chilliness, heartburn, and little bilious vomitings, in which came away a worm. Her stools were thin all along before the setting of the Pleiades, and stopped about that time.
Hemorrhages; short fevers, that returned immediately for a little while; aversions to food; extreme languors and lassitudes; nauseas and heartburns happened about the same time, together with a discharge of worms about the crisis, shiverings, and bilious complaints.
The young man that was a stranger bled much at the nose the third, the fourth, and the fifth day; the sixth it stopped, and a moderate delirium followed. The seventh, no stool; a comatose disorder. The third day a relapse; the belly loosened; the urine I saw not. About the crisis things were as they ought. But about the setting of the Pleiades southerly winds set in, with gentle showers. The young man had then a great many mucous, bilious, digested, viscid stools; and a violent fever continually, with a dry tongue. The sixth day it came to its crisis. The seventh it returned again, and went off the same day with a trembling. The sixth day there was a glutinous thick discharge from the left ear.
The boy, that had the phagedænic ulcer, had his lower teeth, and the fore-teeth of the upper and lower jaw fall out by suppuration, and a cavity was left there. Now, where the bone of the palate comes away, the nose sinks in the middle: and where the upper teeth before, the end of the nose becomes broad. The fifth from the fore-teeth has four roots, two of which are united to both the next teeth, and all the extremities turned inwards. The third tooth is more liable to suppuration than all the other, and to occasion thick rheums from the nose, as well as pain in the temples. This was eaten away, especially the fifth, and in the middle was a tubercle of the two fore-teeth; the less was first eaten away in the inside by the two next. The seventh had a thick sharp root.
The Athenian boy had a pain of his tooth, the left side below, the right above, that was carried off by an abscess in the right ear.
After the Pleiades the weather was mild, cloudy, and misty. The crises happened upon the fifth, sixth, seventh day, and even later. The fevers were subject to return, to be erratic, to be bilious, and attended with aversions to food. Dysenteries also, with aversions to food, and vehement fevers, were complained of. About the setting of the Pleiades the southerly winds came strong, attended with hemorrhages, and fevers nearly resembling tertians, besides others of another kind, in which the patient is cold and shivering perpetually. They call them Ηπιαλα.
He that belonged to the shoemaker bled plentifully, purged a little, and had his crisis upon the seventh, with a shivering.
He that lived at the last public house bled plentifully the fourth, and immediately was lightheaded, bound in his body, and his hypochondres hard and painful. By means of a suppository the sixth day he had a yellow bad stool. The seventh in the morning early, was exceedingly restless, bawled out greatly, and had a pulsation of the vessels about the navel.
In the acutest fevers the pulsations are oftenest and strongest, as the paroxysms are in every disease, towards the evening.
With respect to the beginnings, the paroxysms, the first of the morning, the continuation of the distemper, and the season of the year, are to be taken into consideration.
The wind was southerly after the setting of the Pleiades. Crises came the fifth, then an intermission for one day, and a return the next. Eruptions of a soft and lax kind, like bladders, or like the effects of the prickly acanthus, also appeared. About the same time a great roughness came upon the skin, but without itchings or weepings, especially now. There were also tetters above the skin, like what happened to Pythodorus’s wife, and him who kept the public house; not without a fever. But as to Pythodorus’s wife, she was seized, pretty near the beginning of her fever, with a great weakness in the hips.
After the setting of the Pleiades came chilliness and hemorrhages from the nose.
The shoemaker had his crisis the seventh, an intermission one day, the next a return, and another crisis the fourth.
One who belonged to Leocydes, had his crisis the seventh; and another the fourth.
Moschus bled plentifully from the left nostril the ninth, and a little from the right; had his crisis the fourteenth, as he ought; but at the beginning was much disturbed. The seventeenth, was guilty of mismanagements in diet. The nineteenth at night arose a small tumour on the right ear, hard within, but a little soft without, and painful without remission.
In those who are very bilious, especially where a suppuration is, what comes away by purging is like the ink of the cuttle-fish. Such was the purging of him who had the cupping-glass applied, when his hip was in pain. It removed downwards into his leg, and he was easy.
He who fell from the horse of clay, and had a cupping-glass applied immediately, complained of an inward burning. The twentieth, upon its breaking out again afresh, a hemorrhage ensued, with a discharge of feculent corroding matter.
The Tenedian woman miscarried the fourth day of a child, that, as she said, was thirty days old. She had also a loose small stool, a burnt tongue, and a crisis the fourth.
After the setting of the Pleiades disorders of the spleen came on, and to the fifth day hemorrhages with a crisis. Upon the seventh, the urine was like the water in which tares have been washed, all of a piece, and after that clear. A relapse followed. Megaris’s son had also an intermission, and that without a hemorrhage, but the urine was white, thick, and all alike, as in Artigenes’s case.
About the winter solstice a great stara appeared, and the fifth and sixth day after, an earthquake.
Antigenes’s wife, who was in Perinthus, remained asthmatical, and had her menses come down at a time when she did not know whether she was with child or not. Her belly was sometimes small, sometimes large; for she was always coughing, as if she had been walking faster than ordinary. She was eight months gone when it stopped, and had been feverish before.
The wife of Apemantus’s brother miscarried the seventh day of a girl, that, as she said, was sixty days old; and about the ninth was in great disorder. After the crisis she had a pain in the right side, as if from a distortion of the womb. She conceived again soon, and miscarried.
Another was delivered of a daughter with the whites upon her, another with the reds, as it should be.
Chillinesses, nauseas, aversions to food, relapses, bilious complaints, hemorrhages, and disorders of the spleen were to be met with, and most of them attended with pain from the left side.
Apemantus’s wife, when she was turned on this side, was affected in her right eye; when on the contrary, in her flank.
Aristophon’s daughter was feverish the third and fifth day, and remained dry for the most part; but her belly was lax and discomposed, the crisis difficult, and about the thirtieth day she lost her fever.
Pustules, that come upon no violent exercise, reach the seventh day, and are somewhat livid (the maid that lived behind Herous was taken with a shivering); the white and large are not of any great service in those who are seized with a deep stupidness, or dozing, or in diseases that are not of the falling kind, or where the bile stops; neither are those serviceable that subside not, whether the body be loose or bound.
Zoilus, the carpenter, had a trembling slow pulse; the discharges by stool and urine moderate, but without colour; the bottom of the belly distended on both sides directly to the navel, with an acute fever, an aversion to food, and no thirst.
The clerk of the market’s daughter at Tecomaius’s, when her pregnancy was uncertain, vomited for two months, sometimes phlegm, sometimes bile. After this she had a hard labour, was perfectly well cleansed, and vomited as before to the thirtieth. Then a purging came on, and her vomiting stopped. A lientery followed, and her menses kept up, but for two years she had the piles in the winter.
The two brothers, that lived by Cecrops’s, were at the beginning seized with black stools; had afterwards feculent bloody stools, and, from very frothy ones, bilious.
He, who by agreement lift up the ass, immediately grew feverish, and bled the third, the fourth, the fifth, and the seventh. A crisis came the eighth by stool.
He, who was concerned in the mines, and had his right hypochondre stretched; his spleen large; his belly distended, hardish, and flatulent, without colour; was taken with a pain in his left knee, but had a relapse again, and after that a perfect crisis.
Temeneus’s son had a little difficulty of breathing, so as to make him pale with a greenish cast, which colour reached to his hands too.
The husband of the woman that lyed-in near Sitodocus’s, who had a jaundice upon him, and sent for me the seventh day, died the eighth without any evacuation by stool or urine. His flanks were large and hard, and his breathing quick; nor was his forehead moist with the pain, before he died.
The wife of this person miscarried of a girl the seventh day in her seventh month, the signs of which appeared the fourth. A pain seized her in her feet at the beginning, and, upon the fever ceasing, her difficulty of breathing was not carried off, but remained still. The pain likewise affected her hands and arms.
Where the urine stopped before the crisis, relapses were of long continuance.
Temeneus’s sister’s crisis was with a shivering. A pain seized her hands and shoulders upon the sudden going off of her pale greenish colour. These pains ceasing, her head was affected; the upper eyelids were tumefied, and the tears ran out. The rest I am a stranger to. Her first crisis was the seventh day.
The case of him who kept Menander’s vineyard was the same, except that at the beginning he had thin stools, which stopped afterwards, as well as the urine; but a crisis followed, without any shivering the seventh day, because of the purging that had happened before.
Potamon’s son had no purging the seventh day, nor a shivering two days before the crisis, nor, for the same reason, a suppression of urine.
Hegesistratius, who had had an abscess near his eye, had a collection of matter about his last tooth. The eye was healed, and the nose discharged thick matter; but about the gums little round caruncles broke out, which about the third day seemed to suppurate, but it went off afterwards, and immediately his jaws and eyes swelled. Now, wherever abscesses form themselves about the eyes in burning fevers, a redness appears upon the cheeks, and a hemorrhage follows. The like happens in abscesses behind the ears; and perhaps abscesses in the joints are more likely to follow; but this I am not perfectly satisfied in.
Shiverings, with tremblings, distensions of the hypochondres, and a breaking out of the menses, happened the seventeenth day. If these things continued thus, in some the crisis was the third, in others the fifth, and in others the seventh.
Hegesistratius’s two last teeth were in their turns eaten away. The last had two tubercles above the gums, one near the erosion, the other opposite. Where they both touched, there the roots were broad, alike, and answered to one another. On either side half remained that was almost round.
The woman, that had a hemorrhage the fourth and sixth day, had a crisis the seventh, with great redness.
The other, that had a violent pain in her head, had her crisis about the twentieth; at which time her hypochondres were hot and burning. The seventh day she did not bleed much; her stools were thin; and about the eighth an abscess appeared by the right eye.
A man was affected in the same manner, except that his crisis happened the seventh day, with a moderate swelling of the spleen on the left side. The eightieth day the eye was affected in this person, and longer too; perhaps, because it came after the crisis, and because there was much to come away.
Temeneus’s sister had a difficulty of breathing, and a distension of the flanks a long time. Whether she was with child or no, I know not. Her body was bound at first, and then it was she vomited; afterwards the vomiting stopped, upon a great deal of viscid bilious matter passing downwards, without any hindrance from the hypochondres. The eleventh, the phlegmon attacked the right thumb: it broke, and the vomiting returned. Upon this she grew better, her dozing and fever abating. Her breath was also freer; because she brought up foul nasty stuff. The sixteenth her breath was little and quick, her fever came on, and she died.
She had a fever before the abscess, and died the seventh day after the abscess. She was also something florid.
Apemantus’s sister’s son had a swelling upon his hypochondres and spleen; a difficulty of breathing; a discharge of viscid, bilious, and somewhat stercoraceous matter downwards; and a weariness after working. The twentieth, his feet were affected. Query? Whether the crisis after such weariness does not happen upon the joints, rather than on the eyes? His hypochondres were distended too, and he had a dry gentle little cough.
What is left after a crisis is apt to cause relapses, and what is separated in the course of the disease. So will a spitting digested before its time; so will the belly, as it happens to be affected; so will intemperance, and the like.
Apemantus, who complained of pains in his fundament, his right flank, and a little below his navel, made bloody urine before the pain in his right side, which gave over the third day. The carpenter too made bloody urine from a pain of the contrary side in the same direction, and upon its stopping, both of them had a sediment the third day. Apemantus was very much heated; the other felt nothing but on the left side.
Nicostratus had also something at the extremity of the right side, lower than where it happened on the left. It reached too in both above the flank even to the navel.
The old woman at Sosileus’s, who was of a leucophlegmatic habit, had hard, white, rough and scaly swellings upon her legs, and upon her feet too, but less. The parts below the thighs were also affected, and in many this complaint passes off with difficulty. Add to this, that the loins were also affected, the belly slender, the flanks softish, and the breath not very short. Most of these ceasing, our next care was about the eyes becoming grayish; a disorder that was somewhat milder than the other. The pains of the hip and leg seemed to depend upon the womb: for a sweet-smelling suppository of meal and ointment dispersed and put an end to them quickly. The time of the abscess (or disorder) about the eye was a year.
One had a pain about the navel, where the pustules were not perfectly suppurated. The like happens too from dysenteric complaints.
In the village of Hippolochus there was a boy, who had something in both his hypochondres, that was in the lower part like the brasier’s wife, who had a dropsy, which upon watery stools passing off was softened a little. This was upon the right side, all alike, but raised above the rest, and in some measure round. His navel was black from the birth, and deeply ulcerated; nor was any scar brought upon it. The glans of the penis was naked too, but not on a sudden, or from the birth; and became more so afterwards. He vomited for the most part, was feverish, and averse to food, but recovered. About the seventh day of his confinement to the bed (for he had been ill before), upon drinking much water, and perhaps committing other irregularities, he grew very restless and uneasy, and was somewhat convulsed. The convulsion ceasing, he died before we were aware of it; but first made water plentifully, and wind passed off audibly. The parts above were not at all softened; but, immediately upon his dying, a great relaxation followed; and the whole body appeared red as if beaten with rods, except where the tumour and the heat remained long.
One of Abdera had an evacuation downwards. Another had a swelling forwards, without a fever; and the swelling was to the touch like an abscess.
A servant maid that was asthmatical, and subject to hemorrhages, at the time of her menses was taken with an asthma. These stopping, a fever came on; her left breast suppurated above, and her ear from the beginning.
Olympiodorus’s servant bled at the right nostril, and had a crisis the twentieth in the way that fevers generally terminate; and his stools were such as were commonly in the summer, like those of Hipponax.
Hyle, the servant of Aristides, upon taking a purge the eighth day, had the appearance of those who bear purging well, if their strength is not unreasonably pulled down by it; and voided neither frothy nor bloody stools, but like eggs, as the wife of Heraclides did, who was purged briskly, and bore it with ease.
One, in the village of Bulagoras, upon purging began to be feverish from the spleen. Now those who have a rising on the right side, but no distension, are red. She was rather red than otherwise, and had a purging from the beginning; and it was expected it would have fixed upon the eye. The seventh day a salt humour ran down from the eyes like tears. It ran likewise through the nose, and into the throat, and upon the left ear. The fifteenth, she sweated, and shivered, but had no crisis. Before the shivering she grew very pale with a greenish cast; the countenance was distended, and fell. The opposite ear to the spleen, and the side, grew painful.
Children were subject to purgings, and dry coughs; and sometimes, towards the conclusion of the coughs, an abscess was formed in the shoulder.
The fuller was in pain about his neck and head. The seventh day his hand was numb. The ninth, his leg was numb too, and his cough ceased.
She, whose jaw was drawn aside, felt a contraction in her womb to the left side five months after.
In Cranon, Lycinus the grammarian, who was ill of a bilious fever that came upon a swelling of the spleen, was taken with a heaviness of the head, and some little hard tubercles or roughnesses about the spleen. Both his lips had ulcers on them, round within and small, and afterwards a little blood came out of the opposite part.
The bought servant, that I saw, who had a great hardness on the right side, not very painful, with a belly large and distended, but not like a dropsy; and who in other respects was fat, and not very short-breathed, but without colour, missed her menses for seven years. A dysentery attended her without a tenesmus, and after this the hardness became painful. A slow fever came on, but not above seven days, and her stools were like amber, somewhat glutinous, and large. She was well some days, and after that her menses came down; the hardness grew soft; her colour laudable; and her body thick.
Minois’s wife, who fell into a mortification from too great a pressure upon an incision, presently gave notice, (upon the matters fixing on the lungs,) how many days she was to live, and that something else was concealed within.
Upon putting any thing up the nose, if a fever ensues, or if the pain is removed, a flux is produced of thick matter from the nostril. But if neither the pain is removed, nor a fever excited, the matter is thin, and perhaps burning; as the thin matter in Hegesippus, who had something put up over night; but it was thick in Celeuris’s son, of Corinth, who was like an eunuch.
