Front Page Titles (by Subject) APPENDIX A.: Colonel Wogan's Narrative. - The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, vol. 1
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APPENDIX A.: Colonel Wogan’s Narrative. - Sir William Clarke, The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, vol. 1 
The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, Secretary to the Council of the Army, 1647-1649, and to General Monck and the Commanders of the Army in Scotland, 1651-1660, ed. C.H. Firth (Camden Society, 1901). 4 vols.
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Colonel Wogan’s Narrative.
The following narrative is a continuation of a paper printed by Carte under the heading, “The Proceedings of the new-moulded Army from the time they were brought together in 1645 till the King’s going to the Isle of Wight in 1647. Written by Col. Edward Wogan, till then an officer of that Army.”1 Carte unfortunately printed only half of Wogan’s narrative, stopping short at the battle of Torrington in February, 1646; the remainder, beginning where Carte leaves off, is printed from the original in the Clarendon State Papers (No. 2607). A sketch of Wogan’s life will help to determine the value of his statements. Of his early career little is known, but it may be safely assumed that he is the Captain Wogan of Okey’s dragoons mentioned in the list of the New Model. In March, 1648, he deserted, and succeeded in marching to Scotland with the whole of his troop (Rushworth, vii., 1021-4, 1031). His surrender was vainly demanded by the Parliament (ibid. 1046, 1064-6). Clarendon, who devotes some pages to an account of Wogan, mistakenly places his desertion after the King’s execution (Rebellion, xiv., 59-61). Later he joined Ormonde in Ireland, was appointed governor of Duncannon and successfully repulsed an attack by Ireton (Carte, Ormonde, ii, 97).
In December, 1649, when Col. Sankey defeated Lieut.-Gen. Ferrall, Wogan was taken prisoner, but escaped by corrupting his gaoler (Carlyle’s Cromwell, Letter cxvii.; Whitelocke, Memorials, f. 426). Had he not escaped Cromwell intended to execute him as a renegade and traitor, “who did not only betray his trust in England but counterfeited the General’s hand (thereby to carry his men, whom he had seduced, into a foreign nation to invade England), under whom he had taken pay and from whose service he was not discharged; and with the same nation did invade England and hath since, contrary to the said trust, taken up arms here” (Carlyle’s Cromwell, Appendix 16). In 1653 Wogan boldly landed in England from France, enlisted fifty or sixty men for the King’s service, marched from London to Scotland pretending they were soldiers of the Commonwealth, and joined Middleton and the royalists who were holding out in the Highlands (Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii., 286, 288; History of the Rebellion, xiv., 59). Soon after joining Middleton he was severely wounded in an obscure skirmish, died for want of a good surgeon, and was buried at the Kirk of Kenmore in February, 1654 (Military Memoirs of John Gwynne, 1822, pp. 220, 224, 237, 239, 243, 248, 253).
