Front Page Titles (by Subject) ON GENERATION. - The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen
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ON GENERATION. - Hippocrates, The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen 
The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen. Epitomised from the Original Latin translations, by John Redman Coxe (Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1846).
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Haller, in his preface to this treatise, states it as maintaining the intermixture of the seed of both parents; that this seed is derived from every part of them, principally from the head through the spinal marrow to the kidneys by the intermedium of the testes, and thence to the pudenda, by channels distinct from those that convey the urine. The semen is from both, both male and female, and whichever predominates, gives rise to a corresponding sex of the fœtus. The parts of the child are like father or mother, proportionately to the amount of semen derived from such parts in either. Defective children are explained from pressure experienced in the uterus. Although the hypothesis is very coherent in all its parts, yet he esteems it too subtile for Hippocrates.a
As a general argument to the treatise, he tells us it consists of such particulars as have reference to venery and conception;—such as venereal pleasure, the appearance of the seed, nocturnal pollution, &c.; of the non-emission of semen, and the similitude or dissimilarity of children to their parents. These subjects are embraced in six chapters.a —Ed.
Chap. I. Of the semen; from what and whence derived. From whence arises the pleasure in venery. The cause of the spumescence or frothy appearance of the seed, and why secreted most abundantly in coition. Blood is occasionally discharged. Two passages for the seed and urine. Of the causes of nocturnal pollution.
Chap. II. Why eunuchs, boys, and young girls, do not feel the venereal pruritus. It would seem that eunuchs were constituted, either by total excision in castration, or by compressing and twisting the parts. Those persons are affirmed to become inapt to generation, who have the veins behind the ears incised.
Chap. III. The female affords seed in the process of generation, but experiences less pleasure than the male. Celibacy is injurious to health, and in females is a source of many evils.
Chap. IV. By what means a woman may know whether she has conceived. The power of the seed in both sexes varies greatly. Each seed contains both male and female germs; and the stronger necessarily predominates in the formation of a boy; and of a girl if the weaker excels. A proof of both male and female germs existing in the seed of both sexes, is deduced from the circumstance that many women who had borne only girls, to one man, have, in union with another, given birth to boys; and so in the case of a man, who having only girls with one wife, has, with another, given origin to boys, or reversely.
Chap. V. The reasons assigned why children resemble, or differ in likeness from their parents; why some are small and weak, and others large and strong at birth. Among those reasons given, one is that the child may have had some disease whilst in the womb; another is dependent on the size of the womb, which, if too contracted, may unduly press on its tender burden, and prevent its growth. Curious analogical illustration.
Chap. VI. Why and whence are constituted monsters, or mutilated offspring, even with healthy and sound parents; whilst sound and healthy children are often the offspring of mutilated parents.
Gardeil, in reference to this treatise, says, that although very concise, it yet affords many of the physiological ideas on the subject of generation, that are generally prevalent in our time, renewed, and modified by different writers.—Ed.
[a ]It has been, from time immemorial, a subject of dispute among medical men and others, whether the female possessed or emitted a seminal fluid, as essential to the propagation of the fœtus, or whether she acted only as a nidus, or location for the offspring of the male seed. To say nothing of the similarity of features in the child to the mother, which could scarcely ensue, unless in part derived from her, independently of mere nutrition subsequently to its procreation; Galen maintains that the female could have no venereal propensity, did she not possess the faculty of emitting seed; and we are expressly told in the Scriptures, that the seed (or issue) of the woman (Genesis) should bruise the head of the serpent. Now, as man had no part in the procreation of Jesus Christ, the expression seems incorrect, if she, (the female, Mary,) had no further concern than as a nidus for the purpose, and which production of hers could in no wise be appropriately called man, had man or woman no part in the mysterious propagation! It is in any other view, altogether of Divine origin; and the “Man Christ” (Tim. ii. 5) seems anomalous!—Ed.
[a ]Vide treatise de aquis, aeribus et locis.