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At the Convention of Officers at the church in Saffron Walden Satturday May 15: 1647. - Sir William Clarke, The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, vol. 1 
The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, Secretary to the Council of the Army, 1647-1649, and to General Monck and the Commanders of the Army in Scotland, 1651-1660, ed. C.H. Firth (Camden Society, 1901). 4 vols.
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At the Convention of Officers at the church in Saffron Walden Satturday May 15: 1647.
Severall Speeches of Major Generall Skippon and other Officers at the 2d meeting in Walden.
Major Generall Skippon.
Gentlemen, Fellow Soldiers, and Christian Friends.
Wee are heere according to appointment at our last meeting in this place, to receive from you an accompt how you have improved your vtmost endeavours with your severall Regiments and Companies, to make them sencible of the care of the Parliament for them expressed in those votes that you have received from our hands concerning indempnity, arreares, and auditing of your accompts; and also to receive an accompt from you how you finde the temper of your severall Regiments, and this is the bussinesse for which wee are mett together at this time; and wee hope [you] have soe Christian like, soe judiciously, soe impartially, soe faithfully discharged your duties, as wee shall receive a very good accompt from you in relation to these things.
Lievtenant Generall Cromwell.
Then said, that what the Major Generall exprest was the sence of them all.
I thinke it is the souldiers desire and request that you would give them three or fower howres respite to consider together, that soe they may present you with the whole bussinesse, because they are not prepared to give you a satisfactory answere.
They are not all the greivances of the Souldiers; they desire soe much time before they returne that they may answere other greivances.
Heere upon the 4 Officers advised together, and then the Major Generall spake as followes.
Major Generall Skippon.
In answere to that which Colonell Whalley desired in the name of the rest of the Officers or you heere present, if you be not at this present prepared to give us such an accompt as has been exprest in that I said before, you may have some howres respite; and let it be done with as much convenient speede as may bee, that wee may the sooner knowe it, and the sooner in discharge of our duties doe that that becomes us to doe. If the souldiers have anything to present, lett them doe it by their Officers, and wee shall take what is presented unto us into consideration, and in all faithfull heartednesse I hope towards God and man discharge our duties. One thing of my selfe; I shall be bould to desire, and to advise, and to admonish, as I have done formerly, that you will soe represent and soe adjutate thinges as may become your Christian profession, and as may become sober minded men, as may become servants to the publick.
In obedience to those commands that wee had from you concerning that which you were pleased to give us in command in relation to the severall regiments, I thinke most of the officers have made a returne of what they have from the Regiments in writinge; as in particular to those two things you were pleased to speake of concerning indempnity and arreares, I have brought from my Colonell’s Regiment an accompt in writeing. There are some other greivances also which lye upon the Regiment, which I have delivered to my Colonell and others I mett last night for that purpose.
That hee did not knowe by what authoritie the Officers mett. In obedience to your command, I have brought in the returne from my Regiment which I find to bee their greivance which with others I I may bring in.
Lieutenant Colonell Jacksona
My condition is the same.
(The 4 Officers advised together.)
Give mee leave to speake something to what hath been already offerr’d.
According to the directions which with the rest of the Commissioners were pleased to give the Officers of the Army att the last convention of them here, there hath been in several Regiments a perfect performance of what you then commanded; in the first place a faithfull publishing and makeing knowne those votes of the Parliament.
To the 2d part, which was to make a further search into the supposed distempers of the Army, they have made a dilligent inquiry thereinto, and have brought a returne thereof from the severall Regiments. They have likewise proceeded further into it, and have desired severall Gentlemen of this army, that they would be pleased to receive them, and come and collect out of them what are common, universall, generall to the whole Army, and as speedily as could be drawe them upp and represent them to yourselves. These were desired by the officers of the army and not sought by themselves; and I thinke there is not a Regiment here that hath not made this their suite, and that whatsoever might relate to any one particular Regiment might be left out, and the generall greivances of the whole army represented. And this truly, as yet there hath not been time and opportunity to doe it, and it is their desire that you will be pleased to lett them have time till Monday morning for the perfecting of it.
Whereas Colonell Lambert saith, that every Regiment hath made a returne of their proceedings, for my part I knowe nothing of it; and I conceive I, beinge Colonell of a Regiment, may knowe of it, as well as a trooper or an inferiour officer.
Wee were to take an accompt from our Regiment, and wee were to returne the answeare to you, as wee conceive, and not to any other.
This way that is propounded and hath been taken is by the unanimous consent of all, both officers and souldiers, and if you take any other way then this wee cannot helpe your differring from it.
There is nothing desired but that these thingsb might bee represented to the Feild Marshall and the rest of the commissioners here; if you will doe otherwise you may take your course. It was agreed by those that were present of the officers.
Wee did suppose that the meeting of those Gentlemen to whome wee did deliver upp the greivances had been by order of the Commissioners.
The command was generall to give a retorne, and not only to a particular.
I was at the Regiment when the Randezvouz was, and I was acquainted as well as the Colonell, though the Colonell be pleased to give the sence of the Regiment. They did give me their sence in writing, that there may bee noe mistake att all in the tender of their just greivances.
I doe not deny that; if you have delivered it, with all my heart, lett them make the best use of it they can: I only speake it as my sence.
I thinke it will be found when all is done that wee have not neglected our duties, but that wee have used all our interests to pacifie what was not faire in the army. When wee have done and presented what are the common grievances of the army to you, I make noe question but you will finde what wee say doth not proceede singly from us, but from the body of the army, and will appeare themselves what they are to yourselves and the world.
Major Generall Skippon.
In answeare to what Colonell Sheffeild hath said I shall now only say thus much; if Colonell Sheffeild or any other officer can give in the state of their Regiment, and an accompt of their endeavours according to what hath been before desired, wee shall now presently receive it; if any other particular officer hath any thinge, upon just ground and in sober manner, to make knowne concerning that Regiment, wee shall be willing to receive it.
I thinke it not amisse to lett you knowe how precious time is with us, how much an accompt is expected from us; and therefore, though wee are loath to deny soe reasonable a request of giveing further time, a great part of you it seemes not being soe fully prepared to give us in an accompt of those things that wee have exprest, to morrowe by 5 of the clock in the afternoone, if God will, wee shall meet you here againe; because wee would willingly dispose and order our businesse soe as wee might loose as little time as wee could. And I thinke in relation to those things that wee are sent especially hither about to communicate to you the votes of the House of Commons and the sense of the Parliament, in that as it appeares since, and I shall tell you by and by, the resolution of the Parliament, soe farre as yet it appeares to us, and that you might fully knowe what wee can tell you to give you all the satisfaction that may be, I have received a letter even now which is from a very good hand, the Earle of Manchester that sitts in the chaire of the Comittee at Derby House, who is also Speaker of the House of Peeres, which doth assure mee that the Act of Indempnity is past large and full.a
(The Letter read.)
I have thought fitt to give you this accompt: that this day the House of Commons have passed an Act for Indempnitie large and full. They have like wise granted a fortnight’s pay to those that shall be disbanded, and a fortnight’s advance more to those that goe for Ireland.”
This is from the Speaker of the House of Peeres pro tempore, the Earle of Manchester.a
And truly, Gentlemen, though I did not in that particular advise with those gentlemen about it, yet I did by their advice and consent make knowne somethinge concerning Ireland the last day, of which I heare nothing since; I hope it will be soe considered of as a service not to be forgotten, not to be neglected, not to be hindred; and that I shall referre, as I did all the rest, to your impartiall, judicious, and faithfull consideration.
If it please your Honours, I am to certifie to your Honours concerning the condition of the Life guard.
Major Generall Skippon.
I pray you lett us see our buissnesse, and see it before us, and then wee shall doe as honest men, and I hope you will behave your selves soe too, and I can expect noe other from you.
There’s a returne from our Regiment, I humbly desire it may be read.
This is a meeting for officers, and if the troopers could come themselves, it had been needlesse for us to goe downe, and bring returnes of the sence of the Regiment.
It is more seasonable for us to receive all together, for I hope it is all our mindes not to hinder but further the bussinesse all wee can.
Wee have call’d them together, and find them not in any distemper, and for indempnitie and arreares they returne thankes to the Parliament, and that they will lay downe their armes at the Parliaments command; soe much is presented for satisfaction.
There is a paper to satisfie more fully under Captaine Hall’s hand.a
In answeare to those two for indempnity and arreares, there is the reply of my Colonell’s Regiment.
I heard my name mentioned for the Regiment; those papers which these gentlemen have delivered in are only for those troopers which are engaged for Ireland, and itt is not the accompt of the whole Regiment.
Itt is the sence of those troopes that have engaged for Ireland.
If it please you, Sir, I shall offer thus much to you.
Major General Skippon.
Captain Farmer, everything shall be taken into consideration as farre as wee are able, and does concerne us to doe, in answeare to the trust reposed in us, when as wee see our bussinesse before us.
If it please you to heare a word or two concerning the bussinesse before you. It may be Colonel Sheffeild and some of those worthy gentlemen that are with him are unsatisfied with our proceedings, thinking wee only have carried on this bussinesse, and not acquainted them with what was done. I shall therefore desire to offer the reason of our soe doing.
One speciall reason was, because himselfe and many of them have already engaged for Ireland, and being soe they are not like to have those influences fall upon them as those in England; and in regard it did not soe especially concerne them, wee thought them not soe proper to them to be acquainted with itt.
Another was, because wee found the greatest grievance of the army is the rejecting the late petition and representation that was intended to be presented to the Parliament by the mediation of the Generall. That him selfe and many of the rest of the worthy gentlemen did declare as noe grievance at all, and soe did refuse to joyne in it; and therefore wee could not represent that as a grievance which they did never assent unto.
This I speake to take off hard thoughts concerning us; and whereas you were pleased to desire a particular accompt to be drawne out of those returnes that are brought in by way of returne from the severall Regiments, wee must needs say wee knowe of severall papers that are brought in by way of returne from the severall Regiments; yet notwithstanding there was this caution with it, that if any one particular Regiment did represent anything particularly, which they presented as their owne desire, and not as the desire of the whole army, it was desired that they might not be received, because it does not come as the desire of the whole army; and therefore, if wee should give them in, wee should be a little unfaithfull to that trust which was imposed in us, for wee must present some single things as the sence of the army; and therefore wee desire that you will give us as large a time as you can for the examining and compareing of the severall returnes together; and then wee shall represent them to you altogether, as the generall and universall greivance of the army, from as many as have made application to us; which wee thinke is the whole army, or very neere itt.
I would very gladly knowe by what authority they have done this.
If you desire to knowe by what authoritie wee have done this, if it shall be demaunded authoritatively I doubt not but there will be given a satisfactory answeare; and truly, Sir, all that I offer’d was to noe other end but to take off those reflections which you may lay upon us, when singly wee have done nothing but that which concernes the bussinesse in hand.
Major General Skippon.
To that end you have given in particular papers.
Many regiments of the Army in bringing in their grievances have desired some gentlemen here that they will collect them into one perticular summe, and present them to you; the desire of those that are sent over was to avoid confusion; in regard they could not be represented by many without inconveniencies, it was thought fitt to appoint some gentlemen as a committee to put things into a forme for us, and it was done by the generall consent of the officers of the severall regiments.
Major General Skippon.
I doe not know at present, Gentlemen, what wee can say unto you more, but to desire and perswade you to deale as effectually as you can to make manifest yourselves Christian and faithfull men, to proceede soe as there may be noe just exception taken at the manner of your proceeding as well as of the matter. To morrowe at 5 of the clock in the afternoone, if God will, wee shall be here againe, and receive those things in relation to the particulars that wee have diverse times prest you about, and shall receive any papers from any other that they shall thinke fitt to deliver in to us, and I thinke that may give satisfaction to all. If this be your sence, pray you speake.
The other three officers and Members of Parliament declared their assent.
Lettre from the Troopers in Sir Robert Pies Regiment.
Gentlemen and Fellow Souldiers,
Wee cannot but ecchoe the rebounds of our constant desires to the first petition, and by reason of the declaration against that, the resolution of all the souldiers in our regiment is to joyne in the letter to his Excellencie, as freely in their subscriptions (and every other way) as they at first did to the petition. It is our unhappinesse that wee are soe farre distant in quarters from the 8 regiments (our troopes being also apart from the other), by reason whereof timely notice cannot be given us to aggitate according to our reall intentions, which are to adde our selves to them intirely as one man, Colonel Graves regiment (excepting some officers) being of the same resolution, and much discontented they had not true information of the candor of that first petition. The subscriptions of our regiment (both to the first petition and last letter to the Generall) are in readynesse to be delivered according to directions, though their’s cannot be expected in respect of their officers obstructions. Thus, blessing God for exciting such instruments as you, wee waite all opportunities for the provocation of justice and judgment, that they may runn downe like a mighty current, which is the earnest desire of all.
Your assured faithfull friends and servants
T. I. O. B. &c.
May 13th 1647.
The bearer hereof wee have intrusted for what you shall thinke fittinge herein, hee is to stay at the head quarters.
Address. For our honoured friends Captain Gladman, Captain Berry, Captain Lawrence, Mr. R. or any of them at the head quarters, thesea
Heads of Proceedings in Walden church. Sunday, 16 may, 1647.b
Major General Skippon.
. . . . . In those votes of the Army, and what sincere industrious and faithfull endeavours you have used to make them sencible thereof, and what distempers you finde in your severall Regiments, Troopes or Companies, that wee might knowe how you have in these particulars discharged your duties as conscientious Christians in the sight of God, and as men faithfull and obedient to the Parliament of England. I am further to desire you, upon a motion made againe and againe at two former meetings, by my selfe in relation to the service of Ireland, that you will give us an accompt how you find your severall regiments disposed to that service. The justnesse, the honourablenesse, and the necessitie of which service cannot be unknowne to you. I desire to knowe and am persuaded it is the mind of these other Gentlemen that are sent downe, not under the name of Commissioners, but as Parliament men and Members of this Army to our severall charges in the Army, that you would in these particulars give us such satisfaction as I hope you can or shall make appeare to us, to the Parliament, and to all that shall have the heareing of our proceedings, that you have faithfully discharged your duty, as wee have desired, and shall endeavour to doe to the Parliament and for the service of the whole Kingdome. I pray that there may be an orderly proceeding amongst you in what you have to doe or say, if any man desire to speake lett him be heard without interruption. Lett all things be done discreetly, fairely, and orderly. I hope in the end of all wee shall finde that there is nothing aimed at on all hands, but that which tends to the reall service of the Parliament and publique good.
Lievtenant Generall Cromwell.
The officers according to your commands have repaired to their severall regiments, and have served you with all faithfulnesse.
They have left [blank] but their actions sufficiently declares that to you, that they have done the Parliament reall and good service. They have conveen’d heere at the head quarters according to your command, mett together and declared their greivances in writing, which greivances either are the greivances of all or the greatest part of the Army.
Major General Skippon.
Of the great and faithfull services of this Army there cannot but be an ingenuous acknowledgment from our enemies.
Upon the endeavours of this Army—soe great successes to the great benefitt of the whole Kingdome—lett not any words I speake be misunderstood—That which I especially propounded, which you heare the rest of these worthy Gentlemen were pleased to approve as their sence, was that you would please as well to give us an accompt of your proceedings with your severall regiments in relation to make them sencible of the care of the Parliament for their indempnitie, for part of their arreares at present, and to have their accompts audited . . . . . and what distempers . . . . .
And truly Sir, except you please to give us that accompt, wee in that particular cannot but be unsatisfied, nor cannot tell what to say in it untill you expresse your selves concerning it; and therefore I pray that wee may receive such an accompt from you. In that wee doe . . . . .
May it please your Honours I desire one word at the meeting. Before this all our names in our severall regiments were ready, if you please [to ask] the officers to give an accompt thereof. I have in writing under my owne and my Major’s [hands] to testifie what returne it made to us, I believe according to trust, and I hope that will answeare your expectations; forI doe not really [merely?] speake to the matter of distemper that is supposed to be amongst us, but I likewise answeare to the Irish bussinesse.
Major General Skippon.
If you have any thing to offer . . . . .
Sir, As in relation to what concernes the Regiment . . . . .
Commissary General Ireton.
Major, doe you deliver that?
I doe deliver that as the sence of the Regiment, which was delivered to mee in the feild in writeing.
Com. Gen. Ireton.
That which was delivered I thinke I have seene, and it was not done . . . .
Maj. Gen. Skippon.
Gentlemen, I doe desire it againe and againe, and I thinke it is all our desires, that you will heare one another with sobrietie.
Please your Honours to heare this concerning the Generall’s Regiment of Foote: first, he speakes of carrying in the report as under his hand, for my[self] I doe not understand itt . . . to him and soe to our selves, if it had been soe then our meeting had been in vaine . . . .
Therefore to that end wee did conveene together, some of us agreeing with the rest of the officers, . . . . . which Colonell Whalley hath delivered in, soe to that wee sett our hands, and it is the minde of the officers if not private souldiers.
Please you to lett us knowe, whether it is your desire that wee should give you a particular accompt of the overtures in the Regiments?
If you extend to every particular, it may bee there may be something of weakenesse or ignorance.
I thinke Colonell Whalley hath already presented itt to you [the sense] if not [of all of] a great part of the Army.
Here the Officers generally cried All, All.
Maj. Gen. Skippon.
