Front Page Titles (by Subject) OF FEMALE DISEASES. - The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen
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OF FEMALE DISEASES. - Hippocrates, The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen 
The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen. Epitomised from the Original Latin translations, by John Redman Coxe (Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1846).
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OF FEMALE DISEASES.
This book, says Haller, is the production of an unknown author, not of Hippocrates, although he transiently quotes from the treatise “De Natura Pueri,” in which this book is in like manner referred to. It contains an infinitely too great a farrago of remedies, and they of too compound a character. The very face of the book seems to stamp it as of a date less ancient. It is plentifully stocked with female diseases, even more so than any of later date. They are on the subject of suppressed, diminished, or vitiated catamenia; of moles, abortion, difficult parturition, suppressed lochia, inflammation of the womb, and barrenness. The most acrid remedies are usually prescribed, such as drastic purges, suppositories and pessaries; and numerous vegetable and fossil remedies mentioned in the other writings of Hippocrates, to which virtues are ascribed, often differing from those that are commonly attributed to them. He mentions the παρθενια, or matricaria. Some things are added, which appear to be of the same author, referring chiefly to the diseases of infants, and of the eyes, and enemata. This is one of the most extensive of the Hippocratic books. Haller divides it into four sections.
“The author of this book, (says Gardeil,) is certainly the same with that of the treatise we possess, under the title of ‘The Nature of the Child,’ to which it refers more than once. Besides other faults to be found herein, and which are similar in doctrine to those in the treatise ‘Of the Nature of Woman,’ we find here many tiresome repetitions and endless distinctions of the different diseased states of the uterus and its neck. This multiplication of diseases fundamentally the same, has led to the opinion that this work, as well as that On the Nature of Woman, were productions of the Gnidian school. I think, nevertheless, that we here find many very interesting passages; and that both this and the preceding treatise may be advantageously read, by noticing that the ancient physicians, in the cure of most of those diseases here referred to, depended on the use of external remedies, which are now no longer distinguished. I can, however, affirm, that I have seen effects from them that appeared almost miraculous.” He divides it under two hundred and three numbers, the outline of which is here given.
I. The author set soff with his opinion, that with respect to female diseases, if they have never been pregnant, the deranged state of menstruation is more common and more dangerous than when they have borne children. His reasons for this, if not satisfactory, are at least as much so as any of present notoriety. Here, he adds, that he had explained all this, in the treatise ‘De Natura Pueri,” (περι φυσις παιδιου). It consists chiefly in the general enlargement of the vessels of all the body, but especially of those of the uterus, during gestation, &c., which renders the menstrual discharge a more ready exit, after delivery, and which is not the case with those who have never borne children. The catamenia consequently are more readily intercepted. This is illustrated by some curious analogies,—and an explanation is given, why the same plenitude of the vessels is not found in the male sex, although a monthly purgation does not occur.
II. The author next proceeds to mention the inconveniences and diseases most common to females, who not being pregnant are deprived of menstruation, from the closure of the os uteri, or its being in any way displaced from its natural position, or from any displacement of the parts of generation; which state of things he attempts to elucidate. If after three months the menses appear, and thus relieve the plethora, the symptoms are mitigated; but if not, very soon ensue fever, shivering, lumbar pains, &c., all which augment, if they do not still appear, and especially at the period at which they might be expected; although, after that period, they (the symptoms) sometimes diminish. Other symptoms follow after the fourth month of non-appearance. If properly treated, health follows. If the menses still are absent, the evil augments, and after the sixth month the cure is very difficult. All the symptoms increase, and others supervene.
III. From these more general symptoms, the author passes to the different affections of the uterus, arising from defective menstruation. The elevation of the womb towards the stomach, and its agitation in the abdomen, is accompanied by numerous distressing symptoms, and death sometimes ensues. A suppression of even two months causes sometimes a determination to the lungs, and induces a fatal phthisis. Suppurations are sometimes the result of two or three months’ retention of the menses, which, if care be not taken, may terminate in ulceration of a bad character and of difficult removal, and discharging by the groin a fetid pus; death generally follows; at all events perpetual barrenness. Sometimes the catamenia flow by such an inguinal suppuration, but the danger is not diminished.