Digested abscesses in diseases are known to be critical by these marks, viz., if, being of a hot burning nature, a fever follows not; or if, hard to be borne, they are nevertheless easily borne: as was the case of Charon, in what settled upon his fundament. But in Leambius, whose intestine was thought to be ulcerated, his arm and seat on the left side, upon taking medicines for a dysentery, were ulcerated, and a fever followed.
He, who was distended with wind, had his flank tumefied and painful. Upon drinking much milk and pure wine, and sleeping afterwards, he was taken presently with a sickness at his stomach and heat. Afterwards, making a fire, and, instead of meat, eating meal baked over the coals, his body was tied up, and something like pus came away. But, though the anus was inflamed, I affirm he had neither fever nor pain.
The old man, who lived in the stone-porch, had a pain in his loins and both his legs, which also affected both his thighs, and sometimes his shins; sometimes also his knees. This continued long, and returned often. His feet, legs, and loins swelled; the glands in his groin swelled a little too; the belly was hard; and all the lower part of his belly distended and painful. For the most part his bladder was hard and painful, attended with eruptions and heats.
Aristæas, of Amphilochus’s village, was lightheaded the fourth day. His stools were pale and greenish; his sleeps sound; and his colour white.
Some at the beginning had a sort of trembling in the fingers, and lips, when they spoke; but in other respects were nimble-tongued enough, though not with the best manners. Such had a redness in their faces for the most part; were lovers of wine to excess; or, after vomiting advantageously, swelled.
He that lived at Medosadas’s, who had many thin watery stools that were not bilious, had his hypochondres yielding and tumid. He was also comatose. About the fourteenth, while the crisis was going forward, a shivering seized him without trembling, attended with a relaxation, a languidness, and a falling down of his limbs; his belly was loose; the coma continued; and he was lightheaded after sleeping, but not mad. The fourteenth, had a crisis, none of the critical signs opposing it.
Just so it was with the other person, who at the beginning had stools that were glutinous, of which the thick part proved critical. He was watchful too; and afterwards had stools that were somewhat glutinous, somewhat bilious, digested, more bilious, and not thin: but, when they began to have a consistence, the crisis soon came on. The hypochondre appeared distended about the sixth, with heat and pain, as when the veins are distended and agitated. After that he slept the seventh, and had a crisis the ninth. Both of them were white-coloured, not yellow. The watery stools, exposed to the air, were smooth and thin upon the surface, very like woad or yellow amber, and had a sediment at the bottom.
A softish distension of the right side denotes a phrensy, if it does not go off upon the fever’s going off.
If, upon the softness of the belly, something happens to be collected there, hard, and painful, and of such a bad quality as not to be dispersed, perhaps a suppuration will follow from such a swelling.
Swellings on the right side, as many as are in a great measure soft, especially upon pressing, if a murmuring follows, are not to be deemed of a bad quality; as in the Amphilochian, and the Medosadean, who were both of them comatose and delirious in their sleep.
He who had an ulcer upon his shin had red large pustules break out, upon using the Attick ointment: and this, instead of a cough that was afterwards troublesome, for he had no cough before.
In Ænus, as many as were chilly, and wounded in the head, were in a bad way, and came to suppuration. They had also a pain in their feet upon travelling, from a tenesmus; and, in often attempting to discharge, a weariness. Such was the case of Clinias, who was averse to food, fell away, and discharged a matter that was sometimes a little bloody, at other times pure pus.
Hippeus’s wife, who was dropsical, coughed for three years in the beginning of the spring, collected a great quantity of matter, and in the winter became dropsical, but was relieved by purges for that purpose. The maid-servant died.
Those among the coughers, who laboured with their hands, as the boy that twisted osiers, and Amyntas’s son, were both of them paralytic in the right hand only, and the cough ceased; after which they had it with the cough. Those who rid on horseback, or travelled, had it in their loins and thighs. But the coughs were for the most part dry; or, if not, very violent.
Enmyris’s wife, who was taken ill (but not in the usual manner) seemed to be without a fever, and yet had something of a typhus. After this a trembling came on all over, a wasting, an aversion to food, a thirst, and a coldness.
Those who had the disease of the eyes called nyctalopia, and made a great deal of water, afterwards made but little; but upon coughing and growing feverish had abscesses broke behind the ears about the seventh or eighth day.
Enmyris’s daughter was feverish, and pus came out of her ear about the eighth day; but I am not certain. Some had a tooth eaten away, especially the third of the upper jaw. In some it was painful, and suppurated; in others the suppuration was in the ears; and these coughed much more vehemently than those. Others again had a collection of matter with a fever, and were freed the seventh. Upon the hypochondres being irritated no solution happened; and, upon the belly’s being softened, there were little glutinous concretions, not of any service; the urine like blood; the spittle frothy.
He the Cynick brought me to, was much disordered the seventh day, and had a crisis the fourteenth. The bad symptoms dwindled away by degrees. His throat was clear; and what he spit was little, broad, and digested. A few drops fell from his nose; his head was heavy; his hands and legs somewhat paralytic; his belly loose, and to good purpose; and his feet always warm. He also slept, and had nothing behind his ears, because of his digested spittings.
Demaratus’s wife was warm in her feet, even when chilly; but, whether it tended to suppuration or not, she died.
The old man who died was taken ill with his wife, who had something concealed in her very furious; but upon a thickish worm coming away, and the refreshment of a little food, her complaints immediately ceased; she slept, and was quite well. The old man had the skin of his body stretched, and his extremities cold. He was also soft, and trembled from the beginning in his lips, hands, and speech; was moderately lightheaded; and laid with his mouth open, not much oppressed in his breathing. He died at last, but how many days beyond twenty I know not.
Where the hypochondres and the belly discharge compressed matter in abundance, without any rumbling, as in Abdera, the excrement is variegated.
What is spit up in peripneumonies is in some bilious, when the disease will go off; in others very yellow, when the crisis will be short.
If such, as appear at the beginning, appear the same afterwards, this is an argument of very little concoction; and the crisis is as in him who lived with the master, or as I have seen it at other times.
Nicippus in his fever had frequent emissions, without any inconvenience; and was foretold that they would cease, when the fever was come to its crisis; and so it happened.
Critias was pestered with dreams in his fever, from which I know he was freed after the crisis.
Alcippus, who was subject to the piles, was forbid to be cured, and upon being cured went mad. An acute fever coming on, carried the other off.
In acute fevers, those who are thirsty, and deprived of drink by heir physicians or themselves (though they could drink a great deal), are the better for cold water given to vomit them; for much bilious matter will come away.
That the nerves (or tendons) attract one another, is plain from this: for, if the upper tendons of the hand are wounded, the hand will incline downwards, drawn by the lower; and so vice versa.
A dry cough produces a swelling of the testicle; and what comes from a cough upon the testicle must be cured by bleeding. Inflammations cause coughs. They also come upon fevers that arise from swelled glands.
THE FIFTH BOOK OF EPIDEMICS.
Fœsius, p. 1141.
To me, says Haller, there seems nothing in this book unworthy of Hippocrates. The part which adverts to the manifest affinity of sutures and fissures, is pointed out by Celsus, and by Plutarch, in praise of this great man. It is in parts obscure, and difficult to comprehend; but it contains histories of various surgical cases, not always indeed coherent, but many of which are uncommon and useful. Peripneumony from metastasis of angina; tetanus from acrid applications to a wound; and death from a slight blow on the head. The distinction between arteries and veins might lead to the idea of the book being of a later period. Galen ascribes it to Draco, or to the second Hippocrates. He considers the seventh book as spurious, but ascribes the second, fourth, and fifth to Hippocrates, although probably not edited by him. To me, adds Haller, the fifth and seventh appear much superior to the others mentioned.—Ed.
The gardener’s wife, in Elis, had a continual fever, and received no benefit from purges. Below the navel the belly was hard, swelled, and in great pain. Upon its being handled, and pressed pretty much by the hand dipped in oil, a great deal of blood passed off downwards; after which she grew well, and continued so.
Timocrates, in Elis, after hard drinking, was seized with madness from black bile; and by the help of a purging potion brought away (though not without much uneasiness) a great deal of phlegm and black bile in the daytime, and had no more stools in the evening. After drinking some gruel he fell asleep, and did not awake till sunrise; but seemed all the while to the bystanders to be dead, neither fetching his breath, nor perceiving any thing that was said or done. His body was stretched out, and stiff; yet he was alive, and got up again.
Scomphus, in Oeniadæ, died of a pleurisy the seventh day, delirious, after having taken a purge the same day that wrought but little. The day before he was in his senses, but upon purging grew delirious.
Phœnix and Andreas, two brothers in Oeniadæ, had a swelling in one of their cheeks, and the lip that was opposite to the cheek and eye. Nothing appeared inwardly upon examination, nor was there any abscess outwardly, but it swelled, and putrefied, without discharging any thing. Both of them died; but Andreas died the seventh, after taking a purge to no purpose; whereas Phœnix had the putrefied part cut all round, and the ulcer discharged a great deal before he died. He died, however, though he held out long.
Pyridamus, in Oeniadæ, began to be delirious the tenth day in an inflammation of the lungs; but, being taken care of, came to himself again, and what he spit up was clearer than it had been. The disease grew better; a great deal of sleep followed upon it; but his eyes looked as in the jaundice, and about the twentieth he died.
A man in Oeniadæ had the following complaint. When he abstained from food, his belly rumbled mightily, and was in pain; and the very same complaints returned in a short time after he had eaten, and the food was ground small. His body also fell away and wasted; the food he took afforded no nourishment; and what passed downwards was of a bad sort and burnt. The rumbling and the pain were least perceived immediately after eating. He found no benefit from purges of every kind, both upwards and downwards; but being blooded at times in each hand, till he had hardly any blood left, he grew easier, and got rid of his complaint.
Eupolemus, in Oeniadæ, felt a pain in his right hip and groin, the nearest joining of the hip to the groin, and the forepart of the hip. Upon losing a vast deal of black thick blood from the ankle, and taking a smart purge downwards, he grew easier. The pains indeed did not cease, but the hip, the joining, and the part about the groin suppurated, though not without an increase of pain: for the pus laid deep, rather at the bone than in the flesh. He was neglected for some time in this condition, till he became extremely weak; and then a great many large eschars were made by the actual cautery, near one another, and a vast discharge of thick pus ensued. A few days after this he died, partly from the largeness and number of the ulcers, and partly from the weakness of his body. Whereas had one large incision been made, or even a second (if it had been necessary), and the pus discharged that way, and all this in time, he might have recovered it.
Lycon in Oeniadæ was in other respects in the same condition, but the pains extended to the leg, though not very much. Here indeed was no suppuration, and yet he did well after a long time; but then he took physic, was cupped, blooded, and seemed to be better of his complaints.
A man at Athens was seized with an itching all over, especially in his testicles and his forehead, which proved exceedingly troublesome. His skin was thick from head to foot, in appearance like that of a leper; and could not be taken up any where for the thickness of it. This man could receive no benefit from any body; but, upon using the hot-baths at Melus, got rid of his itching and his thick skin. He died, however, of a dropsy afterwards.
A man at Athens was taken with the cholera (or overflowing of the gall); purged upwards and downwards; was in pain; and could not be relieved of either vomiting or purging. His speech failed him, and he could not move out of his bed. His eyes were misty and hollow. Convulsions seized him in the stomach from the intestine, and a hiccough followed. He also purged much more than he vomited. But upon drinking hellebore after the juice of lentils, and upon this the other lentil juice, in as great a quantity as he could, a vomiting ensued, which put a stop to both his evacuations; but he grew cold. His lower parts were therefore bathed very much up to his private parts, till the upper grew warm again. He recovered upon it, and the next day drank some thin gruel.
Gorgias’s wife in Larissa, who had a suppression of her menses for four years, almost entirely, complained of a pulsation and weight in her womb, whichever side she lay on. She conceived afterwards, and conceived again upon the first. In nine months she was delivered of a live girl with an ulcer on her hip. The membranes came away, and with them a great flux of blood. The next day, the third, and the fourth, clotted blood came away; a fever attended for the first ten days; and the rest that came away was red. Her face, legs, feet, and one thigh swelled very much; her appetite failed her quite; and her thirst was very great. The coldest water was of service to her, but wine by no means. Her belly, after the first child came away, was somewhat softer, though it did not fall entirely, but was harder than it should be, and without pain. Forty days after the first, the second child came away, like a lump of flesh; the belly fell; all the swellings went off; the flux was small; the blood offensive; and she recovered.
A woman in Pheræ was troubled a long time with a violent pain of her head, and could get no relief from any body, nor even from purging the head; but was easiest when her menses came down freely. Fragrant pessaries applied to the womb were of service to her, when her pain was violent; and a little purging followed upon it. Her pains left her upon proving with child.
A woman with child in Larissa lost a great deal of blood in fourteen days in her tenth month, but most three days before her delivery. The fourteenth, a dead child fell out of the womb, with its right arm growing to the side. The third day, the same hour of the night the child was born in, the membranes came away, and the whites followed. After this, for three days and nights, a great deal came away, but not immoderately. This was succeeded by a fever that lasted two days and as many nights, attended with pains all over the belly and the hips, especially the lower part of the belly, by the pubes.
Hipposthenes in Larissa was supposed by his physicians to have an inflammation of the lungs, but the case was quite otherwise. The beginning of his illness was from a fall upon his back in a hard place, and another falling upon him, as he was wrestling. He was afterwards washed with cold water, got his supper, and seemed to be heavier. The next day, was feverish, coughed without spitting, and breathed quick. The fifth, hawked up bloody matter, but not much; began to be delirious; and upon coughing complained of a pain in his breast and back. The sixth, bled about a quart at the nose, upon sneezing; in the evening neither spoke, nor perceived what was done or said. The eleventh, died.
He was, for five days, sometimes perfectly in his senses, sometimes not, and without a fever. He spit nothing at all; nor had he any rattling; because there was no spittle to occasion it.
Scamandrus in Larissa had a mortification in his hip, and an abscess of long standing at the bone. A large incision being made, even to the bone, and ustion used afterwards, a convulsion began the twelfth day after the incision, and held him strong, reaching from the leg to the ribs, and affected also the other side. The leg was sometimes contracted, sometimes extended, and he had the use of his other limbs, but his jaws were set. The eighth day after the first convulsion he died in another. The cure was carried on by applying warm bottles and fomentations of tares to the whole body, not omitting a glyster; by which the fæces that had been long detained, came away in a small quantity. He also drank a bilious purge, and even a second; from which indeed there was a discharge, but to no advantage. After a little sleep he took another strong purge of the like kind, and in the evening died about sunset; but in all probability might have held out a long time, had not the physic been too strong for him.
A boy belonging to Palamedes’s stables of Larissa, about eleven years old, was struck by a horse upon the forehead above his right eye. The bone seemed to be hurt, and a little blood spurted out. A large incision was made by the trepan even to the marrow, and the bone thus affected was healed; the other lamina (viz. the anterior) growing again presently. Twenty days after this a swelling appeared about the ear, attended with a fever and shivering; and this swelling was greater in the day, and painful. The fever began with shivering; and his eyes, forehead, and whole body swelled, rather on the right side of his head than otherwise, though the left was not entirely free; but no bad consequences followed. At length a continual fever came on; and these complaints lasted eight days, but were less. However, by burning, evacuating downwards by a purging potion, and applying a cataplasm to the tumour, he recovered. As to his complaints, they were not at all occasioned by the wound.
Theophorbus’s son in Larissa had the scabies (or leprosy) of the bladder; made viscid urine; was in pain at the beginning and going off of his water; and rubbed his glans. After drinking a sharp diuretic nothing passed into the bladder, but he vomited a great deal of purulent matter and gall, part of which went also downwards. His belly was in pain, and as it were burnt within, while the rest of his body was cold, and entirely unbraced. Nor could he take any thing at all. His belly was grievously ulcerated, and that by the strength of the physic altogether; for the third day after it he died.