Gentlemen, if it please you, these acclamations might be forborne; for wee are desireous to heare every one speake, and according to our trust to deale impartially. Butt still, if it seeme good to you to lett us knowe whatt course you have taken in the particulars that I mentioned to you—your papers of those things which you call greivances—wee desire to knowe the distempers that you could observe to be in your severall regiments, or under your severall commands. Wee did also desire that you would (as I doubt not but you have done) contribute your utmost endeavours for the qualifying them. These papers we shall read, God willing; but, in order to our proceedings, I shall desire that you will give some such satisfaction that wee may knowe how to consider of things amongst our selves as befitts our imployments [that] wee may know what to say concerning them. You have communicated those votes to your severall regiments, you have endeavoured to lett them see the care of the Parliament for them in these particular votes. You have endeavoured to enquire out the distempers, you have putt to your helping hands what you could to pay [allay?] them. This will be a very proper way: I thinke with submission, I shall desire these Gentlemen to lett you know their sences.
I thinke wee shall all use our endeavours to the peaceable continuance of the Army for those things that I have mentioned before. I say there is something of weakenesse of which wee must desire the best construction of your selfe and the commissioners—if you decline that name—and the rest of the Members of the House. Wee dare clearely and fully satisfie you in the whole progresse, but I desire itt may not be soe publique as now it is.
If it please your Honours I shall make a relation of what I did, which is according to the acting of most officers heere.
According to your commands I repaired to the Regiment upon Monday last. I went from one division to another. I told them what you were pleased to represent unto us, and that was an apprehension of some . . . . . To that end I was commanded now to come to them to represent the Parliament’s votes to them, which I read to each division, first to one, and then the other.
They told mee there was noe unquiettnesse amongst them . . . . . But withall told mee that there were diverse things which lay upon them as Greivances . . . . . which were their Greivances, I should represent them to you, and I must returne an accompt of what accompt I had from them; upon which they did . . . . . which for my part I did disallowe of, I told them soe to their faces . . . . . Allowe of the things I argued the case . . . . . and in the conclusion . . . . . prejudiciall and evill, and at last they did come to present mee with their Greivances. I did then beleive, and doe still, that they are very sober things, and therefore it is not only that which I have presented and which is said to be the sence of the Army, but itt is that which lies both upon souldiers and officers that wee have now represented to you . . . . . not mutinously intended and what is fitt to be answered and satisfied; and soe farre as I understand of the condition of the army, and those officers that I have spoke withall, they desire to be answered in some particular things, and those particular things are there represented to you.
I found my Regiment very quiett, only some Greivances and troubles were talkt of.
As Major Disbrough hath done for the Generall’s Regiment soe I have the like accompt to give of mine. I find that both my officers and souldiers are not transported or carryed away by passion. Reason sways them; and truly reason is so prevalent with them, in these humble desires that they make in the way of greivances to Parliament, as I am confident they will deny themselves in every thing, if there may be as reasonable a reason given why they may not goe on.
Your Honour was pleased to communicate to us for to propound to our souldiers the bussinesse of Ireland, and to read unto them these votes, according as you were pleased now to expresse them. Wee have done it with faithfulnesse. We returned to our regiments. For my part I can give to your Honour this accompt: I read to them the votes [to] lett them knowe what care the Parliament had taken for them, their intention for indempnity and [for] a considerable summe for their arreares. I lett them knowe that your Honour was to goe for Ireland and to accept of that imployment. Truly I found them in noe distemper, but very quiett; only I find that there was some greivances lay upon them, something did trouble them. I mov’d about the Irish affaire; they seem’d to be utterly unwilling for to stirre in that untill such time as they had some satisfaction.
Seing you expect an accompt from every regiment in particular I am able to give it for the Generall’s Regiment of foote; I drew them upp on . . . . . last in two bodies, and for the returne of itt, itt is in those papers. This method they tooke: they desired some time to present their greivances unto us and by us unto your Honours; and being drawne into particular companies wee went from company to company. They had taken their resolutions. Wee demaunded of them if wee should rest confident that what those of every company should bring should be the sence of every particular company. They were brought to us at a rendezvous of the officers of every regiment, and upon our view there is our consent with itt. Wee made knowne unto them the grounds why they should goe, and of your present company and command over them, to try if that would drawe them. I am sorry wee can make noe other report, wee received nothing but a negative voice.
Lievtenant Collonel Read.b
According to your command I repaired to the Regiment and according to what Major Cowell hath declared . . . . . every particular company gathered together [brought] in the sence of itt.
Concerning Collonell Fleetwood’s I can give your Honour some accompt of that. According to your Honour’s command I drew Collonell Fleetwood’s Regiment to a Randezvous, and I read the votes which your Honour sent to be communicated to every troope . . . . . only this, they did say they had something to deliver to mee, which they gave mee, and the greivances wee did returne in yesterday, your Honour received them.
Truly this I can say noe more, I found noe distemper nor any shaddowe of distemper amongst them.
An’t please your your Honours, I gave in the paper of the particular greivances to my Lievtennant Collonell, wherein they gave in their desires; my Lievtennant Collonell left out some and sett downe others.
Lievtennant Collonel Jackson.
An’t please your Honours, I thinke Captaine White doth forgett himselfe; I was willing to present their greivances; I did desire to knowe their greivances; I should be willing to receive them, or otherwise to heare them.
I shall speake only to the manner of proceeding; my Lievtennant Collonell hath soe endeavoured to obstruct that hee sent for mee, and questioned mee as high as my life, and committed mee to the Marshall, and afterwards brought mee to a heareing before the Major Generall; I pressed him either to enlarge mee or else to committ me, upon which the Major Generall did release mee; and soe lying under that same calumny I did seeke to vindicate my selfe from any man’s person, to desire that the Major Generall would vouchsafe to be President of a Councill of Warre that the difference betweene my Lievtennant Collonell and I may be determined.
For the differences that are amongst them in relation to the buissenesse that you are now about, since they have severally spoken, it were necessary to take into consideration in regard of the difference of itt, and appoint them to attend you for itt.
I have only a word in relation to that Regiment. I was present in the field when the difference hapned, and did see what Captaine White did, and the truth is my sence is the same . . . . . willinge to concurre together in that way; but when Captain White did declare his greivances they were not accepted of, neither did hee approve of those greivances, but did offer it to joyne with the rest.
I shall speake something in referrence to that which Commissary Ireton pleased to order betweene officer and officer; I only perceive there is some differences in your accompt; your Lievtennant Collonell gives one, and you another, and for that the Major Generallc will take care of these privately without interruption.
Captain Audley, If it shall please my Lievtennant Colonell to present the greivances which his owne company hath there will be compleatly 8 companies, and he may take memorandumd then of this.
May it please your Honour,
I have caused those votes and propositions that were sent to be read at the head of every troope in the regiment. Those Parliament propositions being read I received from the severall troopes a paper, wherein they have exprest their severall Greivances they have sent hither. I have according to the consent of all the officers delivered them to Colonell Whalley, and the rest of the men who are to present it to your Honour.
According to your commands I sent out, but they could not soe soone come to them as to others, they being soe farre distant. I read the orders which the Parliament were pleased to give for the arreares, and for the auditing of accompts, and for indempnitie, and after that I desired they would make knowne their greivances, that I might present them to your Honours; and upon this they chose 4 out of each troope to drawe upp their greivances, which wee have presented unto the gentlemen there, and are now putt with the rest. As for the bussinesse of Ireland, they desired their just desires might bee answered, before they resolved of that, and that the greivances which they had might be represented to them.
Lievtennant Collonel Smith.b
May it please your Honours,
In obedience to your commands I repaired unto Sir Hardresse Waller’s Regiment, and randezvouz’d them as on Monday, and I read at the head of the regiment those votes which I received from your Honour. For distempers, I find not much, but some amongst them, and that was that there were some officers that had engaged for Ireland, and had declared that those that were not willing to goe now freely for Ireland should be forc’d to comply; which they find to be a great greivance and trouble, and they declared as the sence of the House to that purpose; other greivances I find none. There was indeed some difference amongst some officers falling to some words, that had not I been present, might have been very inconvenient, and made very great mutinie in the regiment. Many greivances they did declare to mee which they had, which greivances they told mee they would draw upp, and they were delivered in with the substance of what is presented to your Honours.
You were against the going for Ireland, that was the cause.
There was noe words of admonition, but that you your selfe did read the votes, more then these you would drawe upp the greivances, and drew upp an officer of each company to signe them for you. The Major comes after, and then cryes, ‘Stand for your liberties and priviledges now and ever.’
An’t please your Honour I am the man.
The word that was said was this; a corporall in Sir Hardresse Waller’s regiment, a private souldier, comeing to knowe my advice, I said, ‘I hope the souldiers may have their libertie.’ The Lievtennant Colonell, heareing I did desire to knowe, lett him declare to the Lievtennant Colonell, whereupon th . . . . . in a mutinous manner struck mee for defending my owne innocency. This is that which I say to that which Captaine Thomas seemes to demaund.
An’t please your Honour my Lievtennant Collonell drewe the regiment to a randezvous. Captaine Thomas said as that wee were seditious, and that some had poysoned our souldiers, that wee were enemies to the peace of the Kingdome, which the souldiers desire to be vindicated in; and that though we were not willing to goe for Ireland, yett [wee should be forced to comply]. He used those words against us, which wee conceive tends much to the dishonour of the Army.
If you please to hint to them that they may take the examination of what miscarriages have been.
Lievtennant Collonel Jackson.
May it please your Honours, I have one motion to make. If you please to give mee leave you shall have the bussinesse truly laid before you, which, as I suppose, itt is not yett.
For that paper which my Lievtennant Colonell speakes of that hee produced and hee desired us to signe, wee refused and drew upp one, which was signed in the same manner as it is exprest, with those hands of 7 companies of the regiment.
For that bussinesse that was even now spoken of, it does reflect not only on those officers, but upon the whole Army. Itt is of such an high nature that I thinke fitt hee may be secured in the meane time.
I doe not thinke but that any man hath a libertie to speake; ’tis true there are more officers of the one side then of the other.
Major General Skippon.
Freinds, I thinke itt is our desires that love and peace should be maintain’d amongst us, whether wee bee of the one way or other. I am sure it is our duty towards God in conscience, and towards one another as Christians; and truly I must needs ingeniously say, I am very sorrey to observe that there should be such a disagreement betweene you; the thing itselfe I hope cannot justly produce any such thing; and therefore it must be my advice to you that you would leave personall things, and apply your selfe to those things that wee are mett about; not but that there may be a convenient time and course taken to order these things.
That shall be my advice to you; and truly, as I said before, God knowes it is a very great pressure to my spiritt to heare and observe such clashings and jarrings amongst you; I am sure there can noe good come out of it, it is very likely noe good can come out of it.
And therefore I shall desire that you will leave these particular disagreements till another time.
An’t please your Honours, itt was thought as a great burthen upon many heere present, those words which were spoken, yet wee did resolve nota to speake of itt, because wee would not trouble your Honours, though they are words not to speake of.
According to your Honours commands I did declare to my Major that was here, and one Captaine Mercer that is with mee in Shropshire,b the votes that came downe with your Honour. By reason of the distance of place, which is 6 score miles where five troopes quarter, hee could not possibly returne the answere by this time; but 5 troopes that are quartered about Holdenby they were brought in yesterday by the Major.
I could not be soe particular for my own part.
I knowe not who they were sent to; I heard they were sent. They were never communicated to the regiment, but soe farre as I perceive the condition is not any way distemperous but very quiett. Heere is my owne; I have delivered the sence of itt to the officers.
For Colonell Okey’s regiment, if the votes be not communicated it is fitt some course should be taken for itt.
Major General Skippon.
Truly that is very well remembred of Commissary Ireton heere, I knowe not whether you tooke notice of itt.
Hitherto I knowe you have not had time to speake with your regiment about it more particularly, and to prevent distempers, but the businesse is of such concernment as wee cannot tell how to avoid itt, but pray that you will take especiall notice of itt; for I had it from a very good hand, that the House of Commons have passed an Act of Indempnity large and full, [two] moneths arreares to those that goe for Ireland; soe that you shall doe well to make all the advantages that you can to give satisfaction unto your severall officers and souldiers, and to discharge your duty in all faithfull obedience to the Parliament, and not to question the justice and honour of the Parliament in further proceeding to give you satisfaction I hope.
May it please your Hononrs, I doe conceive and doe partly knowe that these votes have not been communicated to Collonell Graves’ regiment, and therefore I doe not see how any just accompt had been given in the bussinesse; and if your Honours would please to direct what way wee may take to deliver in our accompt before the day appointed . . . . .
Sir, I had the [votes] delivered to mee. I did carry them first to my Collonell, and by his command went to the regiment; but the regiment was not called to a randezvous by his command, but they are according to your approbation; likewise it being made an objection before wee went away whether that course might be taken, itt was communicated to severall troopes. To Captaine Flemming’s troopes the votes were not sent. I am sure they were communicated to all but Captaine Flemming’sb troope, and Captaine Barton’s Quarter Master received them.
I never received them.
The Troope never heard of them.
I can assure you the troopes were not called together; that was left to the discretion of the officers.
They were in the same posture they ever have been, to those troopes they were communicated according to their sence.
It was only the sence of the officers.
Major General Skippon.
I shall speake only to this present bussinesse of Colonell Graves’ Regiment. I thinke by what hath been said that the votes have been communicated to fower of the six troopes, and not to the rest.
But sure, Captaine Holcraft, I did desire you yesterday that some might goe to the other two troopes.
Sir, According to your command I communicated the votes to the troopes; if you please to peruse the papers, and then I am confident you will finde that to be the sence of that regiment to be delivered in fully.
Those that are brought in wee shall read.
That was all that I have to say because the Regiment was not called together.
You may remember that the coppie of the votes to the Regiment were delivered to Captaine Holcraft; Captaine Holcraft and three more officers have made a returne, and I doe not remember what they did make . . . . . if it had not been done through want of time or otherwise . . . . . But, Sir, now I perceive by what Captaine Holcraft sayes that it was communicated to the troopes, all but Captain Flemming’s, I desire that Captaine Holcraft may declare possitively, cleerely, and expressly: whether hee knows that they were all drawne together.
I knowe that my Collonell’s Troope was drawne together, and that upon my conscience and honour I have given that which was their sence.
For my Major’s Troope I understand that their troope was called together; for Captaine Flemming’s Troope, his Lievtennant was in towne, and hee did not tell mee that his Troope was not called together till hee had signed what was delivered in there, for at my Major’s desire wee were to drawe upp the sence of the Regiment; for my Lord Caulfeild’s Troope it was drawne upp and the greivances given in according to the sence you have there; for Captaine Barton’s Troope itt was drawne upp with the rest.
I can affirme this not to be true, for all the Regiment was not call’d together, of severall troopes there were not halfe his troopes gathered together.
For the bussinesse of my Regiment you have had severall hints; the truth of itt is I was not there my selfe, and itt was for noe other end but because I was not well, and I had a particular dispensation from the Generall to be absent. My Major and all the Captaines of my Regiment are here in towne; they have both particularly by themselves, the Major joyntly from the whole Regiment, given mee a little accompt of those things of which you desired an accompt; and truly as to those votes that you laid your commands upon them to read to the Regiment in referrence to Arreares and Indempnitie, I find that of this Ordinance of Indempnitie they give us some hopes that wee shall be indempnified fully.
Truly as to arreares, that same considerable proportion which the votes does mention they tell mee that they doe not very well understand, unlesse it be that six weekes pay which the House of Commons have voted at their disbanding; and they would be very glad if the House would soe favour them as once againe to take that into consideration. In refferrence to distempers I am sorrey to see my Major and some of my officers differ in their accompt. My Major did indeede give me an accompt under his owne hand and the hand of some of my Captaines, as that which was the sence of the whole regiment, and that which hee hath signed; and truly I doe finde in that, as I have in that from another regiment, some things not fitt, and impertinent and extravagant, and that was the reason and the only reason that that course which you see was taken, that wee extract out of all that was brought in that that wee thought might be most pertinent upon this occasion, and to leave out those things that were impertinent or otherwise. But lastly, as to that which you speake in referrence to the Ireish service; truly I am verry sorrey to see soe little accompt given generally. For the particular accompt of my regiment, for I speake [to] noe more; wee who are horsemen are not very willing to crosse the seas, but wee must also desire that wee might further be made happie in haveing such a Commander as we could approve. Wee are told of an officer of the Cavaleeres that should beare immediate command over us; as to that person to serve under him either in or out of the Kingdome I knowe nothing that I can speake or thinke to detract from him; hee is a person of honour, butt hee is a stranger to mee and to my regiment, and as on the one side wee should be very glad to have one with us that wee have had experience of, soe on the other side itt is their oppinion to be wedded to noe man to goe under his command out of the Kingdome, before they receive some satisfaction in some competent measure.
May it please your Honour to be acquainted with the temper of your Regiment, and to see in what condition wee are; itt is not only the desire of the Regiment to knowe their commands, but in matter of Greivances which now lie upon them [they desire they] may accordingly have redresse from those in power, and remedies applied according to the diseases; and then wee desire that the justice of our proceedings may noe longer be censured, and condemned, butt judgesa in the proper spheare of them, that soe wee may bee noe longer misapprehended, which I represent to your Honour and to this honorable company.
I perceive this is an honest souldier of the regiment who has been a witnesse of all things that have passed; from this bussinesse in hand that doe respect the souldiers as well as the officers, if I have falne short in any thing, if you please to permit him to give mee some private notice.
I cannot say that I knowe every particular, but it is the general desire of the Regiment that they may be represented before you.
I have done faithfully my endeavour for your satisfaction.