VI. Sometimes the menses are vicariously discharged by vomiting or stool; more commonly is this the case with virgins than with married women, as he had stated in the treatise “De Morbis Virginum.”
VII. Of the suppression of the menses in general and of its treatment, by vomiting and purging, and by remedies at intervals to evacuate the uterus. Should these not succeed, there may be reason to suspect pregnancy, from the symptoms if present, which are enumerated. The menses sometimes suddenly appear abundantly at the end of three months, in clots of black blood, resembling flesh; sometimes ulcers of the uterus ensue, requiring much attention. Other circumstances are mentioned also; should the menses be suspended for six months, the symptoms are in due degree; and if neglected to the eighth month, death is often the result. Sometimes the menses are for a long time pituitous, and small in amount; but if well attended to, the patient may recover perfect health. The diminution of the discharge is next considered, arising from a deflexion of the os uteri from its proper position, or from its bending on itself, preventing the full discharge; the symptoms are narrated, and its dangers stated; being less in those who have borne children.
X. Of menstruation, when too abundant or too frequent, and why? relaxation of uterus; too frequent coitus; high living;—the influence of these on the female. If disease attacks under these circumstances, it readily falls on the weakened part; the symptoms succeeding thereto, and ultimate danger.
XI. The menstrual blood is thicker, redder, and flows more copiously about the middle period of the discharge than either at its commencement or termination. Its amount in health, about twenty ounces in two or three days (duarum atticarum heminarum mensuram, Fœs.), the usual period; although great diversity exists in this respect, depending on the constitution of the individual. The blood which is discharged, is red like that of victims (ιερειȣ), and it coagulates promptly, if the woman is in health, &c.
XII. When sudden suffocations affect the female, which more especially occur from non-cohabitation, and at a more advanced age, (Qu. hysteric paroxysms?) from the uterine vessels being deficient in their contents; and after uncommon fatigue, the uterus being too dry, tends towards the liver, the consequences of which are detailed by the author.
XIII. When in a diseased state, the menses are of a bilious character; they have a black and shining appearance, in small amount, and coagulate freely; and are accompanied with an erratic fever, with chills, nausea, and heartburn.a These symptoms are readily removed by proper attention; otherwise they are much augmented, and others supervene, which are benefited by bilious vomiting or stool, or by the discharge of bilious catamenia, provided none of these are too abundant, which would be dangerous.
XV. If the menses are pituitous, they are of a whitish appearance, and exhibit a membranous or web-like character. This state of things is enlarged upon by the author, and their pernicious effects, if not attended to. The discharge is said to become at length of so acrid a nature as to act on the earth like vinegar.
XVI. The author here treats of the different causes of a defect of conception, and of the mode of distinguishing the species of vitiation of the menstrual discharge, some of which are very singular. He then mentions the mode of cure of pituitous menstruation, by which sterility is removed; viz., by means of general fumigations, frequent vomits, and other measures, such as pessaries, as preparatory to coition. A hollow leaden tube introduced into the os uteri, is a means recommended to convey the fumigation to the uterus, just anterior to receiving the embraces of her husband; and much detail is given of the subsequent attention of the female to insure success. The measures for a like intent, when sterility arises from a dryness of the womb, is next adverted to, such as emollient injections, both per anum et vaginam. In both the cases, coitus, pendente menstruatione is advised.