Antimachus’s wife, in Larissa, after having been with child about fifty days, loathed her victuals the rest of the time, and complained of pain in the womb and the pit of her stomach for seven days. A fever came on, and nothing passed downwards. Upon drinking a stronger dose of elaterium than was proper, she vomited burnt bile, occasioned by her abstinence and fever. For she had drank nothing at all. She vomited a little again with violence, and with it some grumous matter. After this she grew sick, lay down, and, finding herself weak, would drink no more water to encourage it. The intestines were upon this seized with a terrible pain, (for the medicine had ulcerated them,) and presently with the stools she voided something that was viscid, stringy, and a little bloody, as if the guts had been shaved. Her weakness and the sickness at her stomach increased continually, and the purging amounted to almost three pints. This indeed stopped, by pouring a great deal of water upon the belly, but still she could take nothing; and about midnight she died; though in all probability she might have lived, if she could have drank water, and vomited immediately before it passed downwards.
Onesidemus’s servant in Larissa had her stomach and bowels ulcerated by bile that was set afloat of itself; upon which bile and blood passed off upwards and downwards, not without a fever. She took, as she was a weak woman, a weak potion of elaterium, little in quantity and mixed with water. Upon this she vomited a great deal, and purged more; and in the evening it came upon her again. The next day she was feverish, but not much; the belly was ulcerated, and she had the same stools as before. The third she died about sunset, the fever raging vehemently.
The case appeared to be altogether desperate, but not at all from drinking cold water, while the vomiting lasted. But when the stomach, cleansed by the water, was become cold, she drank the cream of barley cold, and had some of the same injected.
Eudemus, in Larissa, who was troubled with the piles to a great degree and long, having but little blood left, was seized with the flowing of the gall. The body indeed was very little affected with it, but the belly was thrown into purgings, and what came away was bilious. The piles also came out. Upon drinking something to pass downwards he was purged well, and upon drinking the cream of barley after it he was purged more, not without a pain in the hypochondre. The belly not being in the best condition, the piles were taken in hand; for he wanted a farther cure, and vomited afterwards. Upon rubbing something upon the part swelled, a fever came on, and never left him till it killed him; for if at any time it intermitted, a shivering succeeded, and fever came on again, and bilious stools followed with wind that sometimes passed off, sometimes not; and the belly was also in pain. The piles were swelled without the anus, from the time the purgings were made use of; and the wind passed through them by the help of sneezing at the beginning.
A man at Larissa was wounded behind by a broad javelin, from one very near him, the point of which penetrated below the navel. The part was livid and swelled for a great way. Upon receiving the wound, a violent pain first seized him, and his belly swelled. The next day he took something to pass through him, discharged a little bloody matter, and died. His intestines seemed to be hurt, and his belly to be full of blood.
Apellæus, of Larissa, who was about thirty, or something less, was taken ill of a distemper that used to affect him by night in his sleep, rather than by day, and continued so two years before he died; attended with a vomiting of sometimes yellow, sometimes black bile, upon being waked. After purging the head smartly for a long time, and taking physic twice, it left him six months. He was a great eater, and of a bilious habit. A violent shivering seized him after much wrestling; a fever followed, and in the night his old distemper. The next day and the following he seemed to be well; but the next night it came upon him again, after he had supped, and taken his first sleep, and continued till supper-time the next day. Nor did he recover his senses before he died. A convulsion first seized his right side, then his face, and whole body, and after that his left side. When it seemed to be over, he grew comatose, snorted or rattled in his throat, and had a return of his distemper.
Eumelus of Larissa had such a stiffness in his legs, hands, and jaws, that he could neither extend nor bend them, without the help of another; nor could he open his jaws, without another did it for him. He was in no pain any where else, nor did he eat any thing but a sort of flummery, with mead for his drink. The twentieth day he fell from his seat backwards, and struck his head very hard against a stone. Upon this his sight grew dim; but he soon got up again, recovered himself, and was entirely free, except that, when he got up after sleeping, his joints seemed bound together. He was twelve or thirteen years old, and ill three or four months.
A maid in Larissa, after vomiting a little blood, had a collection of matter formed; upon which a fever coming, she could not get the better of it, till death freed her from all within three months. Before she died, her ears were so deaf that she could hear nothing at all, unless one bawled to her very loud: and before this vomiting of blood happened, she was but in a weak condition.
Dyseris’s servant, of Larissa, in her youthful days, complained of violent pain in the act of venery, and not at any other time. She never proved with child; but, when she was about sixty, was taken after noon with violent pains like labour-pains, having eat just before a good deal of garlic. She got up, when her pains were more violent than ever, and felt something rough in the mouth of the womb; but, fainting away afterwards, another woman put up her hand, and brought from her a rough stone as big as the whirl of a spindle. She grew well upon it immediately, and remained so.
A loaded wagon came upon the ribs of one who belonged to Malea, and broke them. Matter lodged for some time under the ribs, but upon being cauterized below the spleen, and the ulcer kept open with lints and the like, he held out ten months. After the skin was cut, a cavity appeared both ways, reaching to the omentum, not without putrefaction. It extended likewise to the kidney and the bones. The habit of this man’s body was not perceived to be bilious, and so the putrefaction became great and dry, affecting the omentum and other fleshy parts. A dry medicine was here immediately necessary, while the strength of the patient lasted; for the moist medicines were so far from abating, that they increased the putrefaction. The moisture being stopped by the lints that were applied, a shivering and a fever came on; the putrefaction increased; and a fetid, blackish, putrid matter ran out. But before we undertook the cure, a great deal of such stuff was discharged every day, though not freely. By this we knew the nature of the disease, and that it was deeper than the skin. So that if every thing had been done for him in a proper manner, yet his case would have been desperate; even though a purging had also happened.
Autonomus died in Omilus, the sixteenth day, in the middle of summer, of a wound of the head, occasioned by the throwing of a stone at a little distance upon the sutures in the middle of the os bregmatis, or parietal bone. I did not perceive that the trepan was wanting; for the injury was received upon the very sutures (as was extremely clear afterwards), and so deceived me. A violent pain seized the collar-bone first of all, and after that the side, together with a convulsion in both hands; for the wound was given in the middle of the head, and the parietal bone. The trepan was applied the fifteenth; a little pus came out; and the membrane appeared free from any corruption.
A young girl in Omilus, about twelve years old, died in the middle of summer, the fourteenth day, of a wound in her head, occasioned by somebody’s throwing a door upon her, that bruised and broke the bone. The wound was right upon the sutures, and it was plainly seen there was occasion for the trepan. It was accordingly applied, but not so far as it ought; however, what remained came to suppuration. The eighth day she shivered, and grew feverish; and though she was not as she should be, yet she was as she had been some time before, when she had no fever. The ninth, the remaining part was trepanned, and a very little pus, streaked with blood, appeared underneath. The membrane was clear, and sleep came on, but the fever never abated more. The left hand was convulsed, the wound being rather on the right side.
Cyrenius in Omilus was burnt upon the belly for a collection of pus there; and, though it was thirty days later than it ought to have been, yet he was pretty well after it, and the pus that was in the belly was dried up. But eating afterwards, in the hottest time of the year, the fruits of the season and other improper food, he fell into a fever and looseness, and went off.
Hecason in Omilus was cauterized later than he ought, just as the other was, and almost the whole belly was dried up too; but a dysentery came on; and, as soon as he got over it, he eat of every thing till he swelled all over. The pus afterwards broke its way downwards; a looseness attended it; and he died.
Hecason in Omilus had an acute pain fixed in his hip, from the foulness of his body, and injudicious purging. Upon its going off a fever ensued, that confined him to his bed a long while. He neither drank any thing, nor was thirsty, but was weak and chilly. His distemper went off in a proper manner, as it ought, and his body was the better for what was given him. At last the distemper broke downwards, and went all off with a great deal of bile. He grew delirious upon it, however, and died; but seemed to be able to get over it.
A man in Salamis, falling upon an anchor, was wounded in the belly, and in great pain. The physic he drank passed neither upwards nor downwards.
The woman that cut her own throat was strangled; but a purging potion, that was given her a good while after, passed through her.
The young man who came from Eubœa, and had been purged very much, grew feverish upon its intermitting and stopping. Concluding from this that a vomit was necessary, he drank a weak one, viz., the root, and elaterium, and died four days after, without any evacuation; but he was sleepy, and his thirst could not be quenched.
The maid-servant, that was a foreigner, vomited a little from what she drank, and was strangled; but purged very much downwards, and died in the night.
The man of Eubœa, upon drinking a purging potion, was purged three days, and died. His hand suppurated up to his elbow.
Symmachus’s boy was strangled with bile, as he was asleep in the night, and feverish. The physic he drank would not stay with him, nor was he purged in six days before he died.
He who lived by the race-house, and vomited blood in the night, died the next day, vomiting a great deal of blood, and strangled. The spleen and parts below it had a quantity of bloody matter pass that way.
The boy, that was struck by a mule upon the belly and the liver, died the fourth. His breath was quick, his senses confused, and a fever attended besides.
Hermophilus’s son, who was ill eleven days, was feverish, bound in his body, and delirious at first, but it went off in the night. The next day he lost his speech, rattled as he lay, had his eyes distorted, and was feverish. A feather being put down his throat, he brought up black bile, and by the help of a glyster had a very great discharge.
Aristion’s servant had a mortification about the middle of her foot from the inside obliquely, without any reason for it. The bones putrefied, separated, and came away in a fistulous manner by little and little. Upon a looseness succeeding, she died.
A woman in good health, and corpulent, complained of pain in her belly, a colic in her bowels, and with these a swelling, after drinking something upon account of conception. A difficulty of breathing attended, with great uneasiness of mind and pain. She also vomited blood, but not much, and fainted away five times so as to be thought dead. Neither the pain nor the breathing were relieved by vomiting with cold water; the only thing that relieved her was the pouring about thirty firkins of cold water upon her body. For after this a great deal of bile passed downward, and she recovered; whereas, when the pain was upon her, nothing could pass.
Antandrus, who was well in other respects after taking physic, seemed to have a pain about his bladder. A very great clearage and depuration was made there by what he had taken, and in the afternoon a violent pain seized him. The next day a suffocation, with great perplexity and restlessness. He vomited too, without any thing passing downwards, had a bad night, and no sleep. The third day a great deal went downwards, followed by blood, and so he died.
The cobbler of Pityus, as he was sewing a sole, ran the awl above his knee into his thigh about an inch, but no blood followed, and the wound closed up presently: however the whole thigh swelled upon it, and the swelling reached to the groin and flank. The third day he died.
A man received a wound in his groin by a dart, and recovered contrary to all expectation; for we saw the case. The head of the dart was neither taken out, because it lay very deep; nor was there any loss of blood to speak of, nor inflammation, or lameness; but six years after the accident we found the dart, and took it out. Our opinion is that it was buried between the nerves or tendons, without dividing either artery or vein.
Another received an insignificant wound to speak of (for it was not deep) a little below his neck behind from a sharp dart; which being taken out not long after, he was drawn and distorted backwards, as in the opisthotonus. His jaws were also fastened; and, if any thing moist was put into his mouth, and he attempted to swallow it, it returned again through the nose. In other respects he grew worse immediately. The second day he died.
A young man, running hastily over rough ground, felt a pain in his heel, especially the lower part. No moisture being collected, nor any abscess formed, the whole part turned black the fourth day, as far as the bone called astragalus, and the hollow part in the bottom of the foot. Before the mortification could break away or suppurate, he died, twenty days in all after the running.
He who was wounded by his eye, received it upon his eyelid, and the point of the dart went in deep, but the fang or beard of it appeared outwardly. Upon laying open the eyelid, every thing was taken out without any inconvenience: for the eye was saved and healed presently, and the blood flowed freely and sufficiently.
Nerius’s handsome girl, about twenty, was struck upon the parietal bone with the palm of the hand by another young woman in play; upon which a mist came on, and she could not breathe. As soon as she was brought home, a violent fever attacked her, with a pain in her head, and a redness about her face. The seventh day, above a spoonful of fetid reddish pus came out of her right ear; she seemed to be better, and was lighter and easier. The fever, however, increased again, and was attended with a dozing, a loss of speech, a contraction of the right side of the face, a difficulty of breathing, a convulsion, and a trembling. The tongue was also confined, the eye fixed, and the ninth she died.
A young man, after drinking a great deal of genuine wine, fell asleep in a certain shade, and the serpent called Arges crept into his mouth. As soon as he perceived it, not being able to speak, he grinded his teeth, bit the serpent through, was seized with great pain, threw out his hands as if strangled, tumbled and tossed about, fell into convulsions, and died.
Note.—At this place Clifton leaves out several pages as they appear in Haller; and what follows is from the sixth book, omitting nearly the two first of the sections as given in Haller,—the only explanation for which is in the following note, which to me is not satisfactory.—Ed.
“This is the first observationa in the sixth book (see section the 2d, aph. 22,) that I could insert here; the former being all aphorisms of such a nature, as cannot be brought, with any propriety, into a book of Epidemics. The other observations are not so good as I could wish them, but yet must not be omitted.”
THE SIXTH BOOK OF EPIDEMICS.
Fœsius, p. 1164.
This, says Haller, is much of the same character with the preceding; and is said to have been transcribed from the note-book of Hippocrates, by Thessalus. Galen has commented upon it. It is a medley of histories of diseases, aphorisms, and predictions, frequently taken from the other writings of Hippocrates, often deficient in limitation, and half true. Herodicus ridicules his ratio medendi. Some physiological remarks are interspersed;—and a story is given of an Abderite woman, who was changed into a man, and whom the author in vain attempted to cure!
Gardeil, speaking of this book, says, that Galen had written a commentary on it, for the use of his disciples, a part only of which has reached us, from which we may however perceive how much he was frequently embarrassed to discover the real meaning of the author. This difficulty must now be much augmented; and he claims on this score the indulgence of the readers of his translation, stating that he had submitted its revision to several friends before committing it to press. These he gratefully names,—and asks for further favours from distant members of the profession, in case another edition should be required. He states this book as containing numerous sentences, mostly deserving attention, both in respect to hygiene and to therapeutics.—Ed.
Broad eruptions, without any great itchings (such as Simon’s were in the winter), were not relieved by vomitings; but perhaps warm fomentations applied might have been of service; for he, upon being either anointed by the fire, or bathed with warm water, was relieved.
The woman that lived by the great theatre, behind the Heroes monument, was taken with a jaundice that remained with her; and the man that lived by Timenes’s niece was taken with a blackness all over.
In Perinthus, the urine was like seed. Such was also critical. Complaints about the pubes are relieved this way, when the case is curable by urine: for, without much flatus, or much (but viscid) excrement passing off, it grew soft; the hypochondre not being large. The seventh day he ate some cabbage, while a difficulty of breathing was upon him, grew softer about the pubes, breathed well, and his belly was loosened by it.
The woman, that I first cured in Cranon, had naturally a large spleen. Her fever was of the burning kind, attended with great redness and difficulty of breathing. The tenth day she sweated upwards for the most part; but, the fourteenth, a little downwards.
Agasius’s daughter, when she was a girl, was short-breathed; and, when a woman, was taken with a little pain not long after her delivery; and, upon lifting up a great weight, something seemed to crack in her breast. The next day she was asthmatic, and had a pain in her right hip. When this was troublesome, her asthma was so too, but ceased with the other’s ceasing. What she spit was frothy, but florid at the beginning; and, after standing, resembled a bilious thin vomiting. Her pains were greatest, when she worked with her hands. She was forbid meddling with garlic, pork, mutton, and beef; or to bawl, or put herself in a passion, whenever she had occasion to speak.
Where a tumour in the head spread itself, there burnt alum was at first serviceable. Another abscess followed, perhaps because the bone was to come away. This happened sixty days after, above the ear, whereas the wound was higher, upon the crown of the head.
A man after a fatiguing journey, was quite spent, heavy, and fell a spitting; a cough coming from the top of his head. A smart fever ensued, that was very uneasy to the touch. The next day a heaviness in his head, with a burnt tongue. No blood from the left nostril, though picked with his nails. The spleen was large, hard, and painful.