Sir. there is one thing that an officer in Collonel Hammond’s Regiment said just now: that they were ready to accept of the termes with a great deale of chearefullnesse, that I did tell them that you did engage into Ireland, and Major Generall Skippon to command them, and I am sure itt is as great a comfort as any they have.
To what that Gentleman said, I find my Officers and Souldiers very willing; and though they doe confide in you, yet unlesse they have satisfaction as to indempnity and arreares, I must needes say — when wee are satisfied in them as wee are in the point of conduct under the Major Generall, provided that the conduct be soe settled upon the conditions before mentioned — to engage themselves and the army that is to serve with them upon that service. Truly, Sir, if they may be soe satisfied upon those termes, that they will then chearefully, faithfully and honestly, not out of any ends of their owne, but out of a cleere and candid sence, freely and chearefully venture their lives for the service of the Kingdome as they have hitherto done; and this I speake to you not from my selfe alone, but from very many that have desired mee to speake.
I shall desire your favour in this: I beleive Collonel Hammond hath made a mistake, I am confident my men would as willingly have their owne officers, and I am confident that they desire nothing more then to serve the Parliament in what the Parliament shall command them in; and, for the ends, if Collonel Hammond does meane mee, I thinke I have as little cause otherwise as any other.
I did not intend itt of Collonell Sheffeild or any other in [relation to] that service, I only speake in relation to the Act of Indempnity which I am not ashamed to owne. But there is some exceptions for Captaines to be Lievtennant Collonells, Lievtennants to be made Captaines and Sarjeants to be made Lievtennants and Ensignes; this they have done in my Regiment.
May it please your Honour, not haveing heard any thing fully spoken as to my Colonell’s Regiment, though superiour officers are heere, I hope I shall not be mistaken in that which I am now to speake.
And that is to tender the accompt of what I have proceeded in my troope in Collonell Sheffeild’s regiment. I had my troope at a randezvouz by themselves, thinking it the best way whereby I might impart and encourage them to the satisfaction desired of the Parliament, which I did in as faithfull a manner as I thought I was called unto. I advised them not to doe any thing too rashly but consider of itt. In conclusion they did tell mee, that if such and such things, which they did apprehend was very just and necessary as to their good and satisfaction, and according to the engagements of the Parliament, should be made [good] unto them, they should shewe the same affection.
And as to the bussinesse of Ireland they did include itt in these expressions. And as to the regiment, the Colonell and Major, the Captaines and my selfe was present when the letter was read and the votes of both Houses read unto them. I heard noe questions at all made, but that which they said their answeare was, this, jointly, one and all, that they could not be satisfied till they had an answeare to their petition.
And as to that of Ireland, I did not heare it moved in publique by any Officer at the Randezvouz. And as for the full of the Souldiers meaning and answeares to the votes, they have appointed severall of the regiment to bring upp their resolucions; they did not seeme to vent any distempers, for I saw not any thing done but that that did become them as souldiers, but these men are come upp and have signed these greivances which are signed. The whole Regiment signed them, they choose two out of a troope to bring them; and to speake seriously many of them did not knowe what they did, for many of them cryed out ‘Indempnity,’ ‘Indempnity,’ and afterwards ask’t mee what it was.
May it please your Honours.
I hope I have rendred a faithfull accompt of what is commanded to mee, that is to give satisfaction to those votes, and what Greivances did remaine upon their spiritts.
Truly I beleive that Captaine Rainborrowe’s accompt doth not make mine otherwise.
This relation that Captaine Rainborrowe makes of Colonell Sheffeild’s regiment upon my knowledge is true. Colonell Sheffeild and the Majora were there; they drew upp the severall troopes; they did read it particularly to every troope, and after they had done soe they signed them in the respective troopes, and there is brought upp by those souldiers [the desires of] at least 500 souldiers.
And if any other accompt be given the Regiment doth not owne it.
I wish that Gentleman would keepe to his duty, for I thinke I shall bee able to prove that hee hath nott. I humbly desire that when any officer doth doe anything that may make a breach in the performance of that duty, hee may be call’d to accompt for it.
Collonell Sheffield, what I doe [promise] I shall performe.
Wee desire that wee may not be misunderstood; there are many officers of the army that doe desire the good of our Souldiers as of our selves, and therefore wee desire that those papers that I delivered in may be heard read publiquely, that it may be knowne what wee have desired in the behalfe of our Souldiers.
Sir I shall offer this to you; in what hath been delivered, you have a summary extract of what was the troubles of our souldiers. Though wee are not ambitious of what wee have done, or our way of proceeding more then all the world, yet if any of themselves knowe their owne greivances to be soe plausible, and to carrie with them such a face of justice and equitie to any that shall heare itt, it will not be only a satisfaction but a courtesie [to hear them].
I did not speake any thing in reflection, but to satisfie you that, for very honest reasons, wee doe not judge it necessary to joyne in those things that other Regiments doe.
I have given you an accompt of that of Colonell Graves’ Regiment, to give satisfaction to those that desire itt.
Major Gen. Skippon.
Major Scroope, I suppose the case with that is much the same in every regiment, and that wee did [in one] that wee will doe through every regiment.
May it please your Honours I am here with a member of Colonell Lilburne’s Regiment; my Collonell is commanded to waite upon the Houses at London, hee cannot be heere.a
His Major was here and received your Honour’s command; hee was here on Fryday to give what accompt hee had then ready, but since hee is gone away to London hee hath left noe order to any to doe itt, but I thinke none can give soe just an accompt as my selfe; if your Honour please to take it from mee I shall as faithfully make the returne. NA Upon Wednesday last the Regiment was drawne to a Randezvouz to muster, and according to your Honour’s command had the votes of Parliament communicated to them. The Collonell’s orderly . . . . and soe consequently the rest; but for those that saw nothing nor heard nothing of those votes communicated to the Souldiers, it being as they alleadge done privately . . . . . I knowe what was said in itt by the souldiers to whome I heard them read, and particularly two companies; they were inserted amongst those which are presented to your Honours.
Major General Skippon..
Are there any officers of the Regiments that have not yett spoken that have anything to speake?
Lievtennant Collonel Grimes.a
I said this, There was noe dissenting; you were pleased to say there was dissenting in the army, I knowe that the mindes of the officers are knowne to the Collonells.
Major General Skippon.
Wee speake of distempers.
Commissary General Ireton.
The question that is expected to be answered is an accompt of the desires of the regiments.
According to my Colonell’s command I went to the Regiment, and when they came to the Randezvouz, hee drew them together, and then I told them there were severall Votes which the Commissioners of Parliament delivered to be read to them; as for distempers there are none. I madeb this answeare, first for the Act of Indempnitie, they should be very well content when they had itt; they thought a considerable summe was noe more then what was due to them. They said they were willing to any peace, they desired they might be presented to you which I have presented to the Colonell. And as for Ireland, [they gave] that answeare that Collonell Rich made and some others, they did desire some satisfaction for what was herein, satisfaction for what was done there.
Lievtennant Colonel Jackson.
I desire to speake but one word, and then I shall have done in an instant.
Least there should be any hard thoughts of the officers of the Generall’s Regiment, wee have dined together these two dayes; yesterday I shew[ed] to Captaine White the resolution of the souldiers for Ireland, and Captaine White himselfe, and Captaine Leigh also, who dined with us . . . . . that hee did all, that that was true which he had written, and much more which he desired to be spared, and that concerning the Irish bussinesse.
Gentlemen, our owne hearts and consciences tell us that upon this last bussinesse that the Commissioners have imployed us about in goeing to our severall regiments, wee have performed itt to the great and good service of the Parliament; yet wee may be out of doubt that there will be various representations, nay I may say misrepresentations, offered to the House of Commons of our acting and doings; itt is as good as already promised us. I shall therefore move you, whether it were not good for us all in a joint and sollicitous desire to request one or more of the Commissioners here to goe to London in our behalfes, to answeare what shall falsely be laid to our charge, and to give the Parliament a true sence of our doings heere.
Lievtenant Colonel Grime.
You will please to satisfie the Commissioners that there is not soe much dissenting as they speake of, for 7 or 8 men doe not make a dissent in the army.
I thinke there shall not neede to be any such thing.
Every man is left to his owne freedome to subscribe that which hee does agree to. I suppose in the whole greivances there is delivered different things, but wee may assent to that which is wholly and perfect ours and noe more.
This I say further. If you doe approve of what I have now tendered to you, that it is your desire to have one or more of these gentlemen that are members of the House to goe upp, that you will [let] them heare.
Heere the officers generally cried out. Two.
Perhapps there may be an information given to the House, for they cannot goe yett.
I most humbly offer this also, to take this along with you, concerning the Commissioners of Parliament of their going to London to serve you there and the kingdome, that it should be with submission to their judgment and reason it should be very well, but otherwise I doe not knowe whether it be soe well or noe, itt is our desire.
I shall desire that Collonell Whalley and the rest may goe.
Gentlemen, by the command of the Major Generall I will offer a word or two to you. I shall not not need to reminde you what the occasion of this meeting was, and what the bussinesse wee are sent down about: you see by what has past that it was for us to learne what temper the Army was in, and truly to that end were the votes of the Parliament communicated by us to you, that you should communicate them to the Army that soe we might have an accompt from you. That accompt is received, but it being in writing and consisting of many particulars, wee doe not yett knowe what the contents of those papers are. But this I am to lett you knowe: that wee shall deale very faithfullya through the grace of God with those that have imployed us hither, and with you also. The further consideration of these bussinesses will be a worke of time. The Major Generall and the rest of the Gentlemen thinke it not fitt to necessitate your stay here from your severall charges; but because there may be many particulars that may require further consideration in these papers that are heere represented, itt is desired that you would stay heere a field officer at the least of every regiment, and two Captaines. For the rest it is desired of you, that you would repaire to your severall charges, and that when you are there you would renew your care and dilligence in pressing [on] the severall souldiers under your commands, the effect of those votes that you have already read. That likewise you would acquaint them as particularly with those two things that the Major Generall did impart to you, which hee had in a letter from the Speaker of the House of Peers, to witt the addition of a fortnight’s pay, a fortnight to those that are to goe for Ireland, and a fortnight to those that doe not goe, and likewise there is an act of Indempnitie very full already past the House of Commons. Truly, Gentlemen, it will be very fitt for you to have a very great care in the making the best use and improvement that you can both of the Votes and of this that hath been last told you, and of the interest which all of you or any of you may have in your severall respective regiments, namely, to worke in them a good opinion of that authority that is over both us and them. If that authoritie falls to nothing, nothing can followe but confusion. You have hitherto fought to maintaine that duty, and truly as you have vouchsafed your hands in defending that, soe [vouchsafe] now to express your industry and interest to preserve it, and therefore I have nothing more to say to you. I shall desire that you will be pleased to lay this to heart that I have said.
Wee shall desire that though there are dissenters in few regiments yet appeare, that the like is in all regiments.a I presume most of us doe abhorre to engage against authority, and wee doe as equally abhorre the hindring the service of Ireland. You will find that the matter conteyned in any of the answeares is the sence of most of them.
Itt was told you that the Major Generall’s result was, that there should stay here a feild officer of every regiment; but because there have been diverse officers that have seemed to presse some differences, the Major Generall offerrs it to your consideration, that it any other besides those shall stay from the regiments have occasion to attend, they may have liberty.
May it please your Honours, I thinke there cannot be an exacter accompt given from some regiments, there being none given from Colonell Okey’s Regiment, they having not had the votes.
I shall offer only one thing to your Honours, the greivances have been presented [but] it hath not been as yett put to them whether it be with their consent, or for that purpose. Some may suggest that it is some private actings of some few of us, and therefore I desire that the question may be putt whether they doe consent or not.
I shall humbly offer one word to you more in reference to what Major Disbrowe gave an hint, and that is truly a thing that hath a little troubled mee, to see a dislike testified to some of us, as wee have thought have tended to serve the Kingdome, the Parliament, and the Army, and to contract the bussinesse that you are hereabout into as narrowe a compasse as the thing it selfe will beare, as such an unpleasing thing as the representation of greivances will admitt. I could heartily wish that as the unanimity of this Army Officers and Souldiers is very well knowne, [during the war] which God be thanked is not now in the Kingdome [it] might be soe exprest at our conclusion, and wee desisting from further engagement in another Kingdome [be united] as it hath been formerly. I hope though there may have been some extravagancies spoken by some Officers or Souldiers of the Army, that it shall not be represented to you, that those extravagancies are the acts of the whole Army; itt is fully acknowledged by all of us that there [are] weaknesses and imperfections in the best, but I professe it seriously that wee have, as wee shall answeare it to God and man, done our best endeavours to preserve our regiments from those things that the Parliament are pleased to call distempers amongst us, and to doe our utmost endeavours I say as may become us in our places, as may conduce to the further prosecution of the Parliament’s affaires either in Ireland or England. I meane in England iff wee should goe on in our bussinesses, as wee have done, united in a body. If any shall say, because wee talke of arreares before wee disband wee doe not intend to disband before wee have them, I speake that for my owne part, I speake the sence of my owne, that it is not any immodest, irrationall thing that wee drive at: only that the Parliament will please to reassume into their consideration that thing of arreares, before they are pleased to send us home or elsewhere.
In that particular I thinke there are not any officers here butt will agree to make an application to the House in that humble and submissive way as Colonell Rich hath proposed, to be reassumed into their consideration; I speake in the behalfe of diverse who are free to itt.
Lievtenant Colonel Jackson.
Itt is my desire.
But there are some particular exceptions of which wee doe not soe well approve, and some things wherein they are not at all concern’d; and therefore, upon those and other considerations, they desire to take that course apart; and as that cannot reflect upon any proceedings in the Army, soe they are very well satisfied in their consciences, that there is none can desire the peace of the Army more than they doe.
Major Disbrowes motion, as I understand, was to desire that you would knowe whether they did not desire Colonell Whaley and some other Gentlemen to accompany the Commissioners with their report to the House, that it may not be thought thatt it was of Colonell Whalley’s particular act, or any others joyn’d with him, and [lest] that itt should be look’d upon to be their actings, and not the desire of the rest.
Major General Skippon.
For my part I thinke it was the desire of other Officers, though only Collonell Whalley mov’d itt.
Major General Skippon.
Let us understand things soberly, rationally, and freindly one from another. I say, I thinke there was none of us, though I beleive wee did not knowe of itt, nor it was not by order from us, yet I doe verely beleive that wee could not imagine that Colonell Whalley whome wee thinke to be a wise man and an honester man then to doe a thing of his owne head . . . . .
But that you should make this the unanimous concurrence of the Army whereas there are divers officers that doe say otherwise . . . . .
The thing is soe cleere as you cannot chuse but take notice of itt; but in regard they doe heare of some that does almost threaten to send up such informations to the world as I may say are not true, therefore their humble request is, that two of the Members of the House of Parliament, you being all members, that you would be pleased to take the paines to goe up to London, that soe you may be able in their behalfe to represent their desires to the Parliament; and likewise to give the Parliament a cleare and true sence of what is their actings and doings here.
I humbly couceive that Collonel Whalley [is] speaking this as from himselfe, but if there be such a thing you all must knowe itt.
Sir, I did soe, yet I am sure it is most of their mindes. Does your conscience accuse you?
Major General Skippon.
I pray either speake with moderation or else be silent.
The thing is thus, that letter which was sent out was communicated to the severall Regiments, and that answere was sent from ours; if you desire mee to justifie itt I am willing, and acknowledge what they did, and whatsoever hath been done, hath been done to the end in the relation come upp.
I conceive that by what is said that some officers doe take offence as taking more upon them then was fitt for them to doe. [I therefore conceive it fit] That before this meeting doe breake uppe that some officers be appointed to present the sence of the whole. I speake only to drawe that bussinesse to a conclusion soe you may be noe longer deteyned.
Sir I shall make a short motion to you. That you will appoint us to make a more full discovery, and [to take the names of] those that doe assent to the appointing of us.
The Major Generall hath already an accompt who wee are that doe dissent.
I hope you will rightly understand us in that point of division. That word dividing was spoken.
Major General Skippon.
Gentlemen, I shall cover all in as good language as I can, and in as good earnist as I can, and in all faithfulnesse that I can. Put an end to this discourse. I thinke the papers that you have given in by the hand of Colonell Whalley will evidently mannifest who they are that dissent.
I thinke the papers on the other side will cleare itt; and therefore I beseech you in all earnestnesse that you doe nothing but what may tend to unitie, love and peace. And soe good night.
[A Declaration from the Agitation of eight regiments of Horse.]
Walden, May 17th.
Whereas some few Officers of this Army (dissenting from the Army) have not only declared their owne dissent, but pretended also to declare the dissent of a parte of the Souldiers under their command, and thereby have done as much as in them lieth to render the Army in a divided condition. Wee, whome our severall Regiments of Horse have made choice of to act in their behalfes, doe in their names attest to your Honours from our owne certaine knowledge, that whatever dissent there may be by any particular Officers, that there is not any the least appearance of any difference or dissent among the Souldiers from the greivances presented by our Officers to your Honours; and this wee will undertake to make more fully appeare, when wee shall be called to an accompt by your Honours, or any other having authoritie to doe it, and in the meane time protest against that action of those dissenting Officers.
To General Fairfax.