XIX. The author next considers sterility, as arising from debility of the female, either from deficient nutriment, or from an abuse of the numerous remedies and fumigations employed, or from a bad situation of the orifice or neck of the uterus, &c., all which are particularly treated of. In the case of the os uteri being strongly closed, bougies and leaden sounds are recommended to open it; and when the direction of the uterus is wrong, after redressing it by the finger, and using aromatic fumigations, it is to be maintained in its place by the bougies and sound above-mentioned. Pessaries of various kinds are recommended in those cases of inaptitude to conceive, which arise from the orifice of the uterus being very fat and thick. And the case of sterility arising from the semen remaining and putrefying in the uterus, with the means of obviating it, are then considered, together with the causes productive of this state. In this place, the author states conception to be more certain, when the semen of both the man and woman reach the womb at the same time, the non-occurrence of which he considers as a frequent cause of failure.
XXI. He here treats of non-conception, although still at a proper age and having previously borne children. The menses being suppressed, a pessary is ordered every three or four days, of alum in powder, mixed with ointment, which is incorporated with wool, and is to be retained for three days, when it is replaced by one of ox-gall and oil, on wool as above, and also retained for three days, previous to coition. Sometimes, when conception does not occur, although menstruation is regular, the author states it as arising from a membrane, whose extension from the uterus may be discovered by the finger; when a pessary of flores cupri (ανϑος χαλϰȣ) incorporated with honey, is ordered to be introduced as far as possible, or, if possible, to remove the whole by incision. He indicates certain cases of abortion, either from the inner coat of the uterus being too smooth, either naturally or from ulceration, causing the placenta to adhere less strongly. In this case an examination is recommended, which, he adds, should be done by a woman, as being more decent than by the physician. Other cases of abortion are also adverted to, from too much eating or drinking, &c.
XXV. The author now adverts to the diseases accompanying pregnancy and delivery: the sudden occurrence of menstruation at the period of two or three months, and recurring every month; its danger to the mother and child; and he adds, that in certain cases, much care and precaution are required to conduct pregnancy to a happy termination.
XXVI. The author, then, in reference to the fœtus, considers it as unquestionable, that it participates in the ill or good state of health of the mother, and that its constitution is in conformity thereto. The state also of the lochial discharges depends thereon, and are less abundant and unhealthy. When they are suppressed, he says death commonly ensues on the thirty-first day. When the breasts and belly of the pregnant female, about the seventh or eighth month, suddenly subside; the former shrinking and the milk not appearing, the embryo is either dead, or in a state of great debility. The appearance of the menses during pregnancy, is a source of apprehension of abortion; should they be abundant, and of an ill odour, the child is certainly sick. This is followed by observations on pituitous and aqueous lochia; the characteristic symptoms are detailed, and their results, together with the treatment; and further remarks are made respecting the hysteric paroxysms at times occurring during pregnancy.
XXXVI. At the time of parturition, and labour pains come on, continuing long, without delivery; this arises, we are told, from an unnatural position, in which the feet presentation is included, and its explanation is a most singular one. It is, says our author, as if an olive had fallen into a narrow-necked bottle, &c. The case is dangerous, and both mother and child have frequently lost their lives. In speaking of the various inconveniences of pregnancy, an explanation is attempted of the extraordinary diseased appetites that often occur in it, and of the frequent respiration, especially at the latter period of gestation; notice is taken of the ailments after delivery, as flatus (which is stated as filling the womb), lumbar pain, and oppression, &c. Some of the dangerous results of delivery are also mentioned, such as excessive flooding, injury done to the uterus, bladder, or rectum, so that the urine and fæces cannot be retained; and some trivial recommendations follow for the same, and also for aiding delivery. A reference is next made to tumours, during or after delivery, of the uterus or the pudenda, in which, says the author, we must not employ astringents, like many medical men, but rather use internal remedies, a host of which are mentioned. In excoriation of the pudenda, a very good ointment of well-triturated almonds and marrow is recommended.