The autumn is bad for consumptive persons; and so is the spring, when the fig-leaves are like a crow’s foot.
In Perinthus, a great many were consumptive in the spring, occasioned in some by an epidemic cough, in the winter; and in others by the long continuance of disorders: for thus what was doubtful before was now confirmed. Some indeed, who had been long ill, escaped a consumption, as those did who were troubled with nephritic pains; and so did some others, as the man, for instance, the Cynic brought me to.
Satyrus, in Thasus, surnamed Grypalopex, when he was about five-and-twenty, often spent in his sleep, and indeed often in the daytime. A consumption seized him about thirty, and he died.
The keeper of the wrestling-place in Abdera, whose name was Stheneus (or the strong man), after wrestling much with a stronger, and falling upon his head, went away and drank a great deal of cold water. He could get no sleep that night, was very restless, and cold in his extremes. The next day he went home; had no stool, though a suppository was put up; made water a little, whereas before he had made none; was bathed at night, but yet could get no sleep, or lie still, and was lightheaded. The third day, was cold in his extremes; grew hot, and sweated; but died this very day, after drinking mead.
Phaethusa, in Abdera, the wife of Pytheus, who had had a child formerly when she was very young, upon her husband’s being banished, missed her menses a long time; and her joints grew afterwards painful and red. Upon this her body became manly, and hairy all over; a beard thrust out, and her voice became rough. Every thing was tried by us that was likely to bring down her menses, but all to no purpose; and not long after she died.
The same thing happened in Thasus, to Namusias, the wife of Gorgippus. All the physicians that I talked with were of opinion, that the only hope left was in her menses coming down again as they ought. But this could never be brought about, though we tried every thing; and she died not long after.
Note.—Here, throughout, large portions of the text are omitted by Clifton; giving his reasons therefor in the preceding note.—Ed.
THE SEVENTH BOOK OF EPIDEMICS.
Fœsius, p. 1206.
This book, says Haller, is the production of the author of the fifth book, in both of which we find much repetition, and with little order, from his note-book, on the subjects of phrenitis, continued fever, dropsy, the diseases of pregnancy, and some surgical cases. A fœtus remaining in utero nine years, is mentioned. The book contains a larger number of histories of epidemic diseases than the others, the best of which are at the commencement.
In his notes, Gardeil has taken the pains to point out some of the parts of this book with which Book V. corresponds.—Ed.
After the dog-days the fevers were attended with sweats, nor were they thoroughly cold after sweating, but grew warm again, and were feverish a long time, had commonly a difficult crisis, and were not very thirsty. In some they ceased upon the seventh and the ninth day; in others upon the eleventh, the fourteenth, the seventeenth, and the twenty-second.
Polycrates had a fever, and sweated in the manner now mentioned. After taking a smart purge, his fever was so mild, that one could hardly perceive it, except in his temples. In the evening little sweats came on again about his head, neck, and breast, and afterwards all over; upon which he grew warm again. About the twelfth and the fourteenth the fever increased, his stools were few, and after purging he supped either broth or gruel. About the fifteenth, had a pain in his belly by the spleen and the left hypochondre, which was relieved by applying cold things rather than warm, and upon taking a soft glyster ceased entirely.
The same method relieved Cleocydes of a like pain and fever. About the sixteenth the heats seemed to abate; pure bile passed downwards; he grew fierce and audacious; breathed moderately, and sometimes, when he drew it in plentifully, discharged it again tumultuously, as if he was swooning, or as a man breathes when he sits in the shade after travelling in the heat. The seventeenth, as he was sitting on his bench in the evening, he fainted away, lost his speech a long time, and was senseless. He drank some mead with great difficulty, the fibres of his neck being stretched, as when the throat is dried, and a general impotency upon one. At last he recovered himself with great difficulty, and the heats abated. After this his disorder left him the twenty-second.
About the same time Pythodorus was taken with a continual fever. The eighth day he sweated, and again grew hot. The tenth, another sweat. The twelfth, supped some ptisan, and to the fourteenth had no sensible fever, except in his temples; nor any thirst; and thought himself well. Sweats came on every day; and the fifteenth, after supping chicken broth he vomited bile, purged, and had his fever more than ever, but it stopped again. He sweated much, but the whole body, except the temples, was very cold, and the pulsation did not cease; it seemed however to cease for a little while, so that he thought he was going to be hot again. The twenty-fourth, after eating meat for many days, and dining, he was very feverish, and in the evening delirious as he slept. The fever was continual and strong, without any sleep for sometimes one, sometimes two nights; and all the rest of the time he was so heavy to sleep, that it was not the easiest matter to wake him. He was delirious too in his sleep; and, if at any time he was waked, he was hardly himself, had no thirst, breathed moderately, sometimes as Polycrates, and his tongue had some colour. Seven days after the relapse, ptisans were offered him; and, after the fourteenth, meat. The first seven days he broke wind and vomited, and sometimes matter a little bilious came away with his drink without any sickness, till a passage was opened downwards. The sweats left him after the relapse, except upon the forehead, where they were too small to signify any thing. His tongue, if he did not wash it after sleeping, faltered from the dryness of it, and ulcers broke out upon it, and also upon the lower lip, and about the teeth. His stools were few; but, about the fifteenth day after the relapse, more frequent and glutinous; which were stopped by a decoction of pomegranates. The urine, such as in long cases. Towards the conclusion a pain took him so in his breast, as he was swallowing his drink, that he put his hand upon it. This was removed by supping cummin and egg. The tongue was relieved by a medicine made with the chips of frankincense. The fiftieth day from the beginning, about the rising of Arcturus, little short sweats came on about the loins and breast, with a coldness all over (except the temples), that lasted but a little while. The fifty-first, a remission, without a return the next day.
Eratolaus’s boy was taken with a dysentery and a fever about the autumnal equinox. His stools were bilious, thin, frequent, and moderately bloody; but the pain of his belly vehement. Upon drinking whey and burnt milk his pains abated; his stools were somewhat bloody, and afterwards bilious; but he was forced to rise often, though without pain. Some part of the time, after the first six days, the fever seemed to the patient and to many others to be off, it was so imperceptible; but yet there was a pulsation in the temples, and the tongue faltered from its dryness. His thirst, however, was but moderate; and as to sleep, he could never obtain it. What he lived upon was soups and wines. About the fourteenth, hard, crude tumours appeared behind the ears, first one, then the other, which disappeared afterwards entirely, and were moderately painful; but his stools continuing, and all along bilious, the bile and the pain abated for some time, upon his supping the plant that was boiled with the meal; however, his discharges were still frequent and liquid; and his aversion to food so great, that he never took it but upon the utmost necessity. His fever, his tongue, and his thirst, were as I have related them, without any sweat at all. His memory failed him in such a manner, that, if he asked about any thing he had heard but a little before, after pausing a little he would ask again, just as if he had said nothing before; and upon sitting down would forget himself, if nobody put him in mind. This disorder he was sensible of himself; and yet fetched his breath like a man in health. From the thirtieth to the fortieth day the pain of his belly increased much; he lay down upon his back, and could not turn himself in the least. His pain was so violent that others were forced to feed him. His stools were large, separated, and thin, resembling sometimes the colour of the wine he had drank, and sometimes blood. The firmness of his body was wasted to the last degree; and so great a weakness came on, that he could not rise even with the assistance of another. If any one laid his hand between the navel and the cartilage (or pit of the stomach), there was a greater palitation than is ever felt about the heart after running or a fright. Upon drinking for two days together nine Attick cotylasa of ass’s milk boiled, a very great discharge of bile followed, his pains ceased, and his appetite returned. After this he drank about four Attick cotylas of cows’ milk raw, at the rate of a quarter of a pint at a time, in a day, first mixing a sixth part water, and a little black, rough wine. He eat but once a day, in the evening, about half a chœnix of bread baked under ashes, or a little rock-fish, dressed plain, or a bit of goat or mutton. The milk was drank forty days without water, after the first ten days, with a small quantity of black wine. Seventy days from the first he sweated a little in the night after bathing; drank but little; and, after eating, drank his usual drink, or rougher than he used to take it.
Ctesicrates was relieved more by that preparation with the meal than by goats’ whey, when the pain was all over his belly, attended with fatigue, rising often, stools a little bloody, and a swelling in his feet. So was Adrianus for about twenty-five days; but Cæneus had most benefit from ass’s milk boiled.
Cydis’s son was taken, about the winter solstice, with a shivering, a fever, a pain of his right ear, and a pain of his head. He had been subject to this sort of pain from his infancy, with a running, and a fistula of a bad smell. While it was thus, he was generally without pain; but now his pain was acute, attended with a pain in his head. The second or third day he vomited bile, and, as he sat, had a bilious viscid stool, of a pale yellow like an egg. The fourth and fifth, was a little lightheaded; and the pain of his head and ear violent, with a fever besides. The sixth, was purged with the herb mercury, upon which the heat and pain seemed to be carried off. The seventh, was in a manner well, but the beating in his temples did not leave him, nor did any sweat follow. The eighth, supped the cream of barley, and in the evening the juice of bete; slept in the night, and had no manner of pain. The ninth, was in high spirits till sunset; but at night the pain of his head and ear returned with vehemence; and immediately, upon the pain’s becoming vehement, pus ran out of the ear; but all that night, and the next day, and the greatest part of the night, he knew nobody, and groaned continually. The next day he came to himself; the pain ceased; the heat was milder; and, upon taking another soup or drink made of mercury, had, the eleventh day, phlegmy, slimy, fetid stools. The twelfth and the thirteenth, was pretty well. The fourteenth, began to sweat all over from daybreak till noon, sleeping and being so comatose that it was not the easiest matter to wake him. In the evening his sleep left him, and his body was moderately cool, but the beating in his temples remained. The fifteenth and sixteenth, supped some juices or creams. The seventeenth, his pains returned again at night, with lightheadedness, and a discharge of pus. The eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth, he was mad, bawled out, and attempted to raise himself up, but could not keep his head still; and, stretching out his hands, was always catching at something in vain. The twenty-first, sweated a little about his right side, breast, and head. The twenty-second, sweated most about his face; and, as to his speech at that time, if he took very great pains, he could say whatever he had a mind to, distinctly; but, if he did not take such great pains, imperfectly, and by halves. His mouth became paralytic, and his jaws and lips were always in motion, as if he had a mind to speak. His eyes moved quick, looked earnestly, and the colour of the right one was as if it had been blood-shotten. The upper eyelid swelled; his cheek was red before he died; all the veins in the face appeared; his ears were contracted; his eyes no longer winked, but were fixed, and the upper eyelid was elevated, as when something falls upon the eye. When he drank, a sound followed it, as it fell into the thorax and stomach, just as in Chartades’s case. His breathing was generally moderate all along; his tongue of a pale white colour from the beginning, as in an inflammation of the lungs; his head in continual pain; his neck so stiff that it could not be moved with the head; and the spine from the neck downwards strong and inflexible. His posture in lying was as we have said already, and not always with his face upwards. The pus was serous, white, very troublesome to be dried up with sponges, and besides very fetid. As he drew near his end, he was insensible when his feet were touched.
Harpalidas’s sister, in the fourth or fifth month of her pregnancy, had watery swellings in her legs, a swelling in the hollow part of her eyes, and her whole body puffed up as in a phlegmatic habit. Besides these she had a dry cough, a difficulty of breathing of the erect kind, and an asthma of the same. Sometimes she was so near suffocation in her breath, that she was obliged to sit up in her bed continually, without being able to lie down; and, if she had any inclination or thought of sleeping, it was in a sitting posture; but yet she was seldom feverish. The child within her was the greatest part of the time without motion, and fell down as though corrupted or dead. Her asthma followed upon it near two months, but upon using beans mixed with honey, licking honey itself, and drinking Ethiopian cummin in wine, she grew easier. After this she coughed up a great deal of digested, phlegmatic, white matter; her difficulty of breathing went off, and she was brought to bed of a girl.
Polycrates’s wife, in the summer, about the time of the dog-days, was taken with a fever. Her difficulty of breathing was less in a morning, and greater after the middle of the day, and a little quicker. She coughed and hawked up, immediately from the first, as those do who have pus within them. In the inside, about the windpipe and upper part of the gullet, there was a roughness and hissing. The countenance was of a good colour; the cheeks red, not indeed extremely, but moderately florid. In process of time the voice grew hoarse, and the body wasted. About the loins were breakings-out; and the belly at last became loose. The seventieth day she was feverish, but very cold outwardly, without any beating in her temples; and her breathing was quicker. After the beating ceased, her breath was so quick that she was forced to keep sitting till she died.
In the windpipe there was a great noise; her sweats were bad; but she was very composed to the last. The coldness continued above five days; and after the first she continually hawked up purulent matter.
The woman, that lived above the gates, had a little fever in her old age, which, upon ceasing, was followed with a pain of her neck down to her back-bone and loins; parts that she was not very strong in. Her jaws and teeth were so set, that a probe could not be introduced; her speech faltered, from the body’s being paralytic, immovable, and weak; but still she kept in her senses. By warm applications and warm mead there was something of a relaxation the third day; and after this, by the help of soups and broths, she recovered perfectly. This happened about the end of autumn.
The anointer by Harpalis, growing impotent in his hands and legs about autumn, drank a medicine rashly that purged him upwards and downwards, after which he grew feverish. Something fell upon his windpipe that hindered his speaking; and whenever he spoke he was asthmatic, as one in a quinsy with a hoarseness. He had also the suffocation and other symptoms that attend a quinsy, but no swelling. The fever and the cough increased, and a great deal of moist phlegm was hawked up. In the course of his illness a pain seized him in his chest and left breast; and, when he would rise or be moved, he was very asthmatical, and sweated upon his forehead and head. The complaints about his throat continued, but in a less degree, the pain removing to the chest. Upon these considerations he used beans with honey from the beginning; but, when the fever was upon him, rather warm oxymel, and a lambative of honey plentifully. After fourteen days all his complaints ceased; and, before it was long, he had very good command of his hands and legs.
Chartades had a burning fever, discharged much bile upwards and downwards, could get no sleep, and had a round swelling upon his spleen. The third day he rose early, upon a rumbling in his belly without pain; and, as he was discharging, above a gallon of fresh blood came away. After stopping a little, concreted lumps of blood came away the third time. His heart was sick, and greatly disordered; and a little sweat broke out almost all over, with a gentle fever. At first he seemed to be perfectly in his senses; but, as the day advanced, his sickness and restlessness increased; his breathing was a little quicker; his speech and reception bolder, and again more humane, than occasion required; and he seemed inclinable to faintings. Nor did the soups or the barley-water that were offered him take them off; but his breathing towards evening was exceedingly difficult; his tossing, first on one side, then on the other, very great, without being able to rest one moment. His feet were cold, his temples and head rather hot, with many little sweats about them, as death approached. His drink occasioned, as it passed, a sound about the breast and stomach; which was as bad a sign as could be: and, while he was saying that something wanted to pass downwards, he fixed his eyes, and in a short time expired.