“We were soone enformed of that from Ireland by a small frigott that came into Padstow that was sent by my Lord of Woster, with letters to the Prince. The frigate came in wth that confidence being assured the place was within the King’s quarters, theire men came on shore without asking anything of the Inhabytantes who was quartered theire by chance; some of or horsemen being in that towne examined the men and found them to be Ireish, wch presently confessed they came from Waterford in Ireland, they seized upon the seamen and got abord, the frigott being run aground there, the[y] tooke one Captain Allen wch had the command of the vessell, him with a packett was brought to Bodman to or Generall. By those letters we understood that there was noe daunger of any Foote coming out of Ireland, for in those letters was mencioned the want of Shipping and moneys before any Foote could be had from thence, then there was noe other feare then that of France and to prevent that daunger there was order sent to Admirall Batten to hover from the Land’s End to the Coast of Brittany; then or Generall resolved to advance towards Trurowe; in or march the first day from Bodman or forlorne of Horse encountred wth a partie of the Enimies wch were commanded by Major Generall Web, both parties mett and fought nobly. At last the King’s partie being over numbred was forst to give ground and leave the field in some disorder; only the Major Generall himselfe charged wth an undaunted curage through all our partie and in charging back agayne his horse was killed and himself wounded in severall piaces wth all those that stuck to him either slayne or taken, he being at last after a long fight on foote forst to submitt. The second day we mett with theire Commissioners that came to treate which was very strange to us all, yet or Generall would not heare of a Treaty till he came to Trewrowe where the King’s Army then lay. First it was agreed that the King’s Army should draw back westward from Trurow and that ors should quarter there. Allsoe it was agreed that theire should be a seasasion of armes for six days, dureing wch tyme the Commissioners of both Armies were to sitt att Trurow to agree upon the Articles; for all this or Generall had noe greate confidence in this treaty feareing least the King’s Army should slip by them as they might easily doe, but to prevent that daunger he sent some horse and Dragoones back agayne to Bodman wth an order that all the trees should be cut downe behind Bodman bridge and in all the Cuntry thereabouts to stopp the King’s horse if they came that way, in two or three dayes. That doubt was cleared, for or Commissioners and theires agreed thus: First that the King’s Army should disband and theire Souldiers leaveing theire horse should retourne to theire severall homes, and the Officers to march to theire severall homes wth theire horses and armes. The King’s Army were to lay downe theire armes by Brigade on severall dayes till theire was a Regement of or horse that convoyed them away to theire severall cuntryes. When all the King’s Army was disbanded there was nothing more for or Army to doe in those partes; a Councell of Warr was called and it was thought fitt that the Army should march towards Exeter and that Collonel Fortesque should stay in that Cuntry with two Regements of Foote and 3 Troopes of horse for the takeing in of Pendenis and the Mount. Or Generall with the rest of the Army came before Exetter, the Governor thereof, which was Sir John Berkley, seeing or Army come before it and knowing that the King’s Army was disbanded with all the nessecity he was reduced unto for want of provisions and with all that they had noe hopes of releefe, hee was forst to surrender the Citty upon honorable condicions; soe was Bastable deliver’d upon the same condicions; all or horse were sent towards Oxford under the command of Commissary Generall Ireton, our Generall with the Lieutenant Generall stay with all the foote at Exeter to refresh them awhile. The Commissary lay wth all the horse round Oxford and continually on duty, for the Kinge was then in the Cytty with Prince Rupert wth a considerable party of horse as we heard, who were resolved to fall out upon some of our quarters, wch made us all every night to expect their coming.