XLVI. He goes on now to consider the discharges and results from delivery; the causes, symptoms, and treatment, under their total arrestation; or if too small, or too abundant in amount; and of their character and the danger respectively. Some of the symptoms enumerated seem to be in a degree allied to the milk-leg, and puerperal fever, arising from an insufficient lochial discharge. The treatment consists at first of light nutriment and of purgative drinks, under some circumstances of irritation; of chologogues if bile predominates, or phlegmagogues should pituita prevail. This is all well enough; but we are then told to fumigate the uterus with aromatics, and employ fomentations, and if the uterus continues hard, then to use, in addition, lotions, and introduce a sound (fistula plumbea) of lead, and afterwards a pessary of salt and myrrh with pitch, on wool, of the size of a gall-nut! to be left for twenty-four hours; after three days, other varieties of pessary are employed, of a powerful nature, such as grains of Gnidos and pepper of cucumis sylvestris, &c. A digression then follows as to cases of difficult menstruation, in which pessaries are abundantly used, and tarwater is to be largely drank. Ulceration and inflammation of the womb succeed, and their danger is pointed out; and if by the measures adopted, the lochia do not flow, death soon follows, unless bleeding is promptly recurred to. The treatment of suppressed lochia from a union of the parts by injury sustained in delivery, is next considered; and in a case which the author himself saw; by an appropriate attention, health was restored, and the woman subsequently bore children. Unless great care is bestowed, there is danger of the ulceration becoming cancerous.
LVII. A metastasis of the lochia to the head, the breast, and lungs is noticed, and its danger, should a diversion not take place, by a discharge from the mouth or nose;—a long duration of the disease sometimes produces delirium, passing even to mania. Some other cases are adverted to,—as vomiting of blood, &c., ascribed to a rupture of an hepatic vessel, and regarded as dangerous. Asses’ milk is ordered for five or seven days, succeeded by that of a black cow, and the interdiction of solid food for forty days.
LX. In case of losing the milk, in order to restore it, various measures are directed;—and the author proceeds to state the measures to be adopted for discharging the afterbirth, if retained; which, if successful, the woman is saved. It frequently putrefies and is discharged on the seventh or eighth day, or later; a variety of articles is enumerated to promote it,—and an attempt is made to explain the cause of its retention;—a slight notice is also given of the fœtus dying in utero, at an early period of gestation.
LXV. The repeated recurrence to circumstances already noticed, renders the whole of this treatise extremely tiresome, although something of interest is to be found in the mass of rubbish. Again, he refers to injury sustained in delivery, by the womb or its orifice; of its inflammation subsequently, and of afterpains; of pituita oppressing the uterus, and giving rise to fluor albus, and derangement of menstruation, sometimes recurring three times in a month. Under circumstances of excoriation of the parts, among other prescriptions, we find an ointment made with flores argenti [Qu.? αργυρεω ανϑος].
LXXII. When the cotyledons (ϰοτυληδονες, Hipp.; acetabula uteri, Fœs., Hal.; les cornes de la matrice, Gard.), are surcharged with pituita, the menses are diminished, and if pregnancy should ensue, the fœtus will not live, even if vigorous at first. The signs and treatment of this are then stated; as are likewise those of dropsy of the uterus. This disease is sometimes of long continuance, and if pregnancy take place, abortion will ensue, with a discharge of water. Various baths, fomentations, and pessaries, are here directed; cantharides among them, and the metallic sound, &c. Dropsy, from a moist and enlarged spleen, is next considered and an explanation attempted; the fluids are carried to that viscus, and from thence by the vessels to the omentum and other viscera, &c. The menses are at times copious, at others in small amount, and irregular, resembling the washings of flesh, sometimes thicker, and not coagulating. A suspicion of pregnancy, and even a presumed motion of the fœtus, is at times credited. It is troublesome, dangerous, and of long duration, and more common with those who have not borne children, and at an advanced life, when menstruation is about to terminate. The misapprehension of the female is highly injurious, since the physician is not informed in time of the state of things. Modesty sometimes, or a want of confidence, prevents his being informed, even when known to the female. The physician is sometimes deceived also, from not being fully informed of the state of affairs, in consequence of the female being herself ignorant of the cause, but ascribing it to other sources; and he, not fully investigating the disease, frequently loses the patient, as the author says he had often seen. It is absolutely necessary, therefore, promptly and fully to question the patient, in order to attain the necessary information.