Hermoptolemus’s wife was taken in the winter time with a fever and pains in her head. Whenever she drank, it was with so much difficulty that she got up and said she had a great uneasiness at her heart, or at least the mouth of her stomach. Her tongue was livid from the beginning; and the occasion of all seemed to be a chilliness after bathing. She got no sleep night nor day. After the first days she complained no more (upon our asking) of the pain of her head, but of pain all over her body. Her thirst was sometimes vehement, at other times moderate. The fifth and sixth, and almost to the ninth, she was delirious, but came in some measure to herself again, and spoke her words by halves, being comatose. Sometimes she reached out her hand to the wall, and clapped a little cold pillow that was under her head to her breast. At other times she threw off the clothes. Her right eye was a little bloody, and wept. Her urine such as we always count bad in children. Her stools from the first yellowish, and afterwards very watery, but of the same colour. The eleventh day the heat seemed to be more moderate. The thirst left her sometimes so far, that, if they did not give her any thing, she never asked. After the first time she commonly slept in the day, and kept awake in the night, complaining of more pain at that time. The ninth, her stools were watery, and so they were the eleventh. The following days she commonly got up often, and had the same sort of stools. The first days of her illness she was violently passionate, grieved like a child, cried out aloud, was frightened, and looked about her, when she came out of her coma. The fourteenth, it was a hard matter to hold her, she jumped and bawled so, on a sudden, and with as much vehemence, as if she had been struck, or was in great pain, or in a great surprise from somebody’s seizing and detaining her a little. After this she was quiet again, comatose, and slept perpetually, without seeing at all, and sometimes without hearing, but not without frequent changes (almost the whole day) from one to another, first of ruffle, then of quiet. The next night she voided something a little bloody like slime, and again like muddy slimy stuff, and after this very leeky and black. The fifteenth, violent agitations of the body with frights, but the bawling moderate. Upon this followed fierceness, rage, and crying, if what she had a mind to was not reached her presently. She knew every body and every thing immediately from the first days. That about her eye went no further; but her unreasonable madness, and bawling, together with the change before-mentioned, followed to the coma. She heard unequally; sometimes very well, even though one spoke but low; at other times a louder voice was necessary. Her feet were always of an equal warmth to the last with the rest of her body, but the sixteenth less. The seventeenth, greater moderation than the other days; but at night, contracting herself as if a chilliness had come upon her, she grew more feverish and very dry, other complaints of the like kind following. Her hands trembled; her head shook; her eyes looked bad; her thirst so vehement, that, after she had drank, she asked again, snatched the mug, and drank plentifully; nor could they pull it away from her. Her tongue was dry and very red; her whole mouth and lips ulcerated and dry. She carried both her hands to her mouth trembling, and fell a chewing; and, if any one offered her something to chew or sup, she drank and supped plentifully and like a mad woman, looking all the time badly. Three or four days before she died, such a chilliness came upon her that her body was contracted and covered up, and her breathing rendered very difficult. Her legs were stiff, her feet cold, her thirst and understanding, as before. Her gettings up to stool were either to no purpose, or what came away was little and thin, with some small tension. The last day of all, viz., the twenty-third, the eye was large in the morning, and she looked about but little, and was easy, sometimes without being covered, or without being comatose; but in the evening the right eye moved about, from the external angle to the nose, as if she was looking at, or wanted, something. She knew every body, and answered to what was asked her. A little after this, her speech, broke with bawling and hoarse withal, faltered.
Amphiphrades’s son was taken in the summer with a pain of his left side, a cough, and many watery bilious stools. The fever seemed to go off about the seventh, but the cough continued. His spitting was whitish and palish; but about the fourteenth, of a pale yellow colour. As the disease advanced, his breathing was always thicker and asthmatical, attended with a kind of wheezing about his breast and windpipe. He made use of soups, and kept his senses all along. About the twenty-eighth he died. Sweats sometimes broke out.
The cook, that had an inflammation of his lungs, had also a discharge downwards immediately. About the fourth he sweated much; the fever seemed to go off; and his cough was nothing to speak of. The fifth, sixth, and seventh, was feverish again, and sweated again the eighth. The ninth, hawked up pale yellow matter. The tenth, purged very much, but not often. The eleventh, was easier; and the fourteenth, quite well.
Hermoptolemus, after the setting of the Pleiades, grew feverish, coughed a little, and his tongue was as in an inflammation of the lungs. The ninth, he sweated, and was cold all over, to appearance. About noon they gave him the cream of barley, and he grew hot. The eleventh, he sweated again; and, upon his belly’s being disturbed, had bilious stools that were followed by a small cough. The fourteenth, what he hawked up was pale, and he rattled in his throat. The fifteenth, after having been sensible all the time, he died.
Another person had the like noise upon the roof of his mouth; his tongue was dry, as in an inflammation of the lungs; his senses remained, and he died.
Posidonius was also taken, in the summer, with a pain in his breast, hypochondres, and side, that lasted a long time, but without a fever. Many years before he had had a collection of matter in his breast; and, being chilly in the winter, the pain increased, and a little fever came on. What he hawked up was purulent. His cough was attended with a wheezing in his throat and a rattling. He also kept his senses to the last moment.
Bales’s son, having been guilty of all kind of irregularities in the summer, had upon the sixth day a very red bad tongue; a faltering voice; discoloured eyes, that moved up and down as in winking, for want of sleep; and the colour of the rest of his body not very much upon the jaundice, but palish and livid. His voice was bad, and not distinct; his tongue, as in an inflammation of the lungs; his senses, not perfect; his breathing, manifestly bad, and yet neither thick, nor deep; his feet, cold as stones. About the ninth he died.
The woman with the quinsy, who lived at or by Metron’s, had a pain of her right hand and leg, with a little fever, a gentle cough, and a suffocation. The third day, a remission. The fourth, was convulsed and dumb, rattled in the throat, grated her teeth, and had a redness in her cheeks. Not being able to hold out any longer, she died the fifth or sixth; and of this the lividness that was in her hand was a sign.
Bion, after having been long ill of a dropsy, had an aversion to eating many days, and was taken with a strangury. An abscess came upon the left knee, that suppurated; and he died.
Ctesiphon fell into a dropsy after a violent burning fever; and, being dropsical and splenetic before, the scrotum, legs, and belly were filled prodigiously. Towards the conclusion a cough came on, with stranglings in the night, more from the lungs (as those have whose lungs are vitiated) than elsewhere. Three or four days before he died, he shivered, was feverish, and, in the inner part of the right thigh by the middle vein that comes from the groin, a sort of lividish erysipelas gathered, that had withal a redness. At night a pain seized him about the heart, which was soon followed by loss of speech, strangling, rattling, and death.
One in Olynthus, who had also the dropsy, presently lost his speech, was lightheaded day and night, and died.
Prodromus’s son could not speak plain in the summer; had a burning fever; a tongue so dry that his words could hardly be heard; a violent purging; and recovered.
Leophorbidas had an acute fever, after the winter solstice, attended with a pain of the flanks and belly; many liquid bilious stools; a stupid heaviness in the daytime; a peripneumonic tongue, and no cough. The twelfth, his stools were black, little, and leeky. The fourteenth, the fever seemed to go off; after which he made use of soups. The sixteenth, the mouth was very salt and dry. The beginning of the evening a shivering came on, and a fever. The twenty-first, about the middle of the day, he shivered and sweated. The fever went off, but yet a little heat remained. At night he sweated again. The twenty-second at night another sweat, and the heat abated. All the former days he was without a sweat, but the belly was humid, even in the relapse that afterwards seemed to happen.
Theocles’s relation, who lived above, was taken with an acute fever, during the Pleiades. The sixth day it seemed to go off, and she bathed herself as if it was gone. The seventh, in the morning her cheek was very red, but which I don’t remember. In the evening she was very feverish again, fainted, and lost her speech. Soon after this she sweated, and recovered perfectly the seventh.
Theodorus’s wife lost a great deal of blood in a fever in the winter time; and, upon the fever’s going off the second day, a weight first attacked her in her right side as if from the womb, and afterwards an acute pain of the breast. The pain in the side, upon fomenting the part, abated. The fourth, her pains returned. Her breathing was quicker; the windpipe wheezed a little, as she was scarce able to fetch her breath; and, lying with her face upwards, she could not easily be turned. At night the fever was more acute, attended with a short delirium. The fifth in the morning she seemed to be easier. A little sweat broke out first upon the forehead for a short time, and then was diffused for a long time over all the body down to the feet. After this the violence of the heat abated, and the body was colder to the touch than it seemed to be by the arteries, the beating of which was greater in the temples than any where else. Her breathing was quicker; now and then she was delirious; and worse in all respects. Her tongue was all along very white; and she had no cough, except a little while the third and the fifth day. She had no thirst, but spit. Her right hypochondre was very much tumefied about the fifth, but after that softer. The third, she had a little stool from a suppository. The fifth, another that was liquid. The belly was soft. The urine viscid and like seed. The eyes like one fatigued, looking up and moving about with difficulty. The fifth, at night, she was very much out of order, and after that delirious. The sixth, she sweated much, about the same hour that the forum used to be full, first in the forehead, and afterwards all over a long time. She came to herself, and put her affairs in order; but about the middle of the day was very delirious. As to the cold, that was as before; but every thing about the body was heavier. In the evening her leg fell out of bed; she threatened her little boy unreasonably; then held her tongue, and was quiet again. About the first sleep she was very thirsty and mad; sat down and abused the company; then held her tongue, and was quiet again, and seemed to doze away the rest of the night, but her eyes were not closed. The next day she answered for the most part with nods; was quiet in her body, and tolerably sensible in her mind; and sweated again the same day. Her eyes were dejected as before, rather lying upon the lower eyelid, and looking fixed and stupidly. The whites were pale and deadish, and the whole colour pale and black. Her hands were generally employed about the wall, or the clothes. A great noise attended drinking, and it was returned upwards by the nose. She spread out her hands, picked up the nap of the bedclothes, and hid her face. After sweating, her hands were like crystals; a cold sweat followed, and the body was cold to the touch. She jumped up, bawled out, grew mad, breathed hard, trembled in her hands, and, as she drew near her end, was convulsed. The seventh day she died. The sixth, made but little water in the night, and that, upon drawing it out with a twig, appeared viscid and seedy; got no sleep all the time; and after the sixth day made water a little bloody.
Antiphanes’s son had a pain of his right side in the winter, with a cough and fever; but yet he eat, went about, was a little feverish, and seemed to have something broke within him. The ninth, the fever remitted, but did not leave him; his cough was much, thick, and frothy; his side was painful. About the fourteenth, and again about the twentieth, his fever seemed to leave him, but returned again. The heat indeed was but small, and in a little time left him. The cough was sometimes gone, sometimes vehement, with much strangling; then it abated, and he hawked up afterwards a great deal, coughing as if he should be choked. The purulent matter, that fell upon the vessel, boiled and frothed; and in the throat was generally a hoarse roughness and a kind of wheezing. He was always asthmatical, and breathed quick; seldom well. After forty days, and near sixty (as I remember), the left eye was blinded by a tumour without pain; and, not long after, the right. The pupils were very white and dry; and in a short time after this blindness (not above seven days) he died, rattling in the throat, and talked much out of the way.
The like symptoms happened from the like causes about the same time to Thessalion, as to the boiling, the frothing, the pus, the cough, and the hoarse roughness in the throat.
Polemarchus’s wife had a swelling about the windpipe in a quinsy in the winter, and was very feverish. Upon being let blood the strangling in the throat went off, but the fever continued. About the fifth her left knee was painful and swelled; something seemed to be gathered about her heart; and she breathed as a man does after being dipped over head and ears. Such a sound came from the breast, as those impostors make, who, in prophesying events, speak from their belly, and are therefore called εγαϛριμυϑοι. About the eighth or ninth at night a purging came on, and her stools were many, liquid, tumultuous, bad, and fetid. Her speech failed her, and she died.
Aristippus, after receiving a wound in his belly from a javelin, had a great deal of difficulty to survive it. A violent pain of the belly came on, which heated it presently to such a degree that nothing passed downwards. He was sick at his stomach, and vomited bile of a very deep colour, after which he seemed to be easier, but in a little while his pains returned again with vehemence; the belly was burnt up as in an ileus; he grew hot and dry, and in seven days expired.
Neopolis, from the like wound had the same complaints; but by the use of a sharp glyster had a great discharge downwards. The colour diffused over him was thin, pale, black. His eyes were squalid, heavy, turned inwards, and fixed.
He, who was wounded upon the liver by a dart near hand, had his colour changed presently to deadish. His eyes were hollow; and, after tumbling and tossing about with great anxiety, he died before the assembly was dismissed, the very day that he was wounded.
He who was wounded upon the head with a stone by the Macedonian, though the wound was little more than skin deep upon the left temple, was seized with a dizziness, and fell down. The third day he lost his speech, was exceedingly restless, feverish but not much, and had a small beating in his temples, as when the heat is mild. Add to this, that he lost his hearing and his senses, and could take no rest. The fourth day a dew broke out about his forehead, and under the nose down to the chin. The fifth, he died.
Æniates was wounded in Delus with a javelin upon the back part of his left side, but the wound was not painful. The third day his belly was in a little pain, and voided nothing; but, upon having a glyster at night, a stool followed, and the pain went off. The anus came out to the scrotum. The fourth, such a violent pain seized the pubes and the whole belly, that he could not rest. Bilious vomitings of a deep colour came on; his eyes were pale with a greenish cast, and like the appearance they make in a swoon. After five days he died. Add to this, he was a little hot.
Audellus being wounded in the back, a great deal of wind came through the wound with a noise, and blood followed it; but, upon applying, with a bandage, the medicine for green wounds, he recovered.
Philias’s most unfortunate boy, upon the forehead’s being laid bare, was taken with a fever the ninth day. The bone turned livid, and he died.
Phanius’s son, and Euergus’s, upon the bone’s being livid, attended with a fever, had a separation of the skin from the bone, but the pus made its way inwards. Upon applying the trepan, a thin, serous, palish, fetid, deadly sanies came up from the very bone.
Vomitings came on in these patients, and towards the conclusion convulsions. Some in this case make a shrill noise, and others are quite impotent. Again, if the wound happens on the right side, the left is affected; if on the left, the right.
Theodorus’s son, basking himself in the sun, the ninth day, was taken with a fever the tenth from the bone’s being bare, though nothing at all to speak of. A lividness came on with the fever; the skin separated; and his voice was very shrill. The twenty-second his belly swelled, especially about the flanks. The twenty-third he died.
Those, whose bones are broke, are feverish upon the seventh day; sooner, if the weather be hot; and immediately, if they are very much broke.
Exarmodus’s little boy was affected pretty much in this manner, and had a pain of his thigh, but not opposite to the wound. His voice was also shrill, and his neck painful.
Posidocreon was convulsed the third day, continually hot, and died the eighteenth.
Isagoras’s son, who was wounded in the back part of his head, recovered the fifth, though the bone was shivered and turned black, but did not separate.
The master of a great ship had the forefinger and the lower bone of his right hand broke to pieces. An inflammation came on, a mortification, and a fever. The fifth day he was purged moderately; the heat and pain abated; and part of the finger fell off. After the seventh, a little gleet came away; and after this he said he could not pronounce his words plain. A prediction was made, that that kind of convulsion which draws one backward would happen; to which contributed the jaws being set, and drawn down to the neck. The third day the above-mentioned convulsion seized him all over, and he sweated. The sixth day after the prediction he died.
Telephanes’s son, by Harpalus’ freed woman, received a wound or bruise of his great toe. An inflammation came on, with a vast deal of pain. Upon its abating he went into the field, and, as he was going, a pain took him in his loins, for which he used bathing. At night his jaws were set, and the convulsion that draws one backward seized him. What he spit was frothy, and came from him through his teeth with difficulty. The third day he died.
Zeno, the son of Damon, had an ulcer about the bone of the leg or the ankle by the tendon, that was now grown clean. Upon the application of a corroding medicine he fell into convulsions of the opisthotonic kind, and died.
Menon, who was but in a weak condition (about the rising of Arcturus and before) from a fever in the summer and a looseness, upon being fatigued with a journey was taken with a pain of his left side; and the cough, that he had had before from a catarrh, was now become vehement. He could get no sleep, and bore his fever from the very first with great uneasiness. The third day he sat down, and spit pale matter with a gentle wheezing and rattling in his windpipe. About the fifth day his breathing was commonly thick; his feet, shins, and extremities for the most part cold and uncovered. A bilious looseness came on from the first, and was moderate enough. The seventh, eighth, and ninth he seemed to bear his illness easier, got some sleep, and what he hawked up was more digested. The tenth, and even to the fourteenth, it was very white and clear. The right hypochondre was softer, and made the breathing easier; but the left was distended. However, upon using a suppository, a moderate discharge followed. The thirteenth, the spitting was pale again, and more so the fourteenth. The fifteenth, it was of a leek-colour; and a fetid, bilious, liquid stool followed frequently. The left hypochondre was swelled. The sixteenth, the swelling was very great; he rattled in his breathing; sweated about the forehead and neck, seldom about the breast. The extremities, and the forehead, were generally cold; the vessels in the temples kept beating; his sleeps were comatose day and night towards the conclusion; and his urine crude from the first, and of the colour of ashes. About the tenth, and to the thirteenth, it was thin, and not coloured at all; but from the thirteenth, just as at the beginning.