After the generall had settled the businesse of the west he marched wth all the foote towards Oxford. Before he came within three or fower dayes march of that Cytty the Kinge gott out privately in the night only wth two or three persons wth him.April 27th, 1646. It was told the Comissary generall that the Kinge was gone for London, and was invited thither by the Presbiterian party of the House and Cytty, and was encouraged to it by the Scotts army that lay then before Newarke. I knowe not whether that report was true or noe, but I am sure that was the first pretended cause of jelousey that was betwene the Independant and Presbyterian party, and to make the army the more assured of this report it was credibly said that the King came first to London and was conveyed from thence to the Scotts army. This bred noe small division betwixt the Presbiterian and Independant officers of the army. The generall came up with the foote before Oxford, and placed them as conveniently as hee could, as above the horse and Major Generall Massey’s Brigade was to lye about Farington. We continued soe for the space of a moneth and the foote entrencht Themselves a good distance from the Towne. Collonell Whaley wth his regimt of horse and 2 regmts of foote was sente to block up Woster wth the assistance of Collonell Morgan the governr of Glossester. It was just at that tyme the black lyst was presented to the Lent Generall, wch was the names of all those officers in the army that were Presbiterians. It was brought privately and presented by Lieutent generall Wattson, wch was a most pernitious factious fellow. He was backed by many of the cheefest of the Army and partly1 by the Comissary generall. The Generall was ignorant of it, and knew not what it meant when one Major Fincher Quarter Mr Generall of the Horse discovered it unto him, and told him of what daungerous consequence (sic) would be if this liste came to the knowledg of those officers whose names were written in it. The generall made answer that for his parte he made noe differance of theire opinions but was confident that all his officrs were faythfull to the Parliamt, and that the Lieut Generall as he conceived would not doe any thing to the prejudice of any man that wisht well to the Parliamt or Army. The Qr Mr Generall was noe way satisfied wth this answer but was resolved to acquaint his frends in the Parliamt House, wth this liste and of the new order that was given out by the Leut Generall, wch was Liberty of Conscience as they caled it to all that pretend to have the guift of the spiritt in preaching or expounding. Both houses tooke this soe haynously that their was an order sente to or generall that none should preach or teach in the Army but those that are lawfully called to it by the Assembly of Divines. This order was no sooner come but executed, but to the greate greefe of the Leut. Generall and his faction; yet they desembled the matter soe well that they seemed to take noe notice of it at present. In the meane while the seige went on, and the towne being streightned for provisions yet obstinate would not surrender. There were not those wanting in or Army that spred abroade that the king wth the Scots army would releeve that Cytty, and that the Presbiterian party of the Houses of Lords and Commons would invite him to it. Many papers to this purpose were spred abroade amongst the soldyers, but to noe effect, for the Presbiterians had much the stronger parte in the army; beside Major Generall Massie’s brigade would back them upon any ocasion to that purpose. Collonell Raynsburrow was sent wth two regmts of horse and two of foote to strengthen the seige of Woster that was but slightly blockt up before by Collonell Whaley. Whaly was called back to the seige of Oxford, he being then accounted a Presbiterian. At last necessity compelled the Cytty to treate. Comissonrs were ordered on both sides: after long debate they agreed and the Cytty was surrendred upon honorable condicions, soe was Woster, Farington and Wallingford, and allsoe Ragland that was beseiged by foote of ours sente from the seige of Oxford: our army having then noethinge to doe were sent to quarters, some to Wales, some to the Associate Countyes, another pte were quartered about Wostershere, Oxfordshere, and Herifordshere. Major Generall Massie’s brigade were sente to Dorsetshere, Somrstshere and Wiltshere to quarter. The first of Crumwell’s stratagems was to get the Major Generall’s brigade to disband under pretence to ease the Kingdom, though they offered theire service to Ireland and would willingly have gone wth that moneys they had at theire disbanding, but Crumwell prevented theire desires and spoake openly in the House that he would carry as many of the new modled army to that Kingdom as the Parliamt thought fitt and that he would disband the rest if they pleased. This motion of his tooke off all jealousey from Crumwell and the rest of the army: presently order was given for Massie’s men to disband, wch was presently done. Presently after happened the suddayne death of the Earle of Essex, wch Cromwell tooke soe much to hearte in his outward apperance that he was seene by some to cry and tear his hayre, though it was judged by many that hee contrived his death; at this tyme the King was at Newcastle wth the Scotts, his frends dayly resorting thither, wch gave greate cause of suspition of the Scotts and credibly confirmed in our army that the Scotts would declare for the Kinge. To prevent further danger there were two regmts of horse and Oakey’s dragoons sent to quarter all along upon the River Trent; and to examin all that came that way Northwards. At last we’re freed from that feare, for the Scotts were resolved to deliver up the King as soone as they had received