LXXV. The author renews the subject of suppuration of the womb; states the symptoms and treatment; its occurrence from abortion, and from acrid and bilious menstruation; fumigations, purging, milk diet, followed by a tonic regimen of animal food, &c., with particular restrictions. Some physicians, it is stated, order milk when the headache is severe, with a view to its removal; but he thinks water is better in this case, and milk in that of acrimony. Lotions to the womb are now directed, of different kinds, and ointments; among which is again mentioned that formed of flowers of silver (argenti flores), and a variety of other ingredients. A vast number of remedies follow; but it is a fatal and slow disease, from which few escape. Wounds of the uterus, and ulcers from any cause, are then adverted to, and with much particularity and repetition of what had been previously given. Wounds arising from abortion, or from acrid pessaries, or from a bad presentation, are specified; and the management to be pursued, when delivery is prevented by the enlarged state of the fœtus, or from a cross presentation, the treatment is very minutely laid down. Sternutatories are ordered; and in order to render their effects more powerful, the nostrils and mouth are closed,—the woman is to be well shaken, and the very extraordinary process is detailed, resembling greatly that described in the treatise on the joints and elsewhere:—The woman is to be fixed on a solid firm bed, on her back, by a bandage across the breast, under the arms, and attached to the bed; the arms are also secured; and the legs, separated, are tied at the ankles. The bed is then to be raised vertically, and apparently to be shaken against the floor, or rather, against two large pieces of wood that are placed below the legs of the bedstead, and thus support it in its upright position. The bedstead, with the woman attached, is then raised from these pieces by two men, one on each side, and allowed to fall upon them equably when the pains come on;—this is done at intervals, until the child is born. Such is the mode, says the author, of inducing the birth of the child, in a natural presentation, the parts being previously well anointed, and bathed with decoction of mallows or fœnugrec, and frequently renewing them during labour. Nothing more is to be done, except that it seems the accoucheur was busy in gently enlarging the passages with emollients, and attending to the navel-string. When the presentation is crosswise, whether alive or dead, the infant is to be pushed back, to endeavour to turn it, and give it a natural head presentation. In order to accomplish this, the woman is placed so as to raise her thighs above the head, by which the intention is facilitated, when the woman is replaced as before, and delivery is pursued in the usual way. It would appear that a foot presentation was regarded as very unfavourable, and placed on a footing with that of the arm. When, says the author, the feet or arms present, they should be immediately returned, and the presentation of the head should be facilitated by turning the fœtus;—so likewise in other cases of unnatural presentation, previously placing the woman over a bath of hot water, in order to relax the parts. If the fœtus be already dead, and a foot or arm presents, a similar turning should be adopted. If this is not to be effected, and the female parts become tumefied, the head is to be opened by a bistoury, and crushed, the bones brought away, and the delivery completed by the forceps or hook; the application of all which is described. When the delivery has advanced to the shoulders and there arrested, the arms are to be detached at the shoulder joints. If the trunk is impeded, the thorax is opened and the ribs crushed, carefully avoiding the belly, to prevent the intestines and their contents from escaping; which yet, if however too enlarged, may be slightly opened, allowing any flatus to escape, and no further difficulty will ensue.—The author now proceeds to consider the cause of the formation of moles, and their signs. In this state the woman will continue sometimes for two or three years,—and it occasionally induces death from its magnitude, or from an excessive hemorrhage. The magnitude of the belly and want of motion are means of recognition, for a male fœtus moves at three months, and a female at four; after which period, should the woman feel no motion, and the milk not appear, the case is plain, and it requires great care and attention; this consists in fumigations, glysters, lotions to the uterus, pessaries of the most powerful character, various vinous drinks, cups applied to the loins, and letting them bleed copiously. In fine, says our author, we must act carefully according to circumstances.