May it please your Excellency,
I thought it my duty to give you an Accompt of what hath happned in the transaction of this waighty bussinesse committed unto the care of Major Generall Skippon &c. what has been done by them, and what by the Army, in order, and obedience to the Commands. Upon Fryday last many Officers, and almost from every Troope or Company one, conven’d at Walden, and brought them from every Regiment severall Particulars of those Greivances which the Souldiers were most sencible of; and there by generall consent and desire of those Officers Collonell Hammond, Rich, Whalley, Okey, Major Disbrowe, Cowell and myselfe,a would extract out of the severall Papers sent from the Regiments those greivances which were most common to all, most probable to occasion the late distempers in the Army, and most seasonable to be presented to the Parliament, and compose out of them a forme and draughtb in the name and behalfe of the whole Army; which although it was both troublesome and we might bring thereby an inconveniencie upon our selves, wee undertooke, as a thing which we might possibly doe the Parliament and Army reall service in; and accordingly went about it, but could not possibly perfect it in time against the appointed houre of tenn of the clock the next day, and therefore were forced to desire a longer time of the Commissioners, which was granted untill five a clock the next day in the afternoone. Against which time wee being prepared, deliver’d in by the hand of Collonell Whalley the summe of what we had composed; wherein we used as much moderation as possibly wee could with satisfaction to the Souldiers, who, though they remaine very high in their demaunds and expressions,a yet I am confident I have declined much which was in their hearts to have strongly insisted upon. A copie of which according to its last extraction, together with the Interduction and Conclusion, I could not in this short time procure to send unto your Excellencie, but doubte not but Mr. Rushworth’s manb will send them in shorthand to the Secretary who may make them knowne unto you. After that wee had delivered this with the sence of the Army the Commissioners desired a more particular Accompt of what pass’d at the Randezvouz’s of every Regiment; which was accordingly done by the Collonell’s Majors, or cheife Officer of every Regiment, and most of them was to this effect: That they for the present found their respective Regiments in very quiet condition, neverthelesse were sensible of some present and other approaching greivances, the Summe of which was delivered in to Collonell Hammond, Whalley, Rich, &c. and were very much the same which were delivered at that present to the Commissioners. There was return’d from your owne Regiment of Foot, two severall differring Accompts; one from the Lieutennant Collonell, the other from Captaine White and some other common Souldiers, whom the Regiment hath appointed to agitate in the behalfe of the whole Regiment. And likewise from Collonell Sheffeild’s some differrences of the like nature, and also a somewhat lame and imperfect accompt from Collonell Graves’ Regiment; but all the rest were intire and very full. Next to this [the] Major Generall desired an Accompt of what had been done in order to his designe of motioning the releife of Ireland; to which an answeare was given as from most of the Army, that they could find nothing of willingnesse or affection to that service, untill they had received some satisfaction in their greivances. And indeed, if the Parliament thinke to have helpe out of this Army for Ireland, they must goe another way then what they are in for the present. Collonell Sheffeild, Collonell Butler, Quarter Master Generall Fincher, and some few others, who indeed were not acquainted with our private debates by reason they have subscribed for Ireland, and therefore are not liable to most of these greivances, and by reason they had delivered in a Petition, the substance whereof was the great cause of trouble upon us, and were unsatisfied in what wee did, and have expressed their dislike in a Paper delivered to the Commissioners, the contents whereof for the present I knowe not.a Betwixt them, and [us] is something past of heat and animositie, especially betwixt Cols. Sheffeild and Whalley, but I hope will goe noe further.
Walden, 16o May, 1647.b
Lettre from Sexbycto the Agitators.
If these be not *5 a presse gott into the Army wee shall be att a losse. There wants nothing but money, therefore tell the Officers they must disburse the money.
The King will it is verily thought come and joyne with them, and that makes them soe high, therefore minde that by all meanes hasten the greivances away. There is a Committee to goe to Rainborrowes Regiment, *5 will goe if you send him instructions, which doe by to morrowe night, and send two more to London to convey Newes. The generall will be with you on Thursday, Soe I rest
17o May, 1647.
A letter to the Agitators.
I kindly salute you, I have noe newes but this, That the House did order those that brought Ensign Nicholls prisenour 10h. a peece for their good service.a Thus you may see their proceedings. And lett mee tell you, this is in hand to divide us; they intend to pay the private Souldiers all their Arreares and to abuse the Officers, and soe to divide the Souldiers from their Officers. This is the way they intend to doe as their last designe; and therefore Gent.[lemen] you must use your dilligence to the severall Regiments, Troopes, and Companies to sett them right in this bussinesse, and to try them whether they will stick to their Officers, though they should be paid their Arreares and have securietie by an Ordinance to see whether they will have Justice done to. Their Officers have stuck to them, and it is expected in Honour and Justice they will stand to us. Therefore use your dilligence. I neede not say more to you. I have sent to you some of the Cittizen’s Petitions, and they doe much rejoyce in our unanimity. Therefore knowe I am
Your assured freind,
May 18th, 1647.
Letter to the Agitators.b
These are to tell you that this day the Armie is to be disbanded by vote of the Commons House, and referred to the Committee of Derby House for manner, time, and place; and soe farr as I conceive, itt is upon good information, that they intend to disband the Foote first, and then the Horse, and that by Regiments, and they to be 40 miles asunder. Beleive itt my deare fellowes, wee must now be very active to send to all our severall Regiments of Horse and Foote and [let them] knowe that nothing but destruction is threatned. I pray you observe these severall directions and send to the severall regiments, to principle them by all meanes presently, and Sir . . . . . in the Commons House abuised the Generall as basely, they said “there was never Generall did like him, hee is now in Towne and courts Ladies, and itt is a shame for him that he should be now in Towne and his Armie in a distemper,”c and Mr. Hollis hath promised to deliver the Cittee’s Petition though hee himselfe is nominated to have justice done on him;a what this will effect I knowe not but you shall heare by the first. I would you would tell NA that the Printer is taken and undone, and if it be not thought on to have a Presse in the Army wee are undone. Heere is one perfect and workmen:b Lett him therefore see what will be done amongst the Officers concerning itt, and, Sirs, you must be sure to send to the Foote, and tell them this, and be sure they doe not turne. Loving freinds, be active, for all lies at the stake. This is the stratagem that was spoken on the other night. I would intreat you to bestirr your selves, for the good of all the kingdome and their preservation is in your hands. In the name of God improve itt for the kingdomes happinesse.c
Letter from the Agitators to the severall Regiments.
Gentlemen and Fellow Souldiers, wee greet you well.
These are to let you knowe, that wee have received Letters from London this day certifying, that still the dividing and soe the destroying designes are in hand. Before you were the Marke shott at without your Officers, and they loath to see you in such a condition designed to ruine they appeare now to speake and act for you; but noe sooner came they to speake on your behalfes, but they become the Marke instead of you. This is now the thing in hand to divide betweene you and them, and that is either propounding or giving you your arreares, and soe [to] take you from your Officers, thereby to destroy them, and then to worke about their designes with you also, which will make your money be but little useful to you. As soone as you have it and you disbanded you may be prest away for Ireland, or hang’d in England, for prosecuting the Petition, or refusing to goe for Ireland; which wee question not but many of us shall be found guiltie of, some already saying if you be but disbanded, if you will not goe they will drawe you along like doggs. Fellow Souldiers, the summe of all this is, if you doe but stand, and not accept of any thing nor doe any thing without the concent of the whole Army, you will doe good to your selves, your Officers, and the whole kingdome. Stand with your Officers, and one with another you need not feare. If you divide you destroy all. Therefore once more, Fellow Souldiers, as you tender your owne wellfares and the welfares of us all, acquaint one another with these things, and resolve neither to take monie, nor march from one another, but lett all your actions be joyn’d. And if any orders should come to your particular Regiments to march from the rest of the Army, march not while you have consulted with the rest of the Army. Be sure you take heed how you obey any such orders, untill you have acquainted and consulted with the rest of the Army. Be active and unanimous, the whole Army will assist you, if you doe but acquaint them with it. Doe nothing for your owne securitie, but what may secure your reall and faithfull Officers as well as your selves. Be assured they are yours, while you are theirs.
Yours and the Kingdomes faithfull servants,
|a Agitators were first elected by the eight regiments of horse whose representatives signed the letter of April 28; see p. 33, and Appendix B. In May, in consequence of the mission of the four officers to enquire into the grievances of the army, the foot regiments also chose agitators (Rushworth, vi., 485). Each company is said to have elected two, out of whom two were selected to represent the regiment. A comparison of the names appended to the different declarations of the agitators shows that in this letter one man signs for each regiment. The signatures to this letter represented the eight regiments of horse above mentioned; Diggell belonged to Sheffield’s regiment of horse, Mason to Sir Hardress Waller’s foot regiment, Newson to Fairfax’s regiment of foot, and the three others probably to regiments of foot then near Saffron Walden. The double mention of Newson is probably an error of the transcribers. The address of the agitators to Fairfax on May 29 (Book of Army Declarations, p. 16) is signed by the representatives of ten horse regiments (the two additional regiments being those of Pye and Graves), and by representatives of six foot regiments (those of Lambert, Harley, Lilburne and Hewson with the two before-mentioned).|
Herbert’s regiment is probably spoken of as lately Colonel Herbert’s, because he had accepted the command of a new regiment to be raised for the Irish service, out of the volunteers for that object from the different regiments of the new model. His old regiment was given in June or July to Colonel Robert Overton.
|EDWARD SAXBY.||ANT. GRAYES.|
|WM. ALLEN.||NICH. LOCKIER.|
|THOMAS SHEPHARD.||JOHN NEWSON.|
|THOMAS KENDALL.||ROBERT PRICHARD.|
|THO. JONES.||RO. MASON.|
|TOBIAS BOX.||THO. DIGGELLS.|
|JOHN NEWSON.||WM. LAUNDY.a|
Bury: May 19, 1647.
For our assured freinds and fellowe Souldiers that are of the Regiment that was lately Collonel Herbert’s.
[Letter from the Agitators of Horse to the Horse in the North.]
Honoured Gentlemen and Fellowe Souldiers wee greete you well.
Wee in this Army whereof you are a part haveing for these few weekes last past had it made our portion to be brought on the publique stage of the Kingdome as acting in the things which wee could wish had been more private, but necessitie hath noe law, fellow Souldiers, wee knowe, that these actions of ours have through the false suggestions of some been liable to misconstructions and misinterpretations which we well knew must be our portion before we began to act, but our comfort is, Wisedome is justified of her children, and we hope wee shall not be condemned by you; and to the end you may have right apprehensions of our candid intentions and actions wee present you with these following lynes, wherein we shall breifly give you the ground of the way and the end of our Proceedings. For the Ground it was this, Wee in this Army lying under many sore and pressing greivances, and being apprehensive of many more we were ere long like to be involv’d into if not prevented; for the prevention of which wee had an humble Petition with Representations annexed framed to be presented to the Generall and by him to the House, we conceiving this to be our undoubted right and priviledge whether considered as Souldiers or Subjects if wee have a right to any thing; but while this was only in intention, such was the haniousnesse of itt apprehended to be, according as it was represented by a Letter from an unknowne Officer of the Army who was not sparing in the Letter in the laying many odious aspersions both on itt and us, and suddenly after the receiving of this letter (unexpectedly and to our amazement) comes forth the Declaration against our Petition, declaring us enemies to the State and persisting and laying many heavy charges upon us as you may see in itt at large (to which wee referre you); this coming out from our professed Enemies, it sadned our spiritts that wee should be declared Enemies for going on in that way which they themselves had directed us to in case of Greivances, and the thoughts of this putt us upon drawing a vindication of our late Petition which wee beleive you have seene. The next thing was to thinke of framing of a Lettera to the Generall and Major Generall and Lieutenant Generall. Our end in that was thus, wee did not knowe but the Parliament might be pleased to heare them speake for us though they would not receive our Petition from us, but were pleased to condemne it to die before it was brought out to live. This Letter being presented to the persons to whome directed, it was conceived by Major Generall Skippon to have many things of great importance and dangerous consequence; soe it was presented to the House, and the messengers called in and examined and much debate about it, and the results were the dismissing of the messengers at present to attend them on the next summons, and this Letter according as wee conceive was the occasion of the Commissioners coming downe to take a view of the distempers reported in the Armie, which accordingly they did, and having conveen’d the Officers gave them order to repaire to their severall charges to receive the greivances of those under their commands, which was done accordingly and the greivances brought in to the Commissioners to be by them presented to the House, and wee have herewith sent you a coppie of them as they are in the abstract, though they would have been longer, but the severall Regiments being streightened in time they could not bring them in soe large as otherwise they would, which wee desire you to read and impartially to judge of our sad condition wee are in, and what just cause we have to doe what wee have done, and withall what little ground there is for all these loud clamours against us as is sounded abroad daily. Wee desire the just God and all just men to judge whether wee have deserved such hard measure from them that wee [who] have not thought any thing too deare to part with for their sake, who have manifested our selves not to be enemies but reall freinds and soe knowne to be in the dayes of their adversitie, and did little thinke that this should have been our portion to be declared Enemies in the dayes of their prosperitie, but our God his will is done, and our worke is with him and our reward is before him. As to our ends [it] is to selfe preservation, which all creatures does, and Man, the cheife of creatures, cannot but doe, that soe when God hath made us instrumentall in saving a kingdome we might [not] be accessorie to our owne destruction, as we should be if wee should suffer our selves to be deprived of our just freedomes, which are ours in a double sence, first, as by the lawes of this Nation it hath been conferred upon us; and 2dly, as by many of our dearest blouds it hath been purchased by us, and whatsoever the false suggestions of men are to the contrarie, yet our ends, soe farre as wee knowe our own hearts, are noe other but in that we might live and enjoy that which the knowne lawes of this Nation allowe us to enjoy, and the Parliament in many of their Declarations have oftentimes assured us wee should have; and wee shall never desire any to adheere to us any further or longer then wee are acting to this end. Thus you have our whole bussinesse before you. Read and consider, and God direct you. Thinke wee are prosecuting just things in a just way, and if from such thoughts of us you have a desire to joyne with us, these Gentlemen which are the bearers hereof will direct you in the way of doing itt, and our hearts will aboundantly reioyce in it, and wee shall not be wanting in the use of all lawfull wayes and meanes to assist you to the utmost of our power in the attainement of this our desired end; and wee question not but the just Lord who loves Justice will assist us all while Justice doth runne as a mighty streame amongst us. In the meane time wee hope to stand right in your apprehensions soe long as you shall discerne the the clearenesse of our intentions. Soe we leave you to God who wee hope will never leave you but will be to you a God of direction, and to you and us a God of Protection in all our warrantable undertakeings.
Yours and the Kingdomes humble Servants Adjutating for the severall Regiments whose names are hereto subscribed.a
Letter to the Agitators.b
The great bussinesse of the House yesterday was a long debate upon the honest partic of the Citties Petition,c and likewise upon the great Petition that is gone out into the Kingdome, and in conclusion order’d them both to be burnt by the Hangman at the Exchange and Pallace Yard—a new way to answer Petitions and doubtlesse (might some have their wills) the Petitioners too should be burnt in Smithfeild. They committed one of the Citty Petitioners to Newgate, for telling a Parliament Instrument “if wee cannot be allowed to Petition wee must take some other course.”c The expression indeed was too high but he knew him not to be a Member, yet it was not soe high as both parties was that day in the House, for one of the parties said That they [that] had delivered and sent the letter to the Generall, Major Generall, and Lieutenant Generall were a companie of rascalls; and another said, That hee shall very willingly die with his sword in his hand though there be an Army of 30,000, in the Feild. Massie is sent downe to Gloucester (they say), from thence to secure Monmouth for feare of some insurrection in those parts. Sir Robert Pye is gone to his Regiment. The designe of the King’s letter to settle Presbitry for three yeares, and the Militia for tenn, may be easily gues’t at:a His Majestie hath a mind to please the Citty, and they him; they forgett that they are little lesse then 80 thousand pound arreare to this Army. His excellencie came hither this Evening. The Major Generall and some other Officers came to vissitt him (though they went not forth to meet him). Major Gooday saluted him with a pittiful complaint in a Letter from Lieutennant Collonell Jackson. That his Regiment would have meetings, and some of them come to the Head Quarters without orders, notwithstanding they had acquainted his Souldiers, with a desire which the Major Generall, Lieutennant Generall, &c. made Thursday before the Lieutennant Generall went to London, That the Officers would use their endeavours to prevent any meetings of the Souldiers. The Major Generall sett it home with Arguments of the inconveniences that might come by it, Mutinies, disorders, &c. It was moved that the Generall would send some command in writing, that the Major Generall and the rest had forborne it before, expecting his Excellencie’s coming downe. There is noe order as yet given; if you have not that libertie (carrying things discreetly and moderately) I knowe not what can be done to purpose. Our Enemies may worke and destroy us before wee are aware.
Walden, 20th May 1647.
Letter from the 4 Officers to Mr. Speaker.
Upon the order you sent us of the 18th instant wee have herewith sent upp two of our selves (Lievtennant General Cromwell and Collonell Fleetwood) to give an accompt to the House of the bussinesse wee are imploy’d in here according to certaine heads by a Report here agreed upon for that purpose by us all who are
Your most humble servants,
Walden, May 20th,
The heads of a Report to be made to the honourable House of Commons by Lievtennant Generall Cromwell and Collonell Fleetwood in the name of themselves and the best of the Officers in the Army and Members of that House lately sent downe to the Army whose names are subscribed.
Agreed upon and sign’d by them all at Walden May 20th, 1647.
1. That according to the appointment (whereof wee have formerly given accompt) the Officers mett here againe on Satturday last to returne an accompt of their proceedings and successes in communicating the Votes and improving the same together with their utmost interest and power for the satisfaction of the Souldiers and quieting of all distempers, as also to give a full accompt of the tempers of the Army in relation to the late discontent appearing therein.