an hundred thousand pounds, and soe leave the kingdome. Theire money was conveyed downe to them by Colonell Graves; there went alsoe wth him Commissionrs from both houses that went to receive the Kinge, and to pay the money to the Scotts. The King was dellivered to the custody of Collonell Graves: the Scotts marched for their owne cuntry, and the Kinge was brought to Holmeby, there kept wth a strong guarde about him and none of his old frends suffered to come unto him except those that had leave from or Commissionrs. The Commissionrs made divers propositions to the King, but not pleaseing to him. Crumwell all this whille sate in the House, and both Houses ordered that the most parte of the army should disband or goe for Ireland except those that were to stay in the kingdome as a standing armie, wch was to be all Presbyterians. Crumwell seemed to be as forward for this as any in the House; or head Quarters was then at Nottingham. Commissary Ireton all this while was not ignorant what the Parliamt was resolved to doe, and at councell of warr tooke ocasion to speake of this; how the Parliamt had noe good intentions towards the army, and that it was a sad reward for we many yeares service to be cast of wthout any reward for their service or security for their persons after they were disbanded: likewise that the Parliamt was resolved to set upp the King agayne, that there would be noe liveing for any in that kingedome that had served in our army. All the officrs that were present were much moved at this and besought the Commissary to advise them what they were to doe. He answered there was noe way but one to prevent this, wch was that every officer should repayre to his respective command, and to send a trooper of each troope wth the grievances of the severall troopes to Saffron Walden, where the Generall was then goeing to receive the Commissionrs of both Houses that were coming downe to disband the Army. The Parliament thought none soe fitt as Crumwell to be one of those Commissionrs. The Commissionrs came to Saffron Walden; all the officrs of the army were to meete there wth the names of all those that will engage for the service of Ireland: there likewise came a trooper of each troope wth theire severall greevances. When they were all come to towne, they were called privately together by Capt John Reynolds of Cromwell’s Regiment and one his greatest favorete: when the troope mett together the Capt made them a long and plesant speech, told them how they were like to be cast of wthout any manr of reward for theire greate services, and that they had noe courage nor honr that would be soe, and that for his pte he and all his troope would sooner dye then disband wthout the utmost farthing of theire arreares. This speech tooke soe well wth these troopers that they highly comended his brave resolution and were all of his opinion. When the Capt. perceived that his speech found such good successe, desired them all to sitt downe and consider what they had to doe, and for his parte if they pleased he would sitt wth them and doe nothing wthout theire consent, wch they gladly accepted of, and gave theire Capt. the title of Chayreman. The first thing they did was to dispatch messengers to every regimt and troope in the army to let thom know what the Parliament was resolved to doe and what they for theire pte were resolved to propose to the Commissonrs and further desired that every troope should owne what theire deputyes should propose to the Comissionrs to be theire sense and desire, wch was accordingly granted by allmost every troope in the army. Our generall comanded that all our officers should meete in the greate Church at Saffron Walden to heare what the Comissonrs had to say unto us. The Generall wth the Commissonrs came to the Church, wch was allmost full; the General made a shorte speech, tould us how much the Parliamt and Kingdom were obliged to us for our faythfull services, and desired them that would goe for Ireland to give in theire names: and that they first should have security for theire arreares. Then Crumwell stoode up and made a long grave speech in the behalf of the Parliamt, first to give the army thanks for theire never to be forgotten services, as allsoe what a greate care the Parliament had to please each particular man according to his particuler meritt, and that the Parliamt would in tyme pay the arreares of those that were to stay in the Kingdom, and give security for the payment of those that were to goe for Ireland, and protested for his parte that if the Parliamt would command him he would gladly trayle a picke in that war of Ireland, therefore desired us all to consider what a holy war that was, and that it were a noble thing for all us that were young men to engage for that kingdom. Just whilst he was thus speaking he was interrupted by one of the troopers that was of Raynolds his Councell, wch had newly called themselves Agitators; the fellow spoake boldly to the Leut Generall and told him that he was employed thither by the Army to