LXXXV. A brief recapitulation respecting the state of pregnancy, and its accompanying diseases, not devoid of interest, ensues, and may be said to terminate the treatise; for the residue consists almost entirely of a long enumeration of the remedies employed in the treatment of female diseases, and the formula of the prescriptions, &c.; thus they are such as are intended to induce or restrain menstruation, as pessaries, purgatives, &c., and are chiefly repetitions of those before given. Among the articles are cantharides and the rubigo or rust of wheat.a Others for promoting conception. Among these are fumigation, with at least ten pints of stale urine, into which, when heated, scoria of iron heated red hot are thrown, and after the fumigation, the head is to be bathed with it, and then washed; this is repeated for seven days;—fumigations likewise of the hair of a white ass, and the dung of a wolf. Uterine injections of the milk of a female the nurse of a boy, mixed with the juice of pomegranate, and the calcined powder of the perineum of the sea-tortoise. A pessary formed of the chorion, and of the heads of worms that breed in flesh, with Egyptian alum, all bruised together with goose-grease. Others, as drinks, to accelerate delivery; to prevent conception; and pessaries to enlarge the os uteri. Among the means to promote the lochia, we find the recent liver of the sea-tortoise, triturated with the milk of a woman, and oil of iris and wine, to be injected into the uterus. Remedies to expel the afterbirth, containing cantharides. To ascertain if pregnancy has taken place, a boiled clove of garlic is placed in the vagina for an hour, and the breath is then examined to ascertain if the odour is perceived in the mouth. Ærugo or verdigris is also recommended, with honey and liquor of Smyrnab [qu.?] as a drink to discharge the fœtus and the uterine immundities. For a similar purpose a pessary of fine flax is employed, sprinkled with copper-dust (æris limatum scobem). Among the injections ordered, it is mentioned that they should be eighteen ounces at most, and that is the extent of quantity in all injections. Many other singular prescriptions and directions are given, which it would be loss of time to repeat. The above samples may suffice; but it must be mentioned, that at the close of this first book, are given an additional variety of prescriptions (called by Fœsius notha quædam), of about an equal description, and of which I shall notice only two or three. They are supposed by some to be of great antiquity, and evince the use of emetics in the coughs of children. The inner part of an onion triturated with honey is recommended as a good suppository to open the bowels of children. Others are noticed for a like intention, in one of which cinnabar forms a part. Various escharotics are given, containing scoriæ of copper or brass calcined, of different strength; remedies for burns and for ophthalmia; various plasters; depilatories, &c. When it is wished merely to promote the discharge of fæces, it is useless to take internal purgatives; other means should be pursued; different forms of glysters are given for dysentery.
This treatise, according to Haller, may be ascribed to the writer of the preceding, for it is of the same character throughout, with much repetition, and in many places with scarcely any alteration. In conformity with the Gnidian doctrines, we find a great variety of fluor albus, of white and ropy discharges, uterine flatus, ulcers, callosities, cancer, hysteric affections, prolapsus uteri, and a closure of its orifice, inducing sterility. It treats of the diseases of the breasts and of the vagina, of freckles, toothache, and of several not peculiar to females. Many extraordinary cures are here mentioned, very different from our present views. The uterus is regarded as connected with almost every viscus; and a bridle or columella is described as growing in the uterus, which is ordered to be cut off.
Persons of advanced life are more subject than the young, to the fluor albus; in both, the discharge is usually yellowish, but redder with the last. The causes and symptoms are enumerated, some of which are singular, and some cases are said to terminate in death. In the treatment, among a variety of means, both pharmaceutic and dietetic, it is directed to bandage the hands and forearm to above the elbows, and the legs to above the knees; cupsa are then applied to the elevated breasts alternately, but not to draw blood. Emetics in some cases are directed; and in all, it is directed to attend carefully to the temperament of the female, her complexion and age, to the season of the year, the situation in which she lives, and the direction of the wind, on which much depends in the cure.