2. That on Sunday Evening wee received a summarie accompt in writing agreed upon and signed by about 24 of the Officers, and presented to us by some of the cheife in the name and presence of the rest of the Subscribers which wee have now sent upp.a
3. That at the same time from the 8 Regiments of Horse and 8 of Foot now lying within the association the severall Cheife Officers present for the respective Regiments gave us accompt by word of mouth all of them to this effect. That they had communicated the Votes and done their endeavours according to order and doe find their Souldiers very quiet and in noe visible distemper at present, but having divers greivances sticking upon them, which (they said) were contained in the respective papers then given in by them, and all of them did also expressly declare, That the effect and substance of those their Greivances was contain’d in the said Summary then given in, except only those Officers whose distinct returnes for their severall charges given to us in writing are these following, which wee have likewise sent upp,b vizt.
- 1. One from three Officers of Collonell Lilburne’s Regiment for the remaining soldiers of there three Companies only.
- 2. One from the Feild Officers and 5 Captaines of the Generall’s Regiment of Foote.
- 3. One from Captaine Hall for the Life Guard.
- 4. One from Collonell Sheffeild, his Major and 2 Captaines.
To that from the Generall’s Regiment there was exception made by three Captaines and some other Officers of that Regiment, as also by 7 Souldiers chosen and intrusted by their fellowes of 7 Companies, who declar’d their greivances to be as in the Summarie and have given in a Paper to that purpose which wee have also sent upp.
To that from Collonell Sheffeild there was exception made by Captaine Rainborrow, and Captaine Evelyn’s Lievtennant for their respective Troopes, and by private Soldiers for other Troopes of that Regiment chosen and intrusted by their fellowes, who brought the hands of all the Souldiers of the Regiment to attest their greivances, which because contain’d for substance within the Summarie wee doe not trouble the House withall. Colonell Sheffeild repli’d, That hee knew of noe such thing while hee stai’d with that Regiment, but the other averr’d it was publiquely agreed on upon the Randezvous after hee was gone.
That wee received also in writing other distinct accompts from some other Officers of Horse and Dragoones lying out of the Association, vizt.
One from two Lievtennants, two Cornetts and a Quarter Master of Collonell Graves’s Regiment.
One from the Major and two Captaines of Dragoones of the three Troopes lying about Holdenby.
One from two other Captaines of Dragoones for their two Troopes lying in Shroppshire.
But wee find that these accompts were made by the respective officers without the imediate privitie of all their Soldiers or the other officers and Troopes of the same Regiments, and that they had not since the former meeting here had time to draw out their Troopes from the rest of those Regiments to acquaint them fully with the votes, or gaine a certain accompt of them, the great distance of all from those of their Quarters not admitting itt to be soe done within that time, and therefore wee have given order that the Votes, together with what is since added of the arreares, be effectually communicated to them all, and a certaine accompt to be returned from each as soone as may be.
5. That from Sir Robert Pies Regiment of Horse (we suppose for the same reason) we have had noe returne from any officer yet appearing, nor doe we yet heare whether they have received the Votes. The copie whereof for them was (in defect of any officer of that Regiment at the first meeting) delivered to an officer of Collonell Graves’s Troope for both those Regiments.
6. Wee have also received some other Papers which at present wee thought not necessary to trouble the House withall.
7. That on Monday another Paper was delivered to us by Lievtennant Collonell Jackson, subscribed by himselfe and other officers that dissented from the rest to cleere themselves from mistake or misapprehensions in their said dissenting, which wee have likewise sent.
8. That since the said Generall meeting the Officers (who by consent of the rest had subscribed it) drew up and perfected the Summary, have shew’d us, and we have read over.
- 1. The particular returnes in writing from the 8 Regiments of Horse, and 8 of Foot lying in the association out of which the Summarie was extracted.
- 2. A Request of them in writing sign’d by the officers that brought in the same unto them, desireing that they would take the paines to frame and perfect the said Summary.
By all which wee find,
1. That those officers had good ground for what they did in the Summary, the said particular returnes of greivances being full to the heads of the Summary and many of them exceeding.
2. That whereas many of them for matter or expressions were brought confused and full of tautologies, impertinencies, or weaknesses answerable to Soldiers dialect, they drew the matter of them into some forme more fitt for view or judgment.
3. That whereas many of them for matter or expressions were such as might have given greater offence, they did, by their perswasions with the inferiour Officers and Souldiers that came with them (intrusted for the rest), bring them to lay aside many more offencive things, and to be satisfied in the heads of the Summarie, and therein endeavoured to bring them as low and to as much moderation as they could.
4. That their end and reason for going in that method and undertakeing the Summarie seems (most probably) to be to gaine the precedent effects, and to avoid further offence to the Parliament, soe as the Armies tendernesse towards the authorities and priviledges of the Parliament, and the Parliament’s favourable construction and consideration of the Army might seeme to remove all discontents and prevent any more inconveniencie.
5. That the Officers thus joyning with the Souldiers againe in a regular way to make knowne and give vent to their greivances hath contributed much to allay precedent distempers, to bring off the Souldiers much from their late wayes of correspondencie and actings amongst themselves, and reduce them againe towards a right order and regard to their Officers in what they doe.
6. That the said severall Returnes doe generally expresse a pationate sense of the scandall concerning the petition to the King, protesting against the thing and the appearance of it amongst them in a great detestation thereof and importunitie for their clearing therein.
- 1. The same particular returnes themselves the said Officers that shew’d them to us desir’d they might keep, both for their owne justification in what they had done, and especially because the Officers and Souldiers that brought them being all satisfied in the Summary.
- 1. It was their owne request the particular papers might not be produced in publique to discover the weaknesses or rashnesse of those that sent them, which they are very sensible of.
- 2. The Officers therefore conceiv’d it might be better (if the Parliament pleas’d) to take noe notice of them.
9. That though (in the charge to the Officers at their first meeting) wee exprest not, nor did intend to expect to have any such Returnes of Greivances, but only an accompt of what effect the Votes with the Officers endeavours had for quieting of distempers, and to knowe what distempers had been or should remaine, to the end wee might the better understand how to apply our selves to pay them, and give the better accompt to the House, yet now upon the whole matter wee humbly conceive, that the way it hath falne into, the course taken by the said Officers and admitted by us (being all upon a kind of necessitie as providence hath cast it for preventing of worse) hath hitherto proved for the best, and may (through the goodnesse of God with the wisedome of the Parliament) be turn’d to a good issue.
10. Lastly. That what hath been publiquely said or done by us in the transacting or prosecution of this great affaire hath been with the advice and unanimous consent or with the allowance and approbation of us all.
All which wee humbly submitt to the Parliament’s better Judgment and the good pleasure of God.
May 20, 1647.
[Letter to the Agitators.]a
My best respects. I rid hard and came to London by 4 this afternoone. The House hath ordered and voted the Army to be disbanded, Regiment by Regiment. The General’s Regiment of Foote on Tuesday next to lay downe their Armes in Chelmsford Church, and they doe intend to send you down once more Commissioners to doe it of Lords and Commons; they will not pay more then two months pay, and after we be disbanded to state our Accompts and to be paid by the Excise in course. This is their good Vote, and their good vissible securitie. Pray, Gentlemen, ride night and day; wee will act here night and day for you. You must by all meanes frame a Petition in the name of all the Souldiers, to be presented to the Generall by you the Agitators, to have him in honour, justice, and honestie, to stand by you, and to tell Skippon to depart the Army and all other Officers that are not right. Bee sure now be active, and send some 30 or 40 Horse to fetch away Jackson, Gooday, and all that are naught, and be sure to possesse his Souldiers, hee will sell them and abuse them; for soe hee hath done, hee engaged to sell them for 8 weeks pay. Gent. I have it from (59) and (89) that you must doe this, and that you shall expell [them] out of the Army; and if you doe disappoint them in the disbanding of this Regiment namely (68) you will breake the neck of all their designes. This is the Judgment of (59) and (89), therefore Gent. followe it close. The (52) are about (42) which Coppies I send you, and let mee tell you (41) and (52) in (54) are all very gallant; I pray God keep us soe too. Now, my Ladds, if wee worke like men wee shall doe well, and that in the hands of (52); and lett all the (44) be very instant that the (55) may be called to a (43) and that with speed; delay it not, by all meanes and be sure to stirre upp the Counties to Petition, and for their rights to make their appeale to (55) to assist them. You shall heare all I can by the next. Soe till then I rest.
Yours till death,
From 51, 11o at night.
As soone as the Generall came to Walden hee sent to the severall Regiments to acquaint them, that on Friday last the House had taken their greivances under consideration, and requir’d them to desist from their meeting; and because hee would be neere the Horse Quarters to prevent inconveniences he removed to St. Edmonds Bury in Suffolke, on Tuesday last. All Fryday hee was very ill, hee left his course of phissick too soone, but your commands were above phisick. This day the Regiments understand of the proceedings on Tuesday last, that as to vindication &c. nothing is to be done till after disbanding, and that only 8 weeks is ordered them at disbanding. Truly Sir, I am loath to expresse what their sense is of this. Tis in vaine to say any thing on their behalfe; I only dread the consequences, and desire that on all sides there may be more moderation and temper. I doubt the disobleiging of soe faithfull an Army will be repented of; provocation and exasperation makes men thinke of that they never intended. They are posses’t, as farr as I can discerne with this opinion, That if they be thus scornfully dealt withall for their faithfull services whilst the Sword is in their hands, what shall their usage be when they are dissolved? I assure you that passionate and violent councell which is given thus to provoke the Army will in time be apprehended to be destructive, or my observation failes mee. It shall be my endeavour to keepe things as right as I can; but how long I shall be able I knowe not. Unlesse you proceede upon better Principles, and more moderate termes then what I observed when I was in London in the bitternesse of spirit in some Parliament men, Cittizens, and Clergie, and by what I perceive in the Resolution of the Souldiers to defend themselves in just things as they pretend—and truly many honest consciencious men much disobleiged by the Declaration—I cannot but imagine a storme. The Lord fitt all those that belong to him to hearea things with patience, and lett the Parliament see it is possible they may erre as well as the Army or any other State.b
25, May, 1647.
Letter from Collonell White to the Generalla
May it please your Excellencie,
I am bold to send you such votes as the House hath passed in order to the disbanding of your Army, which being now resolv’d uppon I shall pray to God that it may be done peaceably, upon which I looke as that which carries in it the good and safetie of this Kingdome present and future. I knowe that some are of opinion that the Army being disbanded libertie is endangered, which I confesse—but withall doe clearely discerne, that if the Army shall continue it selfe against the authoritie of Parliament (for soe wee must conclude that which is passed by majoritie of Votes however contrarie to particular opinions) that there must inevitably follow the ruine and desolation of the Commonwealth, for this must needs occure to every eye (which looks forwards) to be the consequence: the Parliament being disobeyed and the Kingdome burthened with an Army voted unnecessary and to be disbanded, a force must be raised to compell obedience, and rather then faile the Scotts speedily call’d in, the issue of which (whosoever prevailes) must be the ruine of the Kingdome, and a sure stepp to the King and those that designe his ends either to bring him in (upon his owne termes) as the aire of these distempers, or to have opportunitie to raise a force such a one as may subdue and destroy both the other. On the contrarie, if it please God to dispose the Army to a quiet disbanding I am confident to say the Royall Designers have plotted in vaine, and their Councells how craftie soever are frustrated, for I am sure that if ever the King’s interest appeare bare fact, without the masque of publique ease and zeale against hereticks, it will not have many to countenance it, few inclining to a confidence that the King is to be trusted with power over their lives or estates. Your Excellencie I confesse hath a most difficult game to play, your relations to Parliament and Army considered especially if there shall be opposition to the Parliament’s command’s (which God prevent) and if such be the sequell (which if reports be true wants not its simptoms), I beseech you pardon my boldnesse that I presume to offer you my humble advice. God hath made your Excellencie his great Instrument of good unto this Kingdome in subduing the Enemies thereof. The Parliament honours and esteemes your Person and services most highly—I say the Parliament, I dare not affirme it of every individuall person, vertue is alwaies the object of envy, and honour hath ever its emulations—as God hath made you successefull in their warrs to their advantage and your owne honour soe I may confidently say that your endeavours for quiet disbanding at there commands will add to their esteeme and love of you; for I doe assure your Excellencie, though some differ about the time and manner of disbanding, yet there are not many whose opinions are to continue more forces then the number of Horse and Dragoones voted to be under your Excellencie’s command. If any disturbance (upon occasion of Disbanding) shall happen in the Army (which your Excellencie cannot speedily remeady) I beseech you foresee it in time, and write to the Parliament to give you leave so come upp to London to preserve them with your advice for the quieting thereof. I cannot see that your stay in the Army in any unquiet distemper (upon this occasion) can be for your safetie, nay I am sure it must be to your apparent danger. I leave your Excellencie to imagine the reasons, I know they are obvious to you. Pardon, I beseech you, this boldnesse and presumption, which is noe other then the reall effect of Duty to you and my Country, and of honour and faithfullnesse to your Excellencie, to whome I shall ever render my selfe upon all occasions.
Your Excellencies most faithfull and most humble servant
London, May 28, 1647.
Lettre froma[ ]to the Agitators.
May 28, 11 at night.
Send this to 92.b
Send to mee and you shall have powder enough and that in your owne Quarters, 500 Barrells, and it shall not cost a penny, and on Tuesdayc I will informe you how and where.
There is 7,000li comming downe to Chelmsford, on Monday night it will be there. The Earle of Warwick, the Lord Dewan,d of the Commons, Mr. Annesley, Sir Gilbert Gerrard, Sir John Potts, Mr. Grimstone, all these are to come as Commissioners for to disband us, therefore Gent. you knowe what to doe. Collonell Rainborrowe is to goe to his Regiment, and it is by Oxford; and a Guard of Dragoones comes with the money and the Commissioners, but how many I knowe not. All the honest partie doe much rejoyce here at your courage, and the other partie doe much threaten and speake bigge; therefore I pray be carefull to have horse to apprehend and seize on the money and Commissioners before they come at the Foote; and if you can bannish Jackson and the rest out of that Regiment you will doe the worke, and be sure you doe what you can. Doe not let Jackson be there to goe to London, nor none of them of that Regiment, and you will doe well enough. Lett two horsemen goe presently to Collonell Rainborow to Oxford, and be very carefull you be not overwitted. Now breake the neck of this designe, and you will doe well, and you must now doe to make a Bolt or a shott, and not to dally, but a good partie of Horse of a 1,000, and to have spies with them before to bring you intelligence, and to quarter your Horse overnight, and to march in the night.
[Sir Thomas Fairfax to Field Marshal Skippona .]
I understand this day there are Votes concerning the disbanding of the Army to beginne with my owne Regiment on Tuesday next; most of the Officers are here already, but in a bussinesse of soe great concernment, I desire your Advice and company this Satturday morning if it be possible. I am sorrey the time is soe short but necessitie hath occasioned this suddaine desire of
Your very affectionate freind,
To the Honorable
Feild Marshall Skippon.
Walden, 28th May, 1647.
Lettre from Derby House to the Generall.
There is 7,000l appointed to be sent to Chelmesford towards the Disbanding of your Army, which is to be there on Monday night next; wee desire you to take care that the said monies may be there in safety, and therefore to give Order to your Life Guard, or such other or more forces as you thinke fitt to be at Chelmesford by Munday at noone, and that they goe forth to meet the money upon the way from London to Chelmsford,
Your very affectionate freinds and Servants,
|DENZILL HOLLIS.||GILBERT GERRARD.|
|WM. LEWIS.||WM. JEPHSON.|
Wee send you also herewith inclosed a copie of the Votes of the Houses whereby you may see their results concerning the time and manner of Disbanding your Army.
Satturday, May 29th, 1647.
His Excellencie this day communicated to his Councill of Warr the Vote of the House of Commons of the 25th of May,a and also a Petition lately presented to himselfe in the name of the Souldiers of 8 Regiments of Horse and five of Foote,b and left the same to their consideration, desireing their advice thereupon for the preventing of any inconvenience that might arise.
The said Votes and Petition were read and thereupon these severall Questions being debated, were propos’d to every officer, and resolv’d as followeth.
Whether upon the Reports come to the Army concerning the Votes of the House of Comons on Fryday sennight last and the Resolutions on Tuesday last you find such satisfaction in the Army in relation to the late greivances as that there be noe danger of any disturbances and inconveniences in the proceedings upon these Resolutions.
Vizt. Negatively 86 votes, affirmitively by 3: and 4 Votes were suspended upon their owne desires.c
Whether upon the satisfaction and danger implied in the last vote you thinke it needfull for preventing of inconveniencies, that the Quarters of the Army not fixed upon duty be imediatly contracted.
Vizt. 82 Votes Affirmitively. 5 voted Negatively, and 6 were absent at this vote.
Ordered By this Councill, That Commissary General Ireton, Collonell Whalley, Collonell Rich; Collonell Lilburne, Collonell Okey, Collonell Hewson, Lt. Collonell Jackson, Major Desbrow, or any 5 of them, shall drawe up a Representation of the effect of the precedent votes to the Generall, with the grounds and intention thereof according to the Debates past, and also of their humble desires to the Parliament for suspending the present proceeding upon their Resolutions on Tuesday last and the resumeing the consideration thereof, and this to be presented to the Councill of Warre at the next meeting for their approbation.