acquaynt the Generall and the Comissrs of theire agreevance, and to that purpose prsented a remonstrance in the behalfe of the Army, wch startled the Commissonrs and the Generall himselfe, and Crumwell tooke on like a madman, and declared openly in the Church that all those that had a hand in that remonstrance were enimies to the Parliamt. Many of or Officers were surprised at his saying, but not the Chayreman of the Agitators, wch was Capt Raynolds. He seemed to be the more confident in his request. The remonstrance was soe unreasonable that the Comissonrs would not grant anything that was desired in it: the officrs were all dismist to theire severall comands. Crumwell and the rest of the Comissrs retorned to London to give the Parliamt an account. Crumwell in his pretended fury protested the ruen of all those that had a hand in that remonstrance. Ireton seemed to be a neuter and would not openly owne the remonstrance, nor seeme to contest wth the Parliamt. The Chayreman of the Agitators was not idle, but sent allwayes to the Troop[e]s to let them know what a sad condicion they were if they did not owne that remonstrance, and the proceedings of the Agitators. The Generall was ignorant of these contrivances and certaynely persuaded by Ireton that these that were called Agitators intended nothing to his prejudice nor to the dishonr of the army, yet the General, the Comissary Generall, and all the Officrs of the Army disavowed the proceedings of the Agitators. Ireton designed the matter, what he would have the army to doe, and privately would send it to London to Crumwell Crumwell would with as much privacie send it back agayne to his Capt. Reynolds, the Chayreman Raynolds would present it to the Agitatrs as the greevance of the Army, they would declare it to the Parliament as the desire of the Army, soe that all things were done and acted in that Councell of what concerned the Army wthout the Generalls order or any other Officrs of the army. The Parliament was much ofended at this and writt to the generall to appease that mutinie as they called it, and to apprehend such officrs as had a hand in that mutinie, that the Generall would be pleased to send up Capt Reynolds to them, he being, as they conceived, the cheefe instrument of what was past. The Generall tooke this letter with consideracion and advised wth Ireton about it. Whilst the matter was in debate whether Reynolds should be sent or noe, the Kinge was taken away from Holmebey by a partie of five hundred horse under the comand of Cornet Joyce. Those that had the guarde of the King condecended to his takeing away, I meane all the comon souldrs. Collonell Graves that had the comand of the King at that tyme was forst to fly away privately, for all his whole regmt mutined agt him. He and Sr Robert Pye came post to London to advertise the Parliamt of what was happened, then or Generall sent to the Parlemt to let them know how parte of the army tooke away the Kinge he then knew not where, and that the rest of the army would mutinie, and protested his inocency in the proceedings of the army and taking away the king. This put both Houses into a strange feare soe that they knew not what to doe or say in the matter. Now Crumwell foamed and stormed, vowed that if the Parliament would comand him he doubted not but in a shorte tyme he would destroy all the mutiners there. He protested before God openly before the Houses that he would never leave them nor forsake them whilst he lived. The House seemed much satisfied wth Crumwell’s solemne protestation and began to consider how he might appease this mutiny. Crumwell, that very afternoone stole out of Towne and posted downe to the army. As soone as he came, the first thing he did was to owne what the Agitatrs had done and the takeing away of the king to be his design. Our Generall was amased at his sayings, but Crumwell and Ireton perswaded him that there was a nessesity for it, and that it was for theire owne safety. First they made it appe to him that the Parliamt had a designe to ruen the army, and that they would close with the King and leave the army in the lurch to theire greate dishonr and utter ruen: by much adoe they perswaded the Generall to be of theire opinion and moreover perswaded him to send his declaracion to that purpose to the Parliamt, which accordingly he did. The Parliament was astonished at it, and had they not been encouraged by the Cytty of London that assured them they would live and dye with them.1 The Parliamt set forth theire declaration against the army and declared all those to be traitors that had a hand in takeing away of the Kinge. They further declared that all those officrs and soldrs that would come of from the army to London should have six moneths’ pay in hand and security for theire arrers, and that they should continue in the standing army that should be in the Kingdom. This declaracion wrought soe much in the army that it brought of many both officrs and souldrs, first Coll. Graves, Coll. Herbert, Coll. Fortescue, Sr