Cleochus had a pain of his side and a fever. The fever afterwards remitted, a sweat came on all over, a great deal went off by urine; after which it grew very turbid.
About the setting of the Pleiades, Olympiades’s wife, who was eight months gone with child, was taken with an acute fever upon a fall. Her tongue was dry, reddish, and of a pale yellow, as in a burning fever. Her eyes were of a pale yellow, and the colour deadish. The fifth day she miscarried without any difficulty, and her sleep seemed to be of the comatose kind. In the evening, when they took her up, she was not sensible, but recovered her hearing a little by the help of a sternutatory. She also drank some ptisan, and coughed a little in the drinking, but did not recover her voice by it, or bring any thing up. Her eyes looked dejected; her breath was fetched with much heaving, and drawn through her nose; her colour was bad; and a little before she died, a sweat appeared upon her feet and legs.
Nicolaus’s wife had large swellings behind both her ears from a burning fever; one of which a short time after (the fever now seeming to abate upon the swelling’s appearing) subsided about the fourteenth day, without any signs of solution; and so the fever returned again. The colour was deadish; the tongue rough, very thick, whitish, and dry; the discharge downwards much, liquid, and fetid all the time; and, before she died, (which happened about the twentieth) her body was consumed by the quantity.
Before the setting of the Pleiades, Andreas was taken with a chilliness, a fever, and vomiting. It appeared to be a semitertian from the first. The third day, while he was attending the forum again, he grew chilly and feverish; vomited pure bile; was lightheaded, and at night easier again. The fifth, was very much out of order. The sixth, had some good stools from an infusion of mercury. The seventh was worse, and after this the fever was more continual. He had no sweats from the beginning, and was thirsty. His mouth in particular was dried up a little, and he could drink nothing with pleasure, there was so much disagreeableness about his mouth. His tongue was dry, inarticulate, rough, and of a pale white colour. He was also watchful, sick at his stomach, relaxed all over, and as it were broke to pieces. His tongue was sometimes so dry that he could not speak, without stammering, till he had washed his mouth. What he lived most upon was ptisan. The ninth or tenth day, the little swellings that were behind his ears disappeared without any sign. The urine all along had a colour, but no sediment. The fourteenth, he sweated upwards, not much indeed, but moderately. The seventeenth, the heat went off. After the tenth, his body was so bound as to discharge nothing without suppositories. About the twenty-fifth, small pustules that itched a little, and were hot, as if burnt with fire, broke out. A pain was also felt about the armpits and the sides, which afterwards removed to the legs, without any signs that were critical, and there ceased. Bathing was of service, and anointing with the ointment made with vinegar. Two, or perhaps three, months after, the pain that he had complained of at times fixed upon his kidneys.
Aristocrates was taken, about the winter solstice, with a lassitude, a chilliness, and heat. The third day a pain of his side and loins came on, together with a hard swelling, that, arising from the armpit, reached all over the right side, and was red the whole way at first, but afterwards livid, as if heated and burnt with fire. He was also sick at his stomach; bore his illness badly; was very thirsty; had a whitish tongue; made no water; and was coldish in his feet. After an infusion of mercury he had a small, liquid, whitish, frothy discharge downwards. At night he heaved very much in his breathing; sweated a little about the forehead, was cold in his extreme parts; sick at his stomach and restless; bloated in his neck, but without a cough; and died very sensible.
Onesianax had an inflammation of his eyes about the autumn, and afterwards a quartan; in the beginning of which he was very averse to food, but in the progress of it very well pleased with it. Polychares was also affected in a quartan after the same manner as to eating; but Onesianax had a looseness before and for a long time after his fever, attended with a discharge of much white mucous matter; sometimes a little blood came away, without either trouble or pain; and, besides these, he had a rumbling noise in his belly. After the fever a hard tumour was formed about the anus, which remained undigested a long time, but at last broke into the gut, and became fistulous outwardly. As he was walking in the forum, flashes appeared before his eyes, that hindered him from seeing the sun very well. Upon quitting his place he was a little lightheaded and convulsed in his neck; and, when he was brought home, he scarce saw any thing, and was hardly himself. First of all he looked about upon those that stood around him; and his body was so cold that it could scarce be warmed by the application of warm things, and fomentations applied under him. When he came to himself, and got up, he was not for going out, but said he was afraid; and, if any body spoke of dangerous diseases, he withdrew himself for fear. Sometimes he said he was hot in his hypochondres, and the flashing of his eyes followed upon it. His evacuations downwards were copious, frequent, and like what he had had in the winter. He was blooded, took hellebore, drank cow’s milk, and before that, ass’s, which agreed well with him, and stopped his looseness. He likewise drank water from the beginning, walked about, and was purged in his head.
Anechetus’s son was thus affected in the winter. Upon being anointed by the fire after bathing he grew hot, and immediately fell into convulsions like epileptic fits; and, when many of these had attacked him, he looked about, and was not quite in his senses. After coming to himself he was convulsed again the next morning, but did not foam much. The third day he could not speak distinctly. The fourth, made signs with his tongue. The fifth, could not speak at all, but was stopped at the beginning of the words; and the very same day his tongue was very much affected; a convulsion came on, and he grew lightheaded again. Upon a remission of these, his tongue recovered, with difficulty, its former state. The sixth, he abstained from every thing, not excepting his soups and drink, and took nothing more.
Cleochus, after weariness and exercise, was seized with a swelling in his right knee upon the use of honey for some days, especially towards the lower part about the tendons that are under the knee. He went about, however, though a little lame. The calf of the leg swelled, and was hard even to the foot and the right ankle. His gums about his teeth were large, like grape-stones, livid, black, and without pain, when he did not eat. His legs were free from pain too, but when he got up: for the swelling came upon the left side, and was not so livid. In the swellings that were about the knees and feet, something like pus seemed to be contained; and at last he could neither stand nor go upon his heels, but was forced to keep his bed. Sometimes he was manifestly hot; loathed his victuals; and yet was not very thirsty, nor got up to his seat. A sickness and uneasiness attended him, and sometimes he was pusillanimous. Hellebore was prescribed him, and his head was purged. His mouth was also relieved with the medicine made of the chips of frankincense, mixed with other things. Lentil broth was also of service to the ulcers in his mouth. The sixtieth, the swellings subsided upon the second dose of hellebore, and only a pain affected the knees as he was laid. A humour mixed with bile fell upon his knees, and that many days before he took the hellebore.
Pisistratus had a pain and weight in his shoulder a long time, while he was walking about, and in other respects well. But in the winter a great pain of the side attacked him with heat, a cough, and a hawking up of frothy blood, which brought on a rattling in the throat. He bore all this well, and was perfectly in his senses. The heat, the hawking, and the rattling abated; and about the fourth or fifth day he got well.
Simus’s wife, who was shook in her delivery, had a pain about her breast and side, accompanied with a cough, a fever, purulent hawkings, and a consumption. The fever lasted six months, with a continual looseness. At last the fever stopped, and after that the looseness; but in seven days’ time she died.
Euxenus’s wife, too, seemed to derive her illness from fomenting. The heat never left her, but was rather greater towards the evening, and she sweated all over. When the fever was about to increase, her feet, and sometimes her legs and knees, were cold; a little dry cough came on, when the fever began to grow worse, and then ceased; but a rigor all over continued a long time; and she was all along free from thirst. Upon taking a purge, and whey afterwards, she grew rather worse. From the beginning she was entirely free from pain, and breathed well; but about the middle of the time a pain took her in her right side, attended with a cough, an asthma, and a hawking up of little, white, thinnish matter. The chilliness was no longer from the feet, but from the neck and back; the belly was more liquid; the fever abated with a great sweat; and the coldness returned again. Her asthma had great variety, and she died in her senses the seventh day after the remission.
Polemarchus’s wife began to be feverish in the summer, but it left her the sixth day. After this she crept about, was hot at night, and, after another intermission, the fever seized her again, and held her near three months, with a violent cough, and a hawking of phlegm. From the twentieth day her breathing was always quick; noises were heard in the breast; and a sweat was commonly upon her. In a morning the fever was milder; a chilliness sometimes came on; and sleep ensued. She was also sometimes loose in her body, sometimes bound; and tasted her victuals tolerably. About the middle of the time a pain took her in her knees and legs, so that she could neither bend nor stretch them out without assistance; and this complaint of the legs continued to the last. As she drew near her end, her feet swelled up to the legs, and upon being touched were painful. The sweats and the shivering went off, and the fever was always increasing. Before she died, a looseness came on, but her senses still continued. Three days before she went off, a rattling in the throat came on, and upon the return of it she expired.
Hegesipolis’s little boy had a gnawing pain about his navel near four months, which in time increased. He beat and twitched his belly; was troubled with heats; and wasted away, except in his bones. His feet and testicles swelled. That part of his belly was puffed up, as when a disturbance or looseness of the belly is coming on. He was also averse to food, and lived upon nothing but milk. As he drew near his end a looseness came on, with a discharge of bloody, fetid sanies; the belly was exceeding hot with it, and he died vomiting a little phlegmy substance, that one would have almost taken for seed.
Plateas’s boy had the suture of his head very much hollowed in his last moments, and in time of health was always beating the forepart of his head with his hand, but especially as he drew near his end, and yet the head was not in pain. In the left thigh the parts below the groin were livid (perhaps the day before), and his testicles were grown slender.
Hegetoridas’s son was affected in the same manner, and died; but with this difference, that he had more vomitings towards the conclusion.
Hippias’s sister, who was ill of a phrensy in the winter, tore herself the fifth day (not knowing what she did), as she was doing something with her hands. The sixth, at night she lost her speech, was comatose, bloated in her cheeks and lips as a person in his sleep, and died the seventh.
Asandrus was chilly, had a pain of his side, and in his knees and thigh; after eating grew delirious, and in a short time died.
Cleotimus, the cobbler, after a long illness, and a feverish disorder, had a rising like a tubercle about the liver, which fell upon the intestines, and occasioned a looseness. Another such tubercle came about the liver above, near the hypochondre, and he died.
Some were troubled with a violent pain of their head, and heat at the same time. Now where it affects half the head, and something of a thin or digested humour discharges itself downwards by the nose, or ears, or throat, there is the greatest security; but where these parts are dry, and the corruption of the brain very great, there danger is to be feared. If, besides all this, there is a ruffling, or bilious vomiting, a stupidness of the eyes, a loss of speech, or but a word now and then, or any delirium, death and convulsions are then to be feared. Again, where a pain seizes half the head from a catarrh, and, the humour discharging itself by the nose, a gentle fever succeeds, in five or six days they grow cold again.
Echecrates, the blind man, had a violent pain of his head (rather behind, where the neck and head join), which proceeded to the crown, and in time to the left ear, affecting half his head very much. A mucous matter came away constantly, but commonly burnt a little; a little heat followed it, with a loathing of his food. In the day he was easy, but in the night in pain; and, when the pus made its way out at the ear, every thing ceased. This eruption happened about winter.
Query,—Whether, in all collections of matter, and in disorders of the eyes, the pains are at night?
Those who have coughs in the winter, and especially with the southerly winds, are subject to fevers during their hawking up much thick matter; but then they commonly cease in five days. But coughs will extend to forty, as in the case of Hegesipolis.
Those who have sometimes a cessation of great heats, are cured of them by sweating, not indeed all over the body, but either about the neck, the armpits, or the head.
Charites was taken in the winter with an acute fever upon a cough that was epidemical. He threw off the bed-clothes; was comatose, and uneasy; his urine was red, like the washing of vetches, with a large white sediment immediately from the first, and afterwards a reddish. The seventh, he had a little stool from a suppository. The coma continued, but without uneasiness. A dew appeared upon his forehead. He slept at night, and the heat was milder. The eighth, supped some ptisan, and remained comatose till the eleventh, the heat in a great measure then ceasing. Upon coughing he always hawked up a great deal with ease, first viscid, white, thick, and after that digested like pus. The urine after the eleventh was clearer, the sediment rough. The thirteenth, a pain on the right side to the flank and lower part of the belly. The urine stopped, but was relieved by an infusion or decoction of the Calliphyllum. The fifteenth, the pain returned again. The sixteenth, at night, the pain of the flank came more upon the belly, but was carried down by an infusion or decoction of mercury. The heat was spent within twenty days; but the hawking up of thick matter with ease continued forty.
The bellies of people should be gently purged in diseases, when the humours are digested; the lower, when you are satisfied that they are settled downwards: (this may be known by the patient’s not being sick at his stomach or uneasy, or heavy in his head) and when the heat is mildest, or when it ceases after the fits; the upper (or the stomach) in the fits themselves; for, when the upper parts are sick, or uneasy and heavy, the humours are then raised upwards spontaneously. For this reason no purge should be given at the beginning, because at such a time they are purged spontaneously, or delays are dangerous.
The great process of the elbow being wounded by a fall, a mortification came on, and upon that a suppuration. When the matter was digested, a thick glutinous sanies was pressed out, and soon stopped, as in the cases of Cleogeniscus and Demarchus, the son of Aglaoteles. So again from the very same causes no pus came out, as in the case of Æschylus’s son; but in most cases, where pus is gathering, a chilliness and fever attend.
Alcmanes, recovering from nephritic complaints, and being blooded downwards, the disease was translated to the liver. The heart was in such violent pain that the breath was suspended by it; the belly discharged with difficulty little pellets like goats’ dung; there was no sickness or anxiety at the stomach, but sometimes he shivered, and was a little feverish. He sweated, too, and vomited. While the pain was upon him, he received no benefit from a glyster of sea-water, but from a decoction of brans he did. He had an aversion to food seven days; drank a simple kind of mead, lentil broth, and thin panada, with water after it. He then drank water, and eat a little of a boiled puppy, with a small quantity of maize as old as possible. As the time advanced, his diet was neat’s feet, or pigs’ petty-toes boiled. The next day he drank water again, rested, and covered himself up. For the nephritic complaint a glyster of wild cucumber was given.
Parmeniscus’s boy was deaf, and received benefit from his ears being cleansed with wool, and then oil or netopum poured in, without any syringing. He was also ordered (and to advantage too) to walk, rise early, and drink white wine; to abstain from herbs, and to live upon bread and rock-fish.
Aspasius’s wife had a violent pain of the tooth, with a swelling of her jaws. Upon washing with castor and pepper, and holding the same in her mouth, it abated. Her strangury complaints abated too. The flour or meal that is mixed with ointment of roses is also healing.
Headaches from the womb are taken off by castor.
The greatest part of hysterics are caused by winds, as is plain from belchings, noises about the belly, swelling of the loins, and pains about the kidneys and hips. Black wine that has been kept so long under ground as to have nothing of the must left; or one third spices, and two of flour, boiled in sweet-scented white wine, and poured upon a cloth, apply, when it is daubed with the ointment, as a cataplasm, where the hysteric pains affect the belly.
Callimedon’s son, who had a hard, large, crude, painful tubercle in his neck, was relieved by bleeding in the arm, and a cataplasm of torrefied linseed moistened with oil and white wine, not hot, nor much boiled, or else boiled in mead with the flour of fænugreek, or barley, or wheat.
Melisander was relieved by bleeding in the arm, in a great swelling of the gums, attended with much pain. Egyptian alum at the beginning is also of service as a represser.
Eutychides was seized at last with cramps in his legs, and a purging, from a cholera morbus. He vomited a great deal of bile of a deep colour, and very red, for three days and nights; drank something upon his vomiting; was mighty restless, and sick at his stomach; nor could he contain any thing that he either drank or eat. His evacuations by urine and stool were much suppressed; soft fæces came up with the vomitings, and also made their way downwards.