The Councill adjourned till 6 a clock afternoone.
The Councill accordingly mett at 6 a clock and there were present this afternoone which were not present in the morning
|Col. Sir Hardresse Waller.||Capt. Leigh.|
|Major Rogers.||Ensigne Perth.|
|Major Saunders.||Ens: Nicholls|
And upon Debate this Question was first putt.
Whether upon the dissatisfaction and danger implyed in the first vote at the meeting this morning you thinke it necessarie for preventing of inconveniencies That the Quarters of the Army being contracted as in the 2d vote there be a generall Randezvouz of that part of the Army whose Quarters shall be soe contracted.
Vizt. 84 voted for the Affirmative, 7 voted for the Negative, and 9 were absent.
After the passing this last vote the Officers appointed in the morning according to the last and precedent votes in the morning deliver’d in a Paper and upon reading and debating thereof into parts this Question was put, vizt.
Whether this paper drawne upp and brought in by the Officers appointed thereunto by this Councill, and now read and debated in parts, shall passe with the Amendments now made as the opinion and advice of the Councill of Warre to be presented to the Generall.a
Vizt. Voted Affirmatively by 82: Negatively by 4. 13 were absent, and one was suspended, Vizt. Sir Hardresse Waller’s Vote upon his own desire, in regard of his long absence from the Army and Kingdome.
Here a Letter from the Earle of Manchester, Speaker of the House of Peeres, to his Excellencie together with the former Votes of Parliament, passed both Houses and signed by the Clerke of the Parliament,b were read, after which the Question was moved by the President to this effect, vizt. Whereas by the Votes of Parliament now read severall Regiments of Foote are appointed to be disbanded at severall times and places, That upon the drawing out of those Regiments for the contracting of Quarters the said Votes may be communicated to them by their respective Officers at the head of every Regiment, to the end that if any of them appeare satisfied soe as to stay to be disbanded without disturbance or inconvenience those that shall be soe satisfied may continue at their present Quarters untill they shall be drawne out to be disbanded; and after some debate thereof this Question was put, vizt.
Whether the stating and determining of the Question last moved since the precedent Vote shall be laid aside for the present or noe?
Resolved Affirmatively. Nemine contradicente.
Jo. Mills, Advocate.
Letter of Intelligence,a
The Generall is at St. Edmunsbury. About 200 Officers have mett this day at a full debate. Upon reading the Votes of Parliament on Friday was sennight and Tuesday last, it was resolved by all except Lieutennant Collonell Jackson, Major Gooday, and two Officers more of the Generall’s regiment, that they were all unsatisfied with those Votes; and that it would be as unsatisfactory to the Army to heare there were dayes of Randezvous appointed to disband, and yet their greivances to be unredressed. I assure you, Sir, the more they stirre to disunite us, the more wee are cemented. God shews their actions to be but foolish in what they attempt against us, for what ever they propose for their Ends does our’s while we are at a stand. A Committee is appointed (Lords and Commons) to come down on Tuesday next to disband the Generall’s Regiment; they may as well send them among soe many Beares to take away their whelps. I wish your good Lord R—a be not one, hee will hardly returne with content. The Officers now owne the Souldiers and all that’s done and doe beginne to bestirre themselves. I beleive before they depart this day they will agree to move the Generall for a Randezvouz, and if hee scruple itt, itt will be done however. All the honest People in the Citty and Country send to us to stand to them or they are undone; you will shortly heare of severall Counties Petitioning the Parliament that the Army may not be disbanded till things are settled, and that they may have their dearely earned wages, and not [be] scornefully cast off with 8 weekes pay as both Houses have now voted to be paid.b The House of Commons pass’d all Tuesday Votes unanimously (our freinds withdrawing). The Lords were divided 12 against us, 11 protested for us against every vote. Wharton was absent or else all had been equall. I hope in the Lord, if wee baffle these Maligoe [maligne?] Grandees in this their maine designe to divide us by disbanding Regiment after Regiment they will be put to new Councells, and court us to accept of Arrears (which they can easily pay us had they but will) if wee will demand noe further and accept of the Irish Service. The Citty Petitioned for 20,000 for to be imployed about the Lyne of the Communication in order to make warre against us as we apprehend. Our drawing unto a Randezvouz upon it will undoubtedly put them into a military posture and great distractions. Oxford, where our Magazine is, wee have well secured. I wish things at Holdenby were as secure. Itt is incredible the Unitie of Officers and Souldiers except some few Officers who have put themselves in print in opposition to the Army, and now the Souldiers are Petitioning to cast them out or else they will doe it themselves. Sheffeild’s Regiment hath begunne it already, dismounted their dissenting Officers, and seized their Horses and Armes.
Saith Lieutennant Collonell Jackson to mee will the Foot do soe, I told him they would, for eight of his Companies had subscribed to stand with the Army and were resolved to cashier their Officers: the poore man sighed at it, but Mr. Edwards his Parishoner and Ghostly Father soe awes him hee dares not comply with the Army. Major Generall Skippon is quite lost in the Army by endeavouring to please both sides: hee will not gett any men with him, and I much feare if hee stay hee will be at a nonplus. Pye’s Regiment and Graves’ are all engaged with the Army. Sir Robert Pye drew his sword and another Captaine; the Souldiers hem’d them round, made them putt up and give present satisfaction, dismounted the Captaine, and beat him out of their Quarters. Graves look’d on and said never a word. All the Dragoones at Holdenby are come in upon Engagement to the Army; soe now they are all of a peice. I pray God the Souldiers gett not too much head; the officers must instantly close with them, or else there will be disorder.
[Letter from the Committee at Derby House to Sir T. Fairfax.]
Wee received yours of the 30th of Maya from Bury. The Commissioners are already on their way to Chelmesford, and being instructed for that service, we desire you to be with them at the place appointed; and whereas your letter seemes to imply that there are soe many Greivances to be further presented to the House from the Souldiers, the Houses have satt severall dayes upon that bussinesse, and have granted whatever they thought fitt for them to grant, or for the Army to desire, and wee are confident the Houses will expect a punctuall obediance in their disbanding according to their orders, And we desire you that if your Life Guard be not yet come to Chelmesford. That you will order it to attend you there as soone as possible may be in this service. Soe we rest.
Your affectionate freinds and servants,
|DENZILL HOLLIS,||T. LINCOLNE,|
|PH. STAPYLTON,||WW. LEWIS,|
|WM. JEPHSON,||WM. WALLER.|
Derby House, 31 May, 1647.
For the Right Honorable, Sir Thomas Fairfax.
31 May, 1647.
At the Comittee for the affaires of Ireland at Derby House.
That such of the Traine of Artillery and the Provisions thereunto belonging (apperteyning to the Army) as were either at Oxforda or Wallingford shall be brought up to London and put into the stores in the Tower, And that all the Ordnance and Ammunition that belong to the Garrison of Oxford be also brought up and put into the Tower.
That the said Traine and Provisions be brought from Oxford to Abbington by land, and from thence by water, together with that at Wallingford, to London.
That the Horses belonging to the Traine be brought by land to London and such other things as may best come by land as the Comptroller shall thinke fitt.
That the Officers and others belonging to the traine doe come to London to disband, and that they shall receive their two months pay as the rest of the Army receives upon their delivery of the Traine into the Tower.
That the Firelocks belonging to the Traine doe Guard the same to London.
That these Votes concerning the Traine be sent to Sir Thomas Fairfax, and a letter written to him to desire him to give order for the putting them in execution.
[To Sir Thomas Fairfax from the Committee at Derby House.]
The House of Commons hath referred to this Committee to disband the Traine, and to bring the provisions belonging to it into the Tower, in prosecution of which wee have made the Votes which we send you inclosed, and desire you to give your Orders for the bringing the said Traine to the Tower according to those Votes. Soe wee rest,
Your very affectionate freinds and Servants
|WM. WALLER,||T. LINCOLNE,|
|WM. JEPHSON,||DENZILL HOLLIS,|
|WM. LEWIS,||PH. STAPYLTON.|
Derby House, 31 May, 1647.
[Sir Thomas Fairfax to the Committee at Derby House.]
My Lords and Gentlemen
Having formerly written unto your Lordshipps concerning the former Letter about the disbanding of severall Regiments of Foote, and since that time having presented unto both Houses the result of the Councill of Warre concerning that bussinesse, I humbly desire I may not be thought to neglect your orders (considering the temper of the Army and my desires to prevent greater inconveniencies) if the Regiments be not drawne out at the time appointed; hoping speedily to receive the further pleasure of the Parliament herein, which I hope will tend to the prevention of further distraction, I remaine,
Edmonds Bury, May 31, 1647.
[News-letter from London.a ]
I suppose from many you will understand how much the great Enemies of the Army lost ground yesterday, notwithstanding their motion of locking upp doores, and having an oath ready in case you [they?] should gett a decree for warr. The Lords being sent unto to sitt, and all out of a confidence to carry it by the end of the day; but when it came to the pull soe much sadnes, feare, and deadnesse was over their partie that they were ready to sinke with thoughts of it. I never saw mens lookes soe changed. Sir, in short, it was put off to this morning, when it’s deem’d they will find as little life to a new warr as yesterday. The great Citty of London having been privately felt, have noe minde to doe any thing further then redeeme publique faith and gett Brokeridg money; its believed the combustion [conclusion?] will be this, the going of the supernumerary to Ireland under their owne Officers, and there wee shall be put to it, the Lords having concurr’d to the Ordinance for those to be continued here according to the desire of the Comons as I am told.
[News-letter from London.]
London, 3 June, 1647.
All the talke in London is of your Army, some speake ill of you and many well; for believe it you have a very considerable party in the Citty, they like well your proceedings and will stick by you. The Petitioners, who had a while agoe their Petition burnt, presented another Petition to the House of Commons on Wednesday last; itt was delivered in by Sir William Waller and read, but noe answeare given to it, and was carryed by some few votes to be laid aside; but the House that day insisted on one maine point desired in that Petition (but did it not in Relation to the Petition) about undue Elections, and voted out two of their Members for Wales, and were about nominating a Committee to receive Information about Members unduly Elected.a It is noe newes to tell you how the House was startled the day before when they understood from the Generall the Army would not disband, and how it was moved to send for the Generall, and to raise 10,000 men to assist or compell a disbanding; but all that was laid aside, only the money sent for back againe, and the fortnight’s pay to Colonel Rainsborrough’s men, but the monies wee have news just now is stop’d by the Souldiers at Woodstock. Itt had been well if that at Chelmesford had been the like.a I hope the Magazine at Oxford will be carefully looked unto. The Militia of London goe on bravely (as some suppose),b and have voted all the Godly party out of the Commission of the trayned Bands; butt this is not well rellished by many, and few of the Souldiers (’tis conceived) will be subject to the new Officers they intend to put over them; the new modell for the Guards is likewise disbanded, only 360 under new Officers to keepe the Guards.
[A Letter from Cornet Joyce.c ]
Wee have secured the King. Graves is runne away, hee gott out about one a’clock in the morning and soe went his way. Itt is suspected hee is gone to London; you may imagine what hee will doe there. You must hasten an answere to us, and lett us knowe what wee shall doe. Wee are resolved to obey noe orders but the Generall’s; wee shall followe the Commissioners directions while wee are heere, if iust in our Eyes. I humbly entreat you to consider what is done and act accordingly with all the hast you can; wee shall not rest night nor day till wee heare from you.
Yours and the Kingdomes
faithfull Servant till death,
Holdenby this 4th of June
at 8 of the Clock in the
[A Letter from Cornet Joyce.a ]
There hath been a partie of Horse, about 500, at Holdenby, who have secured and taken his Majestie into their Custodie, and the King who doth desire to speake with Sir Thomas Fairfax. — The King is now at Huntington Towne, and will be at New Markett to morrow. Persuade all the friends you can to come and meet him, and endeavour to doe for the best. Certainly God hath appeared in a mighty manner, and therefore I shall wholly rely on you for what I desire, which is a partie to doe that which may be justifiable before God and Man. Hast, Hast, think on mee.
George Joyce, Cortt.
Huntington att 11 of the clock
this night the 4th of June 1647.
a Read this inclosed, seale it upp, and deliver itt what ever you doe, that soe wee may not perish for want of your assistance. Lett the Agitators know once more wee have done nothing in our owne name, but what wee have done hath been in the name of the whole Army, and wee should not have dared to have done what wee have, if wee had not been sure that you and my best old friend had consented hereunto, and knew that I speak nothing but truth.b
[A Letter from York.]
Wee heare you have trustees engaging Souldiers heere, and not without successe, Collonel Pointza beginnes to be much troubled, and writes to the Parliament this weeke of Colonell Boynton’sb turning a Presbiterian out of Scarborow Castle. Hee hath desired of the Major and Aldermen that he may have an addition of men for the Tower; they answered they have a Company of Cittizens which shall be ready for the publique service but will admitt noe strangers, according to your Order given them, which is to keepe the disposall of this place as much in their owne power as they can and out of the hands of one who will, it may be, be too forward to engage. Then I wish you Justice and us peace, for if wee beginne againe the second woe will be worse then the first. I wish your Army a repairation in point of honour, but, were there not w[e]ightier causes, that will be look’d upon as unequall to the hazard of new trouble, and they slack (?) doe well to dispence with it as much as they cann — this very advice that the Generall be not engaged against the Parliament, and that it be not expected from him by the Army. For, in case an agreement come after a little busling, his joyning with them will robb the Kingdome of that employment of his from which wee expect much benefitt. And I hope the Army will be content that he carry faire to the Parliament.
June 4th 1647.
[Colonel Whalley to Sir Thomas Fairfax.]a
His Majestie about 5 of the clock this afternoone was pleased to be a little merry and laughingly told mee hee now perceived your Excellencie would not force him back to Holdenby, which I perceived hee tooke very well. I told him hee might rest confident you was very tender of his honnour, and would secure him in what you might, what your resolutions were, I knew not; hee desired to give order to his servants to prepare to goe to New Markett to morrow. I desired his Majestie to forbeare till I had acquainted you with his desires, and had orders from your Excellencie to that purpose. His Majestie longs to be there, and this night expects to heare from you, and to be answered in his desires. I doubt not but your Excellencie will take into serious consideration a bussinesse of soe high a nature; the Lord direct you, which is the prayer of
Your Excellencies most faithfull
[Sunday] June 6th 1647.
[Letter from Collonell Whalley to Sir Thomas Fairfax.a ]
I have acquainted his Majestie with your orders; hee seemes to be very well pleased. I told him from your Excellencie that your coach should be ready to waite upon him; hee thanks you and desires it may be sent hither to goe by him, in case it should raine hee may make use of itt. His Majestie intended to be upon his march presently after dinner, I suppose it will be betwixt one and two of the clock. I shall not faile further to advertise you, soe soone as hee shall be ready to mount I shall send presently to your Excellencie. His Majestie is resolued to goe through Cambridge, though last night he seem’d to be otherwise minded. I suppose having condescended soe much to him in a great bussinesse you will [not] crosse him in this; I shall take it for your pleasure if I receive not contrary commands from you. I cease not to be, Sir,
Your most faithfull and humble servant,
From the Court at Childersey.
June 7, 1647.
[News-Letter from Newmarket.a ]
June 7th 1647.
This day the Generall, Lieutennant Generall, Commissary Generall Ireton, and Lt. Generall Hammond and divers Officers of the Army went to the [Lady] Cutts house where his Majesty was, according to his Majesties desire the day before. When they came there, they were according to the usuall manner received by the King with civilitie; after some generall discourse of things, the King went into the garden, and the Generall, his Officers, and the Commissioners went together and conferred upon the whole carriage of the businesse. The Commissioners seem’d to be much unsatisfied, whereupon the King coming up againe, the Generall and the Commissioners came to him and Cornett Joyce, who was the man that managed the bussinesse in secureing the King, was call’d before them all. The King charg’d him with saying hee had the Commission of the whole Army for what hee did, and by consequence had the Generall’s, hee being the principall part of the Army. The Cornett replyed, and did avow hee told his Majestie hee had not the Generall’s Commission when the King did particularly demaund it of him, and that [when] the King asked him by what Commission hee did come to secure him hee answered the King, if hee pleased to looke about hee might see by what authoritie, meaning the Troopers that were ready mounted. Whereupon the King publiquely said to the whole Company, that it was true indeed hee did say soe, and it was likewise true all the Gentlemen that were mounted on horseback did cry out giveing their approbation to what hee said, but saith the King I was notwithstanding perswaded that hee could not venture to attempt such a thing as to bring mee away but that hee had the councell of greater persons. Then Mr. Crewe, Sir John Cook extreamly prest against Cornett Joyce, that hee deserved to loose his head for what hee had done, that hee had injured the Parliament, the Generall, the Army, and the Commissioners intrusted with the King, and had brought them away without their consent; whereupon Cornett Joyce replyed, That the King gave his consent to come, and that the Commissioners gave their consent to come, and told them hee would not bring them without their consent. I, sayth the King and the Commissioners, you told us wee should goe, and then it was in vaine for us not to consent, but sayth the King, now I am come, I had the promise of these Gentlemen to be conveyed to New Markett; I take them to be men of their words, and were I meere stranger mett upon the high way and stopt from going on, none in civilitie but would provide conveniencies for mee, here I have none, and therefore I doe expect to morrow to goe for New Markett, and desire Sir Thomas Farfax and his Officers [to] conferre together about it, for the Commissioners say they have noe power at all further to dispose of mee, for their power ended at Holdenby, and was limitted to that place, though the Commissioners be the same; whereupon the Generall and Officers withdrew and conferr’d together and afterwards returned to his Majestie, and told him, as they did at the beginning, hee was removed from Holdenby without their privitie, knowledge, or consent, yet notwithstanding since hee is unwilling to goe back, if the Commissioners present with them will condescend, the Generall would not be against his going to New Markett. Sayth the King, This is a perfect denyall.