In floodings, grumous clots usually accompany. The symptoms of pain in the back and hips, fever, and tenderness of hypogastric region, &c., are noticed, and the vessels are said to beat strongly. Pessaries are almost invariably ordered, differing according to circumstances; and cold applications to the belly, guarding against chills. In the copious flooding after delivery, from somthing retained, which irritates and putrefies, the continual application of cloths with cold water is directed, the elevation of the feet above the head, and such medicines as are appropriate to female diseases, are given, in form of drink; other means are pursued, as milk diet, &c. The danger of death is great, however, and few recover.
A species of flooding is ascribed to the efforts in delivery, or to any severe work, by which injury is sustained in the uterine attachments; and is distinguished from a menstrual discharge or rather menorrhage, as so considered by some physicians, and the difference pointed out. To notice the variety of the discharges mentioned, so far exceeding what are now looked for, would be superfluous, particularly since the whole book appears to consist chiefly of the same materials as are to be found in the preceding, and differing therefrom only as we might expect from two individuals epitomising one common treatise. All these variously described discharges are, however, noticed as different diseases, and as requiring different treatment. We have a yellow discharge, of fetid odour, abundant, and resembling rotten eggs; another, which resembles the urine of a female ass, or sheep, &c., wherein cows’ milk is given warm from the animal for forty days, to aid convalescence, in amount of nearly two quarts per day. In one of the discharges, reference is made to feeling the pulse at the wrist. The causticity of some of them is assimilated to brine, explaining thereby the erosion of the soft parts adjoining. The varied attacks of hysteric paroxysms are described as different affections, and attributed to the displacement of the uterus. Fumigations, baths, and pessaries, seem the chief means of cure; and the best pessary in some cases, is said to be that made with cantharides. A sound or bougie of lead is employed to enlarge the os uteri, sometimes as preparing the female for more ready conception; for pregnancy is considered in many cases as advantageous, and hence virgins are to be recommended to marry. The peripatetic character of the uterus is constantly insisted on. It seems, like the owners of that organ, to have been always gadding! No wonder it was continually out of sorts! Its diseases are, however, ascribed at times to affections of the general system, and remedies to purify the blood are recommended; among these the long-continued use of cows’ milk is greatly urged. This displacement of the uterus or its orifice, is stated as an obstacle to menstruation, followed by sterility; the appropriate treatment in each case respectively, is laid down with precision, especially that of the manipulations, by pessaries, sounds, and fumigations. Tar-water,a fasting, and again on coming out of the bath, with many particulars directed as to eating and drinking. The chief remedy for all these diseases, seems to be, however, considered that of pregnancy. Cantharides infused in wine, as a drink, or used in pessaries, &c., are frequent prescriptions. Dry cupping, long continued, to different parts, the thighs, below the breasts, in the groin, &c. Falling down of the womb, and its full procidentia, are noticed, and their treatment detailed. Its inflammation, scirrhosity, induration, and vitiated orifice are also mentioned, and how to meet the different symptoms. Erysipelas, dropsy, and some other complaints of the organ, are finally noticed, and a profusion of prescriptions for pessaries, &c., close the treatise.
[a ]These uterine discharges appear to have been closely examined by the physician, equally as those by the other emunctories! and why should this not be the case?—Ed.
[a ]Qu. If this can have any reference to our secale cornutum?
[b ]Syrmœa, Hal. et Fœs.
[a ]Σιϰυης, Hipp,; cucurbitula, Fœs., Hal.—It is remarkable that Gardeil, here, p. 203, translates this word, by sangsues, leeches, which were not employed in the days of Hippocrates; yet every where else, where the word is used, he properly has translated it Ventouses or cups. Aliquando dormitat.
[a ]Tar-water, or some infusion of the pine, seems to have been no uncommon drink, thus forestalling the Bishop of Cloyne.