Robt Pye, Coll. Sheffield, Coll. Buttler, Quarter Mr Generall Fincher, the Generall’s Leut Collonell of foot and many Capts and other Officrs and souldrs came away upon this declaration to London; without doubt all the rest would have followed, had it not bene for Crumwells subtilty, wch was his outward good carriage to the King wch was then in the army. It was given out in the army by Crumwell’s permission that as the Parliamt would reinthrowne the King wthout making condicions for the souldrs soe would the army reinthrowne the King wthout makeing condicions for the Parliament. It was at that very tyme the Presbiterians lost all theire interest in the army, by reason all those officrs they had most confidence in had now deserted the army and were gone to London, wch had they not done, Crumwell and Ireton could never have brought theire designe to passe, nor ever have gayned soe much interest in the army as presently after they had, by reason that all those that deserted the army their comands were voyd and given to the most factious that could be found. The Parliamt were preparing of an army, the caviler party in London were joyneing wth them. On the other side Crumwell endevored to oblige all the Kings frends and thought it the nearest way first to make the King his frende, wch he did by his great protestacions and oathes upon his knees privately before the Kinge that he and the whole army would declare for him; and to give the greater assurance of his faythfulnesse gave order that all those that were the King’s old frends might freely com to him without any kinde of examining, that his old servants might attend him, that there should be noe distinctive mark betwene the army and those that were formerly of the King’s and comanded all the officrs to entertayne as many of them as came to or army: the King was likewise without any guarde of the army, and suffered to goe for his pleasure wheresoever he desired. The King’s frends at London could not well tell wch side to take: for the Parliamt profest as much for the King as the Army could doe, but they haveing not much confidence in the Parliamt sent downe a gent of quallity to the King to receive his comands. The gent that came to the Kinge, as I take it, was Sr Marmiduke Langdon, who was sent back to London, wth command to those of the King’s frends not to medle nor engage wth the Parliamt in London. The Presbiterians in London were quite dishartened when they saw the Kings’ party leave them. The Cyty would not advance any money for the levying of a new army. The Parliament at that tyme had noe money in their treasury; our army came towards London and sent theire propositions to the Parliament, first to demaund eleven of theire members to put into the hands of the army; next that the Parliamt should own all the proceedings of the army. The Parliament thought themselves soe much undervalued in these unreasonable demaunds that they would by noe meanes condescend to anythinge that the army desired. Still the army came on, and the Parliamt not being provided to defend themselves, the Cytty not willing to engage in a new warr, as they conceived that to be, being much discouraged at the Speaker’s stealeing away wth thirty Lords and Commons; presently after the Speaker of the House of Lords went away allsoe to the army, with divers of the principall cyttezens of London. Those of the Parliamt that stayd behind were all in a confusion, and knew not well what to doe by reason the Cytty gave them quite over, and would have noething to doe wth them, nor would not doe soe much as maynetayne theire lyne to make condicions for themselves, but suffered the army to march through the Cyty without any maner of opposition. When we came on the other side of the Cytty or Generall demaunded the Tower wch was presently given him. Or army marched to Croyden, the King was sent to Hampton Court wth a small guarde. When Crumwell was possest of the Tower, Guildehall and Whitehall, the first thinge he did was to command the Cyttyzens to pull downe all the lyne and fortefications about the Cytty, wch was accordingly done wth greate humillity and reverence. Then the Parliamt sate agayne, I meane those members that came downe to the Army. The first thing they did after they sate was to owne all that the Parliamt did this tyme past, and ordered that the Army should have six moneths’ pay payd them out of hand, wch was borrowed of the Cytty, and presently payd to the soldrs. The army was then sent to quarters wth an order to disband all those amongst us that were of the King’s party. Coll. Whaley was sent wth his Regimt to guarde the Kinge at Hampton Court. The Generall removed his quarters to Puttney where he stayed till the Kinge was cuningly jugled away to the Isle of Wight, and soe presently after I marcht away into Scotland wth my troope.
[1 ]Carte, Collection of Original Letters and Papers concerning the Affairs of England from 1641 to 1660, 2 vols., 1739; vol. i., pp. 142.
[1 ]Contracted for “particularly.”
[1 ]Something omitted.