The Cholera Morbus, “witness the case of Bias, the champion, who was naturally voracious,” proceeds from eating of flesh, especially swine’s, with the blood in it; vetches; drinking to excess of old sweet-scented wine; insolation, or being exposed to the sun; from cuttle-fish, lobsters or cray-fish, and crabs; and from eating of herbs, especially leeks and onions. It also comes from boiled lettuce, cabbage, and the cruder docks; from desserts, sweetmeats, summer fruits, as apples, and ripe cucumbers; from milk and wine mixed; from tares, and new barley meal.
The summer is most productive of choleras, and intermitting fevers, and such as are attended with chillinesses. These are sometimes of a bad sort, and pass into acute diseases; but care must be taken. The fifth, the seventh, and the ninth days are the principal indicants in these diseases; but it is better to be upon our guard to the fourteenth.
Calligenes, when he was about twenty-five, had a catarrh and a great cough, attended with much difficulty in bringing the matter up, but without any discharge downwards. This continued for four years, with gentle heats at the beginning. Hellebore was of no service at all, but a spare diet was, in conjunction with exercises of several kinds, eating of bread, drinking of black wine, eating with bread whatever he would, whether flesh or fish; and abstaining from every thing sharp, salt, or fat; the juice of silphium, and crude herbs; and with walking much. Drinking of milk was of no service, but drinking something more than three spoonfuls of sesamum with soft wine was.
Timocharis, in the winter, had a defluxion upon his nose, that was stopped entirely by venereal recreations. A lassitude and heat came on, with a heaviness in the head, and a great sweat, first about the head, and then all over. Sweats were familiar to him in time of health. The third day he recovered.
Cleomenes’s boy began, in the winter, to loathe his food; fell away upon it, but had no fever; vomited his victuals and phlegm; and seemed thus disgusted two months.
The cook, that had the bunch upon his backbone after a phrensy, received no benefit from any kind of purging potions; but black wine, eating of bread, abstinence from bathing, anointing the part, and gentle friction after unction, with warming the part gently, and not by much fomenting, were of service to him.
Tesimus’s daughter, upon drinking something for that purpose of her own head, miscarried of a fœtus thirty days old. Pain followed upon it; and, whenever she drank, she vomited much bilious, pale, leeky, black stuff. The third day was convulsed, and bit her tongue. The fourth I came to her, and found her tongue black and large; the whites of her eyes red. She got no sleep, and died the same day at night.
The girl that fell from the precipice lost her speech, was exceedingly restless, vomited at night, bled a great deal from the left ear that she fell upon, drank mead with difficulty, rattled in her throat and breathed quick like a dying person. The veins about her face were distended; her position was supine, her feet warm, her fever not much, but yet sometimes acute, with great stupidness in her understanding. The seventh, she recovered her speech; the heats were milder; and she got over it.
Onisantides was relieved, in a pain of his arm in the summer time from an abscess, by bathing or moistening his body and his arm for a long time in the sea. For three days together he drank a white watery wine lying in the sea, and made water there before he came out of it.
The fuller in Syrus, who was ill of a phrensy, and had a trembling in his legs after burning, was marked upon the skin like the bites of gnats. His eye was large, and the motion quick. His voice broken or interrupted, but yet distinct or intelligible. His urine clear, without a sediment. Query—Whether from his purging with thapsia? The eighteenth it remitted, and went off without a sweat.
Nicoxenus, in Olynthus, seemed to have the like remission the seventh day with a sweat. He afterwards took soups, wine, and grapes dried in the sun. The seventeenth day I came to him, and found his tongue burnt up, with a heat upon him, but not very vehement outwardly; his body was terribly loose and flabby; his voice so broke that it was a trouble to hear him, though it was at the same time distinct; his temples fallen; his eyes hollow; his feet soft and warm; and a distension about his spleen. He could not keep the glyster, but returned it. At night a stool came away a little solid, and a small quantity of blood; I suppose from the glyster. The urine was clear and bright; his position in bed supine; his legs parted as through excessive weariness; but he could get no sleep all the time. The heat went off within twenty days. His drink was bran-water, with the juice of apples and pomegranates, the juice of torrefied lentils cold, and the washings of meal boiled into a thin soup. He got over it.
The fullers had large and hard swellings of the glands, without pain, about the pubes, and the like about the neck. A fever attended at first for ten days, and a cough succeeded upon their breaking. The third or the fourth month the belly wasted; heats came on; the tongue was dry and thirsty; the evacuations downwards difficult; and death put an end to all.
Pherecydas, after the winter solstice, lost a pain of his right side at night that he had been used to before. He got his dinner, went out, was chilly, and at night feverish, but without pain. A dry cough came on. A great deal of urine, with much sediment, that appeared from the first like shavings, smooth, and dispersed, but after four days was turbid. The urine was not without colour, and had a sediment, but no collection appeared in the chamber-pot, when it was cold. The third day, a natural stool. The fourth, by the help of a suppository, stercoraceous and bilious stools, with a great flux of humours. He slept a little in the night, and a little more in the day; and was not very thirsty. The same day, especially at night, the skin about his forehead and other parts was continually soft. The fever seemed to the touch to be brought under, and a dewy moisture broke out. The pulsation of the vessels in the forehead (or temples) was very obscure. Whenever he turned, or went to stool, a heaviness came upon him for a little while, but he was free from pain all along from the first, and after being sick at his stomach a little while vomited. The seventh, by means of a suppository had three stools, bilious, stercoraceous, very liquid, and pale; rambled a little; and soon had a dew upon his forehead again. He covered his face with the clothes, looked about again to no purpose, as if he saw something; winked again, and threw his clothes off. The ninth, a sweat began in the morning about his breast, and continued till he died. The fever raged; the delirium continued; he sweated much about his forehead, but with a terrible or whitish appearance; the skin under his hair was marked; his right hypochondre tumefied; and his discharges downwards bilious. The eighth, he was marked, as if bit by gnats. Before he died, he coughed up things like mushrooms, made of slime and surrounded with white phlegm; a little before which he hawked up white, milky, concretions.
A certain person was taken with a chilliness in his sleep after supper. The next morning he got up, and complained of a heaviness in his head, was chilly, vomited, and had the same heaviness still. At night it abated, and remained so till about the middle of next day. Then he grew chilly again, and passed the night but badly. The next day he was very feverish, had a stupidness in his head, vomited much bile, the greatest part of it porraceous; was better in all respects after it; slept at night; was cold all over next morning; sweated a little, and had a dew upon the greatest part of his body. His spleen (for he pointed to the place with his hand) had a collection of something without pain, that went off again presently. At night he got no sleep. About the hour of the assembly’s meeting, the fever was exasperated; a sickness at the stomach came on; a dizziness; a pain of the intestines and head; and a vomiting of porraceous, smooth, viscid matter like phlegm. About sunset every thing ceased. He sweated about the head and neck; and after vomiting had a stercoraceous, liquid, bilious discharge, neither black, nor convenient. The night and next day were tolerable. At night again he got no sleep; vomited in the morning as before, and also the next day, without any sickness. The pain of the head went off after sweating. In the evening every thing abated. The ninth, no vomiting, but he was rather hot. In other respects he seemed to have no fever, but yet had a pulsation in the temples. No pain any where, but a continual thirst. The same day, as he got up upon the stool, he fainted very much; by means of a suppository he voided black bilious shavings, and what dropped away was of a stercoraceous colour. The voice was broke; a heaviness attended turning; the eyes were hollow; the skin of the forehead stretched. As to the rest, he breathed well, and was composed; generally turned to the wall; and was moist, curved, and at rest in his bed. His tongue was also smooth and white. About the tenth day and after, the urine looked red about the edges, and a little white in the middle. The twelfth, the same bilious and abraded droppings from the suppository, and afterwards faintings. After that the mouth was dried, and always washed; and, if the water was not very cold, like snow itself, he would say it was warm. There was no thirst complained of. He always put the clothes off from his breast, nor would he suffer his gown to be warmed. The fire was at a distance, and but little. Both his cheeks were red. After this his speech was inarticulate, and he grew hot again a day or two, and then it terminated.
Androthales lost his speech, was ignorant of what passed, and withal delirious. But, these going off, he went about many years, and then relapsed. His tongue remained all the time so dry, that, unless he washed his mouth, he could not speak. There was also a great bitterness for the most part. The mouth of the stomach was sometimes in pain, but this was taken off by bleeding. Drinking of water and mead was of service to him. He also drank black hellebore, but nothing bilious passed off, or but very little. At last, being taken ill in the winter, a lightheadedness came on; the tongue was affected in the same manner as it had been; the heat was small, and without pain; the colour of the tongue nothing at all; and the voice, as in a peripneumony. He threw the clothes off of his breast, and ordered them to carry him out, as though he wanted to make water, not being able to speak any thing plain, nor to keep his senses. He was accordingly led out, and died at night, after having lain two or three days.
Nicanor’s disorder was of such a kind, that, when he was obliged to go to a drinking-bout, he was always afraid of a flute; and, when the piper began to play, the music immediately threw him into such a great fright, that he was not able to bear the disorder of it, if it was night; but if he heard it in the day, it gave him no uneasiness at all. This continued with him a long time.
Timocles, who was with him, seemed to be dim-sighted, and of a broken texture of body; and said he could not pass by a precipice, or over a bridge, or cross a ditch, though never so shallow, and that through fear of falling; but at the same time could go through that very ditch. This lasted some time too.
Phænix’s complaint was of such a nature, that flashes like lightning seemed to dart from his eye, and generally his right eye. Not long after, a violent pain seized his right temple, and then his whole head and neck. The back part of his head at the vertebræ swelled; and the tendons were upon the stretch and hard. Now if he attempted to move his head, or to open his teeth, a pain seized him from the violence of the stretch. Vomitings, whenever they happened, removed the pains now mentioned, or made them easier. Bleeding was also of service; and hellebore draughts brought away all sorts of humours, especially porraceous.
Parmeniscus, who was formerly in a despairing way, and desirous of death, would sometimes be in his right senses, and well disposed. In Olynthus, he was taken one autumn with a loss of speech, but lay quiet, attempting to speak as little as possible; and, when he did speak any thing, he lost his speech again. Sometimes he slept, sometimes kept awake; tossed about without saying a word; was under great anxiety, and clapped his hand to his hypochondre, as if he was in pain there. Sometimes he turned away his face, and lay quiet; was feverish continually, but breathed well. At last he said he knew those that came in. Sometimes he would not drink for a whole day and night, though it was offered him; at another time he would snatch up the pitcher, and drink all the water. His urine was thick like that of beasts of burden. About the fourteenth it abated.
Conon’s maid-servant, from a pain that began in her head, grew lightheaded, bawled and lamented mightily, and was seldom quiet. About the fortieth day she died, but lost her speech, and was convulsed, ten days before she died.
Timochares’s servant died in the same manner, and about the same time, affected (to appearance) with the same melancholy disorders.
Nicolaus’s son was taken about the winter solstice with a chilliness after a drinking-bout, and was feverish at night. The next day he vomited a little pure bile. The third, while the assembly was full, sweated all over; lost his fever, but soon grew hot again. About the middle of the night shivered, was very feverish, and the next day shivered again at the same hour, but soon grew hot again, and vomited as before. The fourth, from an infusion of mercury had a very good stercoraceous liquid stool, but somewhat fetid. The urine was of the colour of ashes, not unlike the mercury infusion, but without any sediment; nor was there much urine, and but little cloud. The left flank and loins were in pain. He thought to fetch his breath well after vomiting, but fetched it sometimes double. His tongue was white, and had a small concretion sprouting out like a lupine, on the right side. He was withal a little thirsty, watchful, and lightheaded. The sixth, his right eye seemed larger than ordinary. The seventh, he died; but before his death his belly swelled, and his back parts were red after death.
Meton, after the setting of the Pleiades, had a fever, and a pain of the left side to the collar-bone, so acute that he could not possibly rest. The inflammation continued, and his stools were many and bilious. In about three days the pain went off, and the heat about the seventh or ninth. A cough attended, but what he hawked up was neither somewhat bilious, nor large in quantity, but a coughing up of phlegm succeeded. He tasted what he eat, and sometimes went out as if he was well; but was sometimes taken with little heats, that lasted not long. Gentle sweats came on at night. His breath, while the heat was upon him, was thicker; his cheek red; and about his side, under his armpits, and even to his shoulder, he felt a weight. The cough continued; and the medicine he took brought away bilious stuff upwards. The third day after the physic, pus broke out, forty days from the first of his illness. About five-and-thirty days after, he was purged again, and grew well.
Theotimus’s wife, in a semitertian, was sick at her stomach, vomited, was chilly at the beginning, and dry. As it advanced, the heat was very great at the beginning of a fit; but upon drinking mead, and returning it again, the chilliness and the sickness went off; after which she drank the juice of quinces.
Diopethes’s sister, in a semitertian, had a violent pain at the mouth of her stomach, when the fit came on, and it lasted the whole day. Other women had nearly the same complaint; but, about the setting of the Pleiades, men were more rarely affected in this manner.
Apomotus’s wife, about the time of Arcturus, had a violent pain at the mouth of her stomach upon a fit, in a semitertian, coming on. She vomited too, and had hysterical chokings at the same time, besides pains in the back near the spine. These, when they got there, put an end to her stomach-pains.
Terpidas’s mother, who came from Doriscus, after miscarrying of twins by a fall in the fifth month (one coming away immediately, enclosed in a certain membrane, and the other in about forty days), conceived again. But in the ninth year she complained of violent pains in the stomach a long time, beginning sometimes from the neck and spine, and ending in the lower part of the stomach and groins; at other times from the right knee, and ending in the same place. When the pains were about the stomach, the belly was swelled; and when it went off, the heartburn came on, without any stranglings indeed, but the body was as cold as if it laid in water. At the time the pain was upon her, the other pains returned all over, but with more mildness than at first. Garlic, silphium, and all acrid things signified nothing; nor sweet, nor acid things, nor white wines, but black wines, and bathing now and then were of service. Terrible vomitings came on from the beginning, and no food could be taken; nor did her menses come down with the pains.
Cleomenes’s wife, about the time of the west wind’s blowing, was taken, after a sickness at her stomach and a weariness, with a pain of her left side, that began from the neck and shoulder. She grew feverish, was chilly, and sweated. After the fever began, it abated not, but increased. The pain was vehement; a cough came on, and what she brought up was a little bloody, pale, and in great quantity. Her tongue was white; her stools moderate and liquid; her urine bilious. The fourth at night her menses came down plentifully. The cough, and the hawking, abated. The pain abated also, and the heat was very moderate.
Epicharmus’s wife, before she was brought to bed, had a dysentery with a great deal of pain, and stools that were somewhat bloody and slimy. Upon her delivery she grew well immediately.
Polemarchus’s wife, who had been troubled with pains in her joints, was taken on a sudden with a violent pain in her hip from her menses not flowing. Upon drinking an infusion of bete, she lost her voice a whole night, and to the middle of the next day. However, her hearing and her understanding were good, and she made signs with her hand that the pain was in her hip.
Licinius’s sister, who was a little past her bloom, vomited whatever she took for fourteen days, without a fever; brought away blood in her vomitings; and complained of belchings. A contraction and strangling was also about the heart. Upon taking castor, seseli, and the juice of pomegranate, all was stopped; but a moderate pain went off to the flank. The juice of a bulb, austere wine milkwarm, and loaves as small as possible dipped in oil, were made use of.
Pausanias’s daughter, upon eating a raw mushroom, was taken with a sickness at her stomach, a strangling, and a pain of her belly. Drinking warm mead, and vomiting, were of service to her, and so was warm bathing: for in the bath she brought up the mushroom; and, when every thing was going off, she fell into a sweat.
Epicharmus, about the setting of the Pleiades, was taken with a pain of his shoulder, and a very great weight upon the arm. He was also sick at his stomach, vomited frequently, and drank water.
Euphranor’s son had eruptions like the bites of gnats for a little while, and the next day he grew feverish.