[John Cosens to Alderman Adams.]
Newcastle, 7 June, 1647.
I am assured, That the present feare of a sudden change is better knowne to you, and more deeply considered by you, then my selfe, by how much neerer you are related to the publique trust of the Kingdome; but this storme threatening us (and you in us) to fall heere, both as suddenly and as heavily as upon any other place whatsoever, I could not forbeare to give you my present sence of our condition in this place. This Regimenta is betweene twelve hundred and foureteene hundred strong, the Commander whereof (which makes all our danger) absent, there being not one Officer of the whole Regiment of considerable command that I knowe of which standeth well affected to the Parliament and Government but one Captaine and Lieutennant; some of the rest of the Captaines have been lately at London, and this weeke unexpected came suddenly and hastily home, and as it is reported did not at all see their Commander in cheife the Feild Marshall, and since they came they spare not to speake their intentions of feighting freely. How they speake of the Citty you may guesse by their language in their Declaration, and how they talke of the Parliament many wonders to heare; to morrow they muster the Regiment, and a flying report goes that they will turne all the Scotts out of the Towne. On Satturday morning soe soone as the post came, and that the Major had returned his letters for the Deputy Governour, who then by reason of his sicknesse would not goe, but without question they doe now joyne Councells, and will when time serves joyne forces together also; as yet they come not to doe any thing vissible, but certainly as soone as they receive the word they will secure this Towne and the Castle of Tinmouth in a moment: for my part I looke for it every day. And I pray God there may be soe much time left as may admitt of a recovery and timely helpe; the only way will bee in my apprehension that the Feild Marshall doe post hither with all speed, soe may hee both save this Towne and his Regiment; another way I knowe not, only I seriously recommend it unto you and those in whose hands helpe lyeth, that that you would please to make it knowne unto them. Whether [were?] this Regiment out of the Towne and a Commission sent to any person here of trust together with a proportion of Armes, there were noe doubt but all would be well and the Towne kept safe by our owne inhabitants, for the body of the Commons of this Towne are right, and soe I thinke are the Common Souldiers of the Garrison, only the Commanders of both are to be doubted, and what may be the issue God only knowes; for my owne particular if they become Masters, I expect noe more favour from them, nor lesse crueltie then from our last Enemies. But now, good Sir, for this Townes sake, for the Citties sake and for the Kingdomes sake, lay this to heart, and improve your power to rescue this soe desireable a Morsell from the mouth of the Adversary, and more I shall not say, the consequence thereof in relation to your Citty and the Kingdome being enough knowne unto you.a
To Alderman Adams, London.
[Letter to Skippon from some one in the Army.]
May it please your Honour,
Before the Parliament Commissioners came into the Army on the Heath there were read these ensuing Articles at the head of the severall Regiments, vizt.
1. That dureing the time of the Commissioners being at the Randezvous and the time of their speeches the Soldiers to be very silent and civill towards the said Commissioners.
2. That all Cinque Ports be presently seized on and secured, least the treasury should be conveyed out of the Kingdome.
3. That all Committeemen, Excisemen be presently seized on and secured untill they and every of them doe give upp their accompts from the begginning of this Warre.
4. That a Way be forthwith consulted for the speedy prevention of the Scotch Invasion to disturbe the Kingdome.
These or to the same effect with many more were read and applauded, but command was given that none should move any of these to any of your Members. Pardon I humbly beseech your Honour my presumption for this my troubleing of your Honour, it beeing out of a reall intention to the Kingdome’s good from
Your humblest and most faithfull Servant.
June 10th, 1647,
at 7 at night.
Some Committees being at the Randezvouz and heareing it are gone aside for it I assure your Honour.
To the Honorable Field Marshall Generall Skippon at the Rose in Cambridge, These with my duty and humble service presented.
[Letter from Major Twistleton to his Excellencie.]
May it please your Excellencie,
By order from Major Generall Skippona (at Newcastle) I drewe out of my Colonell’s Regiment 150 Horse under the command of Captaine Anthony Markham, who were appointed to attend his Majestie to Holdenby as a guard, and to receive further Orders from Collonell Graves; where they accordingly continued untill Friday the 4th of this instant, when his Majestie was removed from thence by a partie of Horse under the command of Cornett Joyce, with whome parte of those of our Regiment are gone, the Officers and about 70 Souldiers are returned to the Regiment, [not] perceiving the Cornett nor any other to have any order from your Excellencie or other Superiour Officer to command them further. I thought it noe lesse then my duty herewith to acquaint your Excellencie, and humbly to crave your order whether to returne those to their former trust, or remaund the other from the Army to the Regiment. What in this or otherwise your Excellencie shall please to command shall be carefully and punctually obeyed by him who is
Your honour’s most humble and faithfull servant,
Lincolne, 11th June, 1647.
[General Fairfax to Major Twistleton.]
I received your letter desiring my orders for the further disposall of that party which formerly was appointed out of your Regiment to attend upon the king to Holdenby; and in regard I perceive the occasion of the party soe dividing itselfe proceeded from the affection of some of your Souldiers who have seene and been fully possest of the reall and honest desires of the Army in order to the peace and libertie both of the Kingdome and themselves, have uninvited resolved to engage and stay with the Army in the lawfull prosecutions of the generall good, and therefore not doubting but all good men who understand us will joyne with us therein, I thought fitt to desire you to march upp with your Regiment to the Army, with all convenient speed; and least you or any else may be unsatisfied either in our proceedings, intentions, or present condition I have sent unto you Lieutennant Lloyda of Collonell Fleetwood’s Regiment, who is a faithfull man and one well knowne unto you, to give you a full Accompt of all our whole bussinesse.
[Letter from Sir Thomas Fairfax to Collonell Whalley.]
Having given orders for removing the head quarters to St. Alban’s,a and the rest of the Army thereabouts, I send this to you to give you notice of it that you may order your bussinesse accordingly, not knowing whether the removing the Army that distance from you may not produce some inconveniency in refference to the safety of the king’s person. I shall therefore committ it to you to take an especiall care of that your charge in useing all meanes tending to the securitie of his Majesty’s person, not only in keeping strict guards, but also in sending out scouts into the Countries about you, especially into Norfolke, where I understand there hath been lately some kinde of disturbance as if they intended to rise. In case there shall appeare any such reall danger I desire you to secure his Majestie by bringing him towards the Army, and to send me timely notice thereof. Not doubting of your care herein, I remaine
June 11th 1647.
[Letter intend[ed] to severall Counties concerning the Armies Engagements.]
Honoured Gentlemen and our Christian freinds,
Wee suppose you have received some information from our printed papers concerning our late proceedings with the Parliament in relation to our affaires as Souldjers, we meane the bussinesse of Ireland, of our Arrears, the Declaration against us as Enemies after soe many experiences in bloud of our fidelitie to the Kingdome, and all these managed and carried on by a prevailing party who have abused and misledd the Parliament against their faithfull freinds and the Kingdomes interest in many particulars. As to these things wee have named we desire to referre you to our printed papers, and the declarations wee are setting forth; but the trueth is, whilst these things were in agitation, that greate designe of the prevayling partie against the Parliament and this kingdomes interest does discover it selfe in their transactions with us. We are unavoidably involved as subjects both respectively to our selves and the publique to keepe our swords in our hands. Wee hope within three or fowre dayes to publish a Declaration which wee are confident will give satisfaction to all honest and reasonable men of our proceedings. In the meane time wee thought fitt to give you this breife accompt, that we are come neere London without the least intent of giving occasion of a new warr, but hope fully to prevent it; wee seeke not our selves but the accomplishing those ends and obteyning those things which the Parliament held forth as arguments to invite us to undertake this warre, vizt., the recovery of the rights and liberties of the subject, the opposeing tyranny and oppression, the obteyning a firme and well grounded peace, and those other things which the Parliament held forth in their severall Declarations, without which wee had not engaged ourselves; and now having through the good hand of God brought the warr to an end, wee would be loath the Kingdome should loose soe blessed a fruite and harvest of our labour, as we perceive some bad men are designing to defeate it of. Wee meddle not with matters of Religion or Church Government, leaving those to the Parliament. Wee desire as much as any to mainteyne the authority of Parliament, and the foundamentall government of the Kingdome. We seeke justice against those that have wronged us and the Kingdome. To which wee desire the concurrence of you and all good men and rest
Your very affectionate Freinds.a
St. Alban’s, June 13, 1647.
[News-letter from London.]
London: 13 June, 1647.
Our cheife news here is of your Army, and I can assure you wee have twenty stories in a day and scarce ever a true one; but your coming neere London I promise you put the Parliament and Citty into a shrewd fright. The Parliament satt hard at it Fryday and Satturday,b and soe did the Militia and Comon Councill; it was much urged to raise forces against you, nay and they would have done it if they could have found any way how. Many Officers Fryday and Satturday listed themselves at the Comittee at Derby House, and the Militia were consulting how to put the Citty into a posture, and to arme all, and have also listed some, but they find soe much difficulty in the manner they have laid all aside againe, and now intend to come to you with good words and are sending an answere to your letter by foure Aldermen and 8 Councill men. The Parliament have sent Sir Thomas Widdrington and Collonell White with additionall instructions. On Satturday morning things wrought after another manner, for upon the report of your being neere, all the Trayned Bands of London were commanded to rise on paine of death, and all the shopps to be shutt upp; and if this had taken, more pretty feates had been acted, the suspected party in London been secured, and they would have mett your Army (after you had been declared enemies) and done strange things; but this designe comes to nothing, for the trayned Bands would not budge, not 10 men of some companies appeared, and many companies none at all but the Officers; nay the very boyes in the streets jeered the drumms as they went about with their charge upon paine of death. The Westminster Regiment made a great appearance, and the Lord Mayora was in person very active to compell the shopp keepers to shutt upp shopp, by which means most about the Exchange and Cornhill were shutt, but few in other places; and those that did shutt upp were of the right stamp, and these many of them, understanding upon what slight ground that command was and being laughed at by others, opened their shopps againe in the afternoone, when also the Trayned Bands were discharged, but stronger Guards kept then formerly.b
[News-letter from London.c ]
The game is hard that is plai’d but hee that hath ordered hitherto will still noe doubt for the best.
I perceive the purging the House is inclined unto here, for the Army to stand upon, and a Councell faithfully to transact martiall affaires (and the truth is there is noe safety without now, for that you have falce Elections, Members not capeable, such as have been corrupt and all to pay their debts will goe farre); and indeed this must be, and if possible the Lords and Commons sitt together, at least be declared joinctly the Supreame Judicature; and before theis severall particulars can be gone through, what time will be spent; if that a party to Ireland could goe, and the rest see the other done it were excellent. I like well your last results at Councell of Warr on pursuing the designes of disbanding. The truth is the Army may be now instrumentall of the greatest good that ever this Kingdome or any other tasted on, and it’s cleere delivered from apparent ruine, which by these wretched instruments would have been brought upon it. Feare but the Citties, for to feare them is to conquer them, and feare hath done that; and now what say you to what I have ever told you, that the Citties being feared by the Parliament who had such an Army argued they were men of as much cowerdize as any in the world. O. Cromwell spake as gallantly and as home as if he had been charging his enemies in the feild.
[News-letter from London June 14.]
The House was this day informed, That about a thousand reduced Officers intended to addresse themselves to the Houses for their Arrears. It was thereupon ordered to send to the Militia for a stronger guard, which was speedily sent downe by a message to the House of Commons, and a Committee was appointed to goe to some of the cheife of the Petitioners and acquaint them with the ill sence the House had of this their publique meeting in the feild and to require them to disperse forthwith, and when all their Accompts were audited (which would be on Thursday next) the House would take speedy course for the payment of them. A Committee was then appointed to drawe a Declaration, That noe persons should upon paine of death gather themselves in a tumultuous way, and likewise what they have done in satisfaction of the Soldiers, and what they intend. A message came from the Lords; That their Lordshipps had appointed a Committee to drawe a Declaration to satisfie the Kingdome what the Houses had done, and what they would doe for the future, for the ease of the subjects, for the payment of the Souldiers, and for settleing the peace of the Kingdome.a The Commons named a Committee to joyne with the Lords for the drawing upp this Declaration. Another message came from the Lords desiring it might be referr’d to the same Committee that is appointed to drawe up the Declaration last mentioned to consider what place is fitt and convenient to have the person of the King brought unto, that soe hee may have the joynt applycation [of both kingdoms] for the settleing a safe and well grounded peace. Sir Phillippb opened the bussinesse upon this message, pressing much for his Majestie to come on the Southside of this River, Mr. Sollicitour answered him, Mr. Hollis replied, Mr. Nathaniell Fienness answered, Sir William Lewis replied to him in a long and pithie speech; at last comes Sir Arthur Hazlerigg and spoiles all the play with a plaine and downeright answer. Soe that the House ordered to send their Lordshipps an answere by messengers of their owne. The further debate of this bussinesse concerning the King to morrow. Letters of intelligence from France was sent for from Derby House, which being read were laid aside. Here is great talke of a designe to bring the Scotts in againe, and that Lauderdaile is gone with a letter from his Majestie for the Prince, who is to come in the head of that Army.
Your Excellencies most humble servant,
June 14 1647.
10 at night.
[News-letter from London.]
Heere hath been this day the greatest tumults and insolencies raised upon the House of Commons that ever any yet heard of, some of their members (and by name Sir Henry Vane Junr) threatned to be cutt in pieces, many others of them insufferably abused, and the whole House threatened, and I may truly say at this houre close block’t up by common Souldiers clamouring for their pay, and vowing to lett noe member passe out till they be satisfied. Itt first begane in the Court of Requests, to whome Mr. Hollis, Sir Phillip Stapleton and others were sent to appease, with promiss of 10,000l more to be added to what was formerly given them; upon which promise those seemed to be quiett, but this latter and more dangerous one still continues and whether they be of the number of those who first rais’d itt, or some other discontented persons who now second it, the tumult and throng in the Hall is soe great that it cannot be knowne. I looke upon this as a very sad omen, fearing least under this colour the Parliament would be forced to drawe downe ths Citty Guards for their owne securitie, and by this the Army not only have some cause of jealousie ministred to them when they shall see the whole Citty in a posture of defence, which hath been soe often urged to be done and except under this colour would hardly be obteyned, but also those spiritts who soe much thirst after a second warre exceedingly encouraged and heightened, looking upon this as a handsome foundation to raise another Army upon.
London. June 14th 1647.a
[Letter from the Earle of Warwick to the Generall].
Your professions are soe large and soe cleere to the good and service of the publique as I cannot receive those feares that many take by your approach to this place, that the sword the publique hath trusted in your hand shall have any use but for the defence and advantage of the State and Parliament that you have soe faithfully and fortunately served. I am glad to find your expressions doe agree with my opinnion of your justice, goodnesse, and honour, which as it hath occasioned a great affection and desire in mee alwayes to serve your Excellencie, soe shall it continue me in a reall disposition to serve you as
Your Excellencies most faithfull and
London: 14th June 1647.
[The King to Sir T. Fairfax].
The professions which you made to us at Childersley makes us hope, That albeit ye disavowed Cornett Joyce in bringing us forth from Holdenby yet you will not deny us those civilities which he (according to his power) did promise us; wherefore we desire, That the Duke of Richmond, Sir William Fleetwood, Doctor Shelden, and Doctor Hammond may be permitted to waite upon us to serve us in their severall places.a This being that which is soe necessary for our service, and not dissonant to your owne grounds, we cannot doubt but to have a satisfactory answere to these our letters. Att Newmarkett the 17th June 1647.
To Sir Thomas Fairfax, Generall.
Letter to the Gentlemen of severall Shires.
You will understand by the bearer hereof the late proceedings with the present intentions and resolutions of my selfe and this Army in order to the good and peace of the Kingdome. The papers that have been published from the Armie will (I hope) satisfie you concerning our grounds and the occasions that have led us to what we doe. I desire that for preserving the peace of the Kingdome, (until things may through the goodnesse of God come to a settlement) you would unanimously endeavour to putt your selves and the Country into such a posture as to prevent or suppresse any insurrections that may disturbe the peace of the country or the Kingdome, and that herein (without relation to different parties or interests) you would apply your self to such courses as may conduce to a generall composure, soe farr as may consist with the common right and liberties of the subject which we have hitherto fought for; and in prosecution heerof I shall acknowledge myselfe
Your very assured friend to serve you,
19th June, 1647.
Letter to Collonell Whalley [from Sir Thomas Fairfax.a ]
I have received yours, and cannot but be very sencible of the great burthen which the confidence I have of your care and fidelitie brought upon you, wherein I must needs say you have not now fayled my expectation, but have discharged your trust to the satisfaction of all and Honour to your selfe. I understand by Collonells Hammond and Lambert and also by your Letter, that the King, according to the Parliament’s last letter, intended to beginne his journey towards Richmond upon Thursday next, and that he intends to ly the first night at Royston, according to which his resolutions I desire you to attend upon his Majestie thither, and with all possible care to pursue your former dilligence for the safetie of his person, and by a messenger to give all speedy intimation when you see hee is resolv’d his jorney, and second it by another when he takes Horse and I shall take care that further orders shall meete you in good time at Royston. I heare of some jealousies of an intention to surprise the King to London, and though I need not be solicitous for your care, yet I thought it good to lett you knowe that I have received a caution thereof from other hands as well as your selfe. I shall say noe more, but, expecting as timely notice as you can, I rest,
To his Excellencie Sir Thomas Fairfax &c.
The humble Petition of the Adjutators of Collonell Rich his Regiment.
That whereas it hath been this day debated by us the Adjutators of the severall troopes of Collonell Rich his Regiment and Officers of the respective troopes, in which wee are all satisfied and have joyntly concurr’d that Lievtennant Hooker, Lievtennant of that troope which was Captaine Nevill’s, is noe freind but an enemy to the present iust proceedings of the Army: Wee therefore humbly Petition your Excellencie that hee may be suspended and discharged of that charge as Lievtennant of a Troope of Horse.a And your Petitioners shall as in duty bound ever pray &c.
|JNO. BIDDLES }||Collonell’s Troope|
|JO. DOBER }|
|JON. BRADSHAW }|
|RICH. WILLIAMS }|
|OLIVER HARRIS }|
|THO. BUTTERY }|
|ROGER STURGIS }|
|WILLIAM ROOKE }|
|JOSEPH FOSTER }|
|TOBIAS HILL }|
|THOMAS COOKE }|
|RI. LOXTON }|
Letter to Collonell Whalley from Barkhamsted.
Having received yesterday’s voteb from the House, which putts the Commissioners into the same capacitie that they were at Holdenby, we hold you free of all further charge, save to looke to your Guards that his Majestie make noe escape, and therein you must be carefull and more now than ever.
Dr. Hammond and the other of his Majestie’s Chaplaines (soe much desired) went through this Towne this morning coming towards you; perhapps the Commissioners will put you upon it to keepe them from the King, seec you are exact only in faithfullnesse to your trust, and that dureing that only, for now you can be as civill as some others that pretend to be more. Lett such distrustfull carriages be provided for by those Gent[lemen], who perhapps will incurre some difficulty in the way wherein you have been faulted. We commend our selves kindly unto you and rest
Your Affectionate freinds and Servants,
June 25th, 1647.
Prethee be very carefull of the Kings secureing; and although you have had some opportunity of putting all upon others that’s unacceptable, yet be never a whitt more remisse in your dilligence.
[News-letter from London to Sir T. Fairfax.]
May it please your Excellencie,
The House of Commons this day made the inclosed order, to which the Lords have not yet assented; the House hath not yet received the motion made yesterday by 10 of the 11 Members,a the Recorder Glynn being not willing to joyne with the rest in that motion, but hopes for the protection of the Cittie. The neglect of this bussinesse makes delay which caused jealousies of some designes. The reduced Officers went to receive 10,000h at Christ’s Church, which being denied to some of them because their Accompts were not audited, a tumult beganne which occasioned the Lord Mayor and Sheriffes to endeavour to raise the trained Bands, who fearing it was for some designe in opposition to the Army refused to stirre, though the Command was upon paine of death; the Cittizens shutt upp their Shopps, the Souldiers threatening to pull downe their Houses, whereupon said an eminent Cittizen, “how shall wee be able to oppose an Army when we cannot suppresse a small number of Officers.” This last night the trayned Bands of Westminster about one of the clocke was called out upon paine of death, but not one in 20 appeared. The Houses adiourned this day from 12 of the clock to 4 at which time they ordered to debate the Ordinance for putting the reduced Officers out of the Lines. I humbly thank your honour for your last and former favours to
Your Excellencie’s humble servant.
26 Junii, 1647.
[Letter from General Poyntz to his Officers].
Gentlemen and fellow Souldiers,
I make noe question but you are sencible of the great distractions is like to befall these northerne parts who have already soe much suffered by these unfortunate warrs, and if not prevented are like to suffer much more, and that through the occasion of some discontented persons who seekes to sett the Army and Country in a great mutiny and uproare, and to draw them to dissobedience of the Parliament, my selfe, and all their Comanders, the issue whereof can produce nothing but ruine to these northerne parts. Now to give you the more satisfaction I thought fitt to write this lettre to you all that you might truly understand how things are carried on by such incendaries and disaffected persons who came into my quarters to intangle and draw my Souldiers from their obedience to the Parliament to whome you have alwaies been soe faithfull and done soe good service from the beginning of those unhappy troubles, and them which the Parliament looke more upon now then ordinarie for our civill comportment both to the Country and our Superiours, all which I make no doubt when time shall serve but wee shall reape both the benefitt and honour to perpetuall posteritie. Now I being informed that Major Lilburne with one or two more of such incendaries as hee is have had meetings within the West [riding] and with one Hodgson formerly a Mountebank’s man and now a Chyrurgeon under the command of Colonell Copley, who observing these parts to continue still in their obedience to the Parliament endeavoured to putt this Army into confusion and distraction, pretending they were sent with authoritie from Sir Thomas Fairfax, which I will assure you is false, for they neither doe nor can produce any such order from him. I know him to be soe much a Gentleman of Honour and a Souldier that if hee desired assistance of forces hee would have desired it of mee and not have imployed such mountebanks and illaffected persons. I am credibly informed by my owne Quarter Master who was with Commissary Ireton and Collonell Whalley within thes foure or five dayes, that some of them framed a letter as if it came from the Souldiers of these parts, that they would march to him if hee pleased; but hee utterly denyed their motion, and forbad them not to stirre. Now according to the rule and discipline of warre, that if any comes into anothers Quarters to inveagle or perswade Souldiers from their superiours hee is to be punnished with death; but I being unwilling to use my authoritie untill I first informe the Parliament of England therewith, and for answeare thereunto you may perceive by these inclosed Ordeynancesa which I send you, which is soe much as I am confident will satisfie all honest and faithfull Souldiers. And truly, Gentlemen, you may all be assured that the Parliament does value you much, as may appeare by these inclosed Ordeynances; therefore I make noe question but you will continue in your wonted obedience to the Parliament, to mee, and your superiour officers as you have hitherto done, and if there be any of your fellow Souldiers that have unadvisedly engaged themselves with any such discontented persons, being misinformed, lett him returne to his Quarters and observe the commands of his commanders and all what hee hath done in this bussinesse shall be freely forgiven him and noe more thought upon. But in case these will not prevaile with such persons I will use my authoritie given mee by both Houses of Parliament. And these are to require you if any such incendaries or ill affected persons come into your quarters that then you apprehend them and bring them to mee with all speed. Having noe more at present, I rest,
Your loveing freind and faithfull
Commander in cheife
To all Captaines, Lts, Cortts, Ensignes, and all other inferiour Officeres and Souldiers under my Comand.
Yorke. 28th June 1647.
[General Poyntz to Col. Lionel Copley.]
I received yours of the 27th instant, and doe understand that those who pretend to be agitatours for the rest of some perticular Regiments doe continue in their obstinacy yet, and doe justifie their meetings without order from their Officers, and that they intend to make their just greivances knowne to his Excellencie. I would faine knowe why they should make their greivances knowne to Sir Thomas more now then they have done formerly. And why to Sir Thomas? they all knowing these forces are a distinct Army and not under the command of Sir Thomas, and that his Excellencie does utterly renounce their actions, as my Quarter Mastera informes mee which came from the Army but some fower or five dayes since, and Commissary Generall Ireton and Collonell Whalley told him soe. As for their desireing to have a generall Randezvous to know result, all or in part, I thinke it not fitt, neither are my Officers or Souldiers to appoint any Randezvous without an expresse order from mee. A joynt Randezvous as they call it will be a great disturbance and oppression to the Country; neither can I conceive what they can have to demaund, consult, or act, being the Parliament have ordered them all their arreares and an additionall Act of Indemnitie, in summe all what Sir Thomas his Army has, as you may perceive by these inclosed Prints; but I and any man may plainely see what these disturbances ayme at. If any of these men have any greivances to make knowne that they have not full satisfaction of in these ordinances let them repaire to mee, who am their Commander in cheife, and alwaies have given redresse to all that ever complained to mee as yet; but [if] that they doe not come speedily in to mee, or forbeare to send out any more of their unlawfull orders, to appoint Randezvous or have any such unlawfull meetings which they pretend to be just, they shall see I will disturbe their next, for I believe by that time this Letter is come to your hands I thinke my orders are devulged throughout the Army. I have sent severall goods[?] into the Northerne Country to the same effect. I desire you will lett this Letter be sent to those fellowes which undertake to act for the rest. Sir, haveing noe more at present, I rest
Yorke, 29th June,
[Fairfax to the Agitators of the Regiments of the Northern Association.a ]
I have received your letters, and doe perceive by them together with the Coppy of your intended Petition, Representation, and Declaration, how sencible you are both of your owne and our condition as Souldiers in referrence to our late greivances exprest in our severall papers and declarations, as also [of] the condition of the Kingdome now calling and pressing for a speedy settlement of their just rights and liberties with the peace thereof; as also your approbation [of the] proceedings of the Army in pursuance of our iust desires, soe that I cannot but well accept and approve of this your vnanimous and mutuall concurrence with this Army for the obteyning of their soe just and necessary concernments both to our selves and the Kingdome. And I doe give you this assureance that I looke upon you as the same with the Army more imediatly under my command, and shall in all things equally provide for you as God shall enable mee to provide for them, which I am the more engaged to doe because I cannot forgett the former labours and hardshipps which you under my command have soe willingly undergone for the good and preservation of this Kingdome, and that upon as small and inconsiderable satisfaction as any forces in this Kingdome. I perceive by your inclosed papers that you intend some speedy addresse to the Parliament by way of Declaration to them, and therein to expresse your approbation of the Armies just requests both concerning themselves as soldiers and subjects of this Kingdome, and your resolution to associate with them in pursuance thereof, upon which intimation I though[t] fitt to lett you knowe that I shall be willing to all your desires [to] represent your just and modest desires in as effectuall a way as I have done for my owne Army; and for your desire of being exempted from any obedience to any other command which might occasion obstruction in the promoting of your iust desires, I shall assure you, though I cannot for the present answere your expectation, I shall not doubt but upon the returne of your representation &c. to be presented to the Parliament, to take such course and provide soe for you as shall both be for your owne satisfaction and of all those who singly desire the pease and quiet of the Kingdome.
[a ]Colonel Edward Whalley, a life of whom is given in Noble’s House of Cromwell, ii., 143.
[a ]Major John Alford, of Colonel Rich’s regiment, one of the subscribers of the engagement of March 22.
[a ]Thomas Sheffield, Colonel of a regiment of horse, and Thomas Jackson, Lieutenant-Colonel of Fairfax’s foot regiment.
[b ]John Lambert, succeeded in 1646 to the command of the regiment in the New Model which was originally Colonel Edward Mountague’s.
[a ]Richard Fincher, before referred to, p. 1, was Major of Sheffield’s regiment.
[b ]These particular petitions of the separate regiments may be found amongst the Clarke MSS., vol. xli., ff. 105-127.
[a ]William Rainborowe, of Colonel Sheffield’s regiment, not the more celebrated Colonel Thomas Rainborowe. See Lords’ Journals, ix., 195.
[a ]On the question whether this ordinance was sufficient to secure the army from danger see the opinion drawn up by Judge Jenkins, May 24, 1647, and published as a pamphlet, entitled The Armies Indemnity. He decides that it was not sufficient.
[a ]Rushworth, vi., 485, 489. Commons’ Journals, v., 174, 181; Lords’ Journals, ix., 192, 201. Manchester’s letter must have been dated May 14.
[b ]Andrew Goodhand of the Lifeguard.
[a ]Captain Henry Hall succeeded Charles Doyley as Captain of the Lifeguard. Sprigge, ed. 1854, p. 332; Rushworth, vi., 551.
[b ]John Farmer, captain in the regiment of dragoons commanded by Colonel John Okey.
[a ]John Hewson had succeeded to the command of Colonel Pickering’s regiment of foot on the latter’s death in December, 1645. Sprigge, pp. 167, 329.
[a ]Captains John Gladman, James Berry, and Adam Lawrence, all three of Fairfax’s regiment of horse. A life of Berry is given in the Dictionary of National Biography.Mr. R. I take to be John Rushworth. The letter mentioned is that of the eight regiments. The regiments of Pye and Graves were quartered at Holdenby.
[b ]See on this meeting the letter of the Commissioners. Cary, i., 214.Rushworth, vi., 485, 487. Another version of this speech of Skippon’s is printed by Rushworth, and dated 15 May.
[a ]These two officers seem to be Lieutenant Colonel Jackson and Major Gooday of Fairfax’s regiment, two of those who had engaged toserve in Ireland.
[a ]Francis White of Fairfax’s foot regiment, on whom see Rushworth, viii., 943, and his own pamphlet, viz. The Copies of Several Letters presented to the Lord General Fairfax and Lieut-General Cromwell, by Francis White, 1649.
[a ]John Disbrowe (or Desborough), Major of Fairfax’s regiment of horse.
[a ]Colonel Robert Hammond.
[a ]William Cowell of Colonel Harley’s regiment, died a colonel in 1648. See Carlyle’s Cromwell, letter lxix.
[b ]Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Reade of Colonel Herbert’s regiment. Rushworth, vi., 466, 471.
[c ]Major Thomas Harrison, the regicide.
[a ]William Leigh of Fairfax’s regiment of foot.
[b ]Lewis Audley of the same regiment. See on Audley, Burton’s Diary, iii., 15, 37-45, 86.
[c ]Major of Ireton’s regiment of horse.
[d ]MS. Mdum.
[a ]Robert Huntington, Major of Cromwell’s regiment of horse. On 8 April, 1647, the House of Commons voted that he should command Cromwell’s regiment. Commons’ Journals, v., 137.
[b ]The Lieutenant-General of this regiment was Edward Salmon. Rushworth, vi., 466.
[a ]Captain Daniel Thomas of Sir H. Waller’s regiment.
[b ]Major Thomas Smith.
[a ]Azariah Husbands, of Rich’s regiment. “Hee,” refers to Capt. Thomas.
[a ]MS. “did not resolve.”
[b ]Major Nicholas Moore and Captain Charles Mercer of Okey’s regiment of dragoons.
[a ]Adrian Scroope, the regicide, Major of the regiment of horse of Colonel Richard Grevis, or Graves, which was at this time guarding the King at Holmby. Scroope afterwards succeeded to the command of that regiment.
[a ]Charles Holcroft of the same regiment, one of those officers who had signed the engagement of March 22, promising to serve in Ireland.
[b ]Captain Fleming, of Graves’s regiment, was adjutant-general of horse in the New Model, colonel in 1648, and killed in the war in Wales. Phillips, Civil War in Wales, i., 401.
[a ]Captain — Barton.
[b ]Colonel Nathaniel Rich; his major was John Alford.
[a ]Richard Fincher.
[a ]Colonel Robert Lilburne; his major was William Master.
[a ]Mark Grime, of the regiment late Monntague’s, now Lambert’s.
[a ]Edmund Chillenden, an account of whom may be found in the Dictionary of National Biography.
[a ]A note, evidently written in 1662, when these reports were transcribed, says: “Looke that Rogue’s words was fidele, Ambo nebulones.”
[a ]Colonel Whalley? We shall desire you to say that though there are dissenters in a few regiments yet it appears that the like sense is in all regiments.
[a ]Colonel Butler?
[a ]George Joyce, cornet to Faurfax’s life-guard.
[a ]This letter was evidently written by Colonel Lambert, who expressed in the debate views exactly similar to those contained in this letter, (p. 42), and acted as spokesman of the ten office’s authorised to draw up the grievances. The authority given to them ran as follows:—
“The Officers whose names are here underwritt doe declare, That they conceive the summary of the severall Representations of their respective Regiments read to them in the Church in Walden the 15th of May, 1647, to be the substance of the severall Representations, and doe desire that Collonell Whalley, Collonell Hammond, Collonell Rich, Collonell Lambert, Collonell Ingoldesby, Collonell Okey, Collonell Hewson, Major Desbrowe and Major Cowell may perfect and drawe upp our summarie to be delivered to Major Generall Skippon and the rest of the Officers sent from the Parliament:” (Worcester MS., vol. xli., f. 101 b.) The list of names which follows is practically the same as that printed in Rushworth, vi., 471.
[b ]MS. “brought.”
[a ]MS. “expedition.”
[b ]Either Thomas Wragge or William Clarke.
[a ]The protestation and vindication of Colonel Butler and the other dissenting officers, which are annexed in the MS., were printed in a pamphlet entitled “A Vindication of a Hundred and Sixty-seven Commission Officers that are come off from the Army in Obedience to the Parliament Orders,” published July 1, 1647. See also Rushworth vi., 495.
[b ]In the MS. this letter was originally dated 1662, for which date 1647 was afterwards substituted. This and an entry at the beginning of vol. lxvii. of these MSS. shows that these copies were made in 1662.
[c ]Edward Sexby first appears in history as one of the presenters of the letter of the agitators of the eight regiments to their General. He was a Suffolk man, and had served first in Cromwell’s regiment of horse, and then in that of Fairfax. See his account of himself in Appendix B. He seems to have left the army after 1647, but happening to be present in Cromwell’s army at the time of the battle of Preston (on some private business) was entrusted with a letter from Cromwell to the Speaker, announcing the victory. For this service the House of Commons voted him £100 (August 23, 1648, Commons’ Journals, v., 680). In February, 1649, Parliament ordered the detention of the Scotch Commissioners, and they were arrested by Mr. Sexby at Gravesend, for