After the west wind, great droughts set in to the autumnal equinox. In the dog-days were excessive heats, hot winds, sweating fevers, that immediately grew hot again. Tubercles behind the ears appeared in many; particularly in the old woman with the cough, about the ninth day; in the young man whose spleen was out of order (the maid-servant’s son) with a purging at the same time; in Ctesiphon, about Arcturus, and pretty near the seventh day; in the boy (the only case that came to suppuration); in Eratolaus’s boy, where they went off again on both sides. No sweats followed; but a stuttering or lisping, from the dryness of the tongue. The Ornithiæ blew much and cold; snows fell sometimes after clear weather; and after the equinox came southerly winds mixed with northerly, and frequent showers. Many coughs went about epidemically, especially among children; and in many behind the ears were appearances as in the satyrs. Sometimes the winter, even before this part of it, was rough and turbulent, attended with snow and northerly showers.
Timonax’s little boy, about two months old, had small eruptions on his legs, hips, loins, and lower part of his belly. The swellings were very red, and upon their subsiding, or going in again, convulsions and epileptic fits attacked him, without a fever, for many days before his death.
Polemarchus’s son, who had been troubled with a collection of matter and hawking some time before, grew hot afterwards, and dropsical, attended with a swelling of the spleen, and an asthma. If he went at any time up of high ground, he grew faint and thirsty; and sometimes he had a little aversion to eating. A dry cough continued with him a long time. However he crept about, and, if he had no more than one stool a day, with ease, he seemed full, and his asthma and suffocation increased. At last a catarrh and hawking came upon him with a cough; and what he brought up was thick and pale, but purulent. The fever was smart, but seemed to go off; the cough was milder; and what he hawked up was clear. The fever returned again with vehemence; he breathed thick, and died, but shivered first in his feet, and afterwards grew cold. His breath was more intercepted; his urine stopped; his extremities cold; and he died sensible, three days after the return.
Thynus’s son was oppressed almost to death with hunger in a burning fever; had a great many stools, with bile, faintings, and much sweating; grew very cold, and lost his speech a whole day and night. The cream of barley, that was poured down, stayed with him. His understanding was clear, and his breath good.
Epicharmus’s son, from walking and drinking, fell into a crudity of digestion; and the next day, upon drinking water, vinegar, and salt, in the morning, vomited phlegm. After this he shivered, bathed with a fever upon him, and felt a pain in his breast. The third day, about daybreak, a coma seized him for a little while, and he became delirious, very feverish, and restless under his disorder. The fourth, he could get no sleep, and died.
Ariston’s toe was ulcerated. A fever came on, and he could speak distinctly. The mortification spread up to the knee, and killed him. The ulcer was black, dryish, and fetid.
He, that had the cancer in his throat burnt, was cured by us.
Polyphantus, in Abdera, had a pain of his head in a violent fever. His urine was thick and much, and the sediment thick and turbid. The pain of his head not ceasing, medicines were ordered the tenth day to sneeze with; after which a violent pain of his neck attacked him. The urine was red and turbid, like that of a beast of burden. He rambled like a man in a phrensy, and died in strong convulsions.
The domestic of Eualcides was affected in much the same manner. After the urine had come away thick a long time, and the head had been in pain, she became phrenitic, and died in strong convulsions as the former. For urine, that is very thick and turbid, is a certain sign of pain of the head, convulsions, and death.
The Halicarnassean, who lodged in Xantippus’s house, was troubled in the winter with a pain in his ear, and a violent one in his head. He was then about fifty. A vein was opened by Mnesimarchus, from which the head, being emptied and cooled, was injured; for no suppuration followed. A phrensy took him, and he died. His urine was also thick.
Metrodorus’s son, in Cardia, had a mortification of the jaw from a pain of the teeth, and a terrible excrescence of the gums. A moderate suppuration came on, and both the grinders and the jaw fell out.
Anaxenor, in Abdera, who was splenetic and ill-coloured, happened to have a swelling about the left thigh that disappeared on a sudden. Not many days after, that which they call epinyctis (from its beginning in the night) appeared upon the spleen, attended with a hard, red swelling. Four days after this a burning fever came on, and the parts all round looked livid and putrefied. Death ensued, but he was purged a little before that, and came to himself.
Clonigus, in Abdera, who had nephritic complaints about him, pissed blood by little and little, and generally with difficulty. A dysentery was added to his other misfortune. He was ordered to drink goat’s milk in a morning, with a fifth part water, so that the whole quantity should amount to a pint and half; to eat in an evening bread thoroughly baked, and with his bread beet or cucumber. His urine was black and thin. He also eat ripe cucumbers. By this diet his dysentery stopped, his urine came away clear, and he continued the milk till the urine was come to its proper state.
A woman, in Abdera, had a cancer upon her breast of such a nature, that a sanies somewhat bloody discharged itself through the nipple, which discharge, being stopped, killed her.
Dinius’s little boy, in Abdera, had a slight wound upon the navel, that ended in a fistula; through which a thick worm sometimes passed, and sometimes bilious matter, (as he himself said,) when he was feverish. The gut being near, fell upon the fistula, and was corroded as that was. Another rupture succeeded, and would let nothing stay.
Python’s son, in Pela, began to be very feverish immediately, and very heavy to sleep. His voice was lost, his sleeps came to him, and his belly was hard all the time. A suppository of gall being applied, a great discharge followed, and immediately upon that a remission. But the belly was soon swelled again, the fever raged, and the same heaviness to sleep came on. While he was in this condition, he took a little of those medicines that are made with wild saffron, wild cucumber, and meconium; upon which he fell into a bilious purging, and immediately the stupidness went off, the fever grew mild, every thing was easier, and the crisis happened the fourteenth.
Eudemus had a violent pain in his spleen, and was ordered by his physicians not to eat much, to drink a little thin wine, to walk often, and to keep strictly to this method. He was also blooded; lived but sparingly in his eating and drinking; walked by degrees; drank black thin wine; and recovered.
Philistides, the wife of Heraclidas, was taken with an acute fever. Her face was red, without any evident occasion; and a little after, in the day, a shivering came on, and was succeeded, as she did not grow hot, by a convulsion in her fingers and toes; a little after which she grew hot. Her urine had something in it compact, cloudy, and as it were torn off. She slept at night. The second day shivered again; grew a little hotter in the day; the redness abated; the convulsions became more moderate; and the urine the same. She slept again at night, but laid awake a little, without any manner of uneasiness. The third, her urine was better coloured, and had a little sediment. The same hour she shivered again, grew very hot, sweated at night all over; but in the evening her colour was changed to a jaundice, and she slept the whole night. The fourth she bled very much from the left nostril, and her menses appeared a little in their natural course. But the same hour she grew very feverish again; her urine had the like compacted particles in it, and was in small quantity. Her belly, which was naturally bound, was now much more so, and nothing passed downwards without a suppository. She slept at night. The fifth the fever was milder; at night she sweated all over; her menses went on; and she slept in the night. The sixth, she made a great deal of water in a gushing manner, and with the same particles as before. It had also a little sediment of the same colour. About the middle of the day she shivered again, grew a little hot, and sweated all over. Her water was of a good colour, and she had a perfect crisis.
Tychon, at the siege of Datus, was wounded upon the breast by the engine they used to throw darts or stones with, and in a short time fell into a fit of tumultuous noisy laughter. The physician, who took out the woody part, seemed to me to leave the iron of the dart within, by the diaphragm. In the evening he had a glyster and a purge, being in pain. The first night was very troublesome to him; but in the morning early his physician and others thought him better; because he was quiet. A prediction was made, that a convulsion would come and carry him off. The next night he was very restless, got no sleep, and lay upon his belly for the most part. The third day betimes in the morning a convulsion came, and he died about the middle of the day.
The eunuch, that lived by Elealces’s spring, fell into a dropsy from hunting and running about. He had had for near six years the complaints that proceed from such riding, together with a swelling in his groin, a sciatica, and defluxions upon his joints.
A person in a dropsy should use exercise, sweat, eat hot bread dipped in oil, drink but little, bathe his head much with hot or rather warm water, drink white thin wine, and take but little sleep.
He who had the tabes dorsalis died the seventh.
In those who at first bring up undigested pus, salt things mixed with honey are good.
Venery is a cure for a long dysentery.
Leonidas’s daughter’s menses were coming down powerfully, but diverted another way. Bleeding at the nose ensued, and a great change. The physician did not perceive it, and the girl died.
Philotimus’s boy, a stripling about fifteen, came to me with the bone of his skull as incurable. The wound was above, upon the crown of his head, and he was cured by a discharge of pus from the ears.
Pythocles used to prescribe his patients water, and milk mixed with a great deal of water, by way of nourishment.
Kibes are to be cured by scarification, calefaction, and heating the feet as much as possible by fire and water.
Lentils, sweet apples, and herbs are bad for the eyes. But for pains about the loins, or hips, or legs, from hard working, bathing the part with salt water and vinegar, fomenting with sponges dipped in the same, and binding up with unwashed wool and lambskin, are good.
Drinking origanum is bad for inflamed eyes and the teeth.
THE BOOK OF APHORISMS.
This book of Aphorisms,a the most extensively known perhaps, and that which has probably been more frequently given to the world in an isolated form than any of the other writings that have reached us under the imposing title of Hippocrates, is divided under seven sections, by Fœsius, Haller, and others. C. J. Sprengel, in the English dress he has given to it, more than a century ago, (London, 1708,) has given it in eight sections, and has apparently added several aphorisms from other of the books that have heretofore been noticed. De Gorter has done the same, (Amsterdam, 1742,) and both accompanied with copious explanations and references. I have made a concise table of these different divisions, as in some respects they may be useful in reference.
At the beginning of the eighth section, Sprengel remarks, that “A great many have omitted this eighth section; some have only added six aphorisms of it to the foregoing; but others have added the whole section as we have done here. For there are several of them that ought not to be despised.”
De Gorter, at page 886, gives the residuary aphorisms (405 to 418) under the title of Aphorismi interjecti;—with some slight explanation, not very dissimilar from Sprengel, of the circumstances leading to the diversity of different editors.
“We might, (says Gardeil in concluding the book, and arranging the sections after Fœsius,) here remark, that in some editions, other aphorisms have been added that are not to be found in Fœsius; and we might augment the number of them, exclusively of those tracts that are written aphoristically, such as the Prognostics, Humours, Predictions, &c., by a variety of aphoristic sentences, especially from the books on Epidemics, and De Locis in Homine; but confining myself strictly to the Aphorisms really of Hippocrates. Those under the name of Coacæ, can scarcely be so regarded, although highly esteemed by ancient physicians, and which are truly a collection of Aphorisms, unaccompanied either by discussions or reasoning,—appearing to constitute a part of those writings that have been ascribed to Thessalus or Polybius,—or perhaps to some physicians of the celebrated school of Cos; though whether prior to, or after Hippocrates, is not fully settled.”
In what may be deemed a preface to this book, Gardeil says, “The Aphorisms of Hippocrates are to be esteemed as general maxims, which he attempted to constitute from his practice, in proportion as the observation of the progress and issue of diseases presented various results. Certainly he could not consider all his Aphorisms as rules with no exceptions; but merely as facts of sufficient extent to deserve to be collected together; and every man endowed with a portion of genius and sagacity, in any profession, will be led by many circumstances to act like him. We all can judge that such a collection could never end, for it would be unceasingly augmented and corrected to the close of life. All admit, that in publishing this work in advanced life, he thought that it needed to be reviewed and corrected;—and we find scattered throughout the writings that appear under his name, many of such medical sentences, that could without difficulty be transferred to the close of this one.”
Haller, in noticing this treatise, says, “That from time immemorial, it has been considered genuine, and as having been written by Hippocrates in advanced life and maturity of judgment. Yet it must be admitted by the lover of truth, that it was loosely performed, and handed to posterity; since many aphorisms are twice repeated, and some are contradictory to each other, (which are all casually noticed by Gardeil.) The best parts are those that refer to the symptoms and termination of acute diseases; the worst are the physiological; some being false, respecting the fœtus, the signs of conception and of fruitfulness, as likewise of abortion from venesection.” He here makes reference to the eighteen spurious aphorisms of some editions, and then indicates the character of those in each section.
The first and second sections consist chiefly of aphorisms that have reference to regimen and evacuations both in sickness and in health. The third, to the influence of different seasons, and the diseases incident to the various ages of life. The fourth, considers the subject of purgatives and the nature of the stools; though after the twenty-eighth, a variety of different ones are introduced, and from forty-one to sixty-seven, a succession of aphorisms in respect to fever; and on urines, from thence to the end of the section. The fifth, relates to the female sex, at least after the twenty-ninth aphorism to the sixty-third. The others are various, and appertain to convulsions, phthisis, heat, cold, &c. There is but little order in the distribution of the various aphorisms of the sixth and seventh books. They refer chiefly to the signs and presages of disease and health, &c., as deduced from different circumstances; and much is suspicious as to the authority from whence derived. Some are of trifling importance, others but repetitions or coincidences of some of the other sections, or even of the same one.
With this we terminate the seventh section, venturing the remark, that, although so often quoted and spoken of, as a whole, the Aphorisms, collectively taken, add nothing to the celebrity of Hippocrates.—Ed.
[a ]This Section consists of the seven books of Epidemics, and the Book of Aphorisms, and is entitled by Fœsius τα επιμιϰτα—hoc est, permixtam omnium medicinæ partium tractationem.
[a ]This leads Clifton in his preface, to complain of the miserable arrangement of the writings of Hippocrates, by which many books that should precede others, are made to follow them, whilst a knowledge of these last is essential to the comprehension of the others. Such he asserts is the case in the editions of Mercurialis and of Fœsius. Again, he affirms, “other parts have been divided to the ruin of the main design,” &c., and mentions the first and third books of Epidemics to have been thus “very injudiciously split into two,” &c., in all which remarks I think him correct; but having to select an arrangement from among the various editions, I fixed upon that of Fœsius, and that principally from his coming first into my possession.—Ed.
[a ]See his Connexion, vol. ii. p. 569, the ninth edition, in 1725, where are these express words, viz.: “Lucretius has also given us a poetical description of it (meaning the plague), and Hippocrates has written of it as a physician. For that great master of the art of physic lived in those times, and was at Athens all the while this distemper raged there.”
[a ]Analogous to what has been ascribed in later times to the use of ergoted rye.—Ed.
[a ]“This is the seventh section of the sixth book of Epidemics; a section entirely independent of the rest of the book, and of a piece, in some measure, with the observations we have been just now seeing. Whether he means fifteen or twenty days before or after the winter solstice, does not appear from the text.”—Clifton.
[a ]Sydus insigne visum est, quinto autem post sextoque die terræ motus extetit. Hal. ii. 255; Fœs., 1128.
[a ]“As to the great star that is said, in the fourth book of Epidemics, to have appeared about the winter solstice, attended with an earthquake, all the information I have been able to get (and for which I am very much obliged to that most ingenious and learned gentleman, Mr. Machin, Astronomy Professor at Gresham College, and Secretary to the Royal Society) amounts to this, viz., that there were two comets in the days of Hippocrates, and both of them attended with an earthquake. The first appeared about the time of the winter solstice, in the month Gamelion, in the second year of the 88th Olympiad, i. e. in the 427th year before Christ, the 5th year of the Peloponnesian war, and the 33d year of Hippocrates’s age (according to Soranus’s account of his birth); Eucleis (or Euclides, the son of Molon), the successor of Diotimus, being then Archon of Athens. See Arist. Meteorolog., cap. 6, lib. i. and Joh. Philopon. Meteorol. Arist., f. 96, p. 2, edit. Ven. 1551.
[a ]This refers to the sixth book, beginning with “Broad eruptions,” in the next page.—Ed.
[a ]An Attick cotyla is something more than our half-pint. See Arbuthnot’s Tables.
[a ]“Aphorismus.—αφορισμος, est oratio, quæ omnez rei proprietates brevissimis verbis circumscribit.”—Castelli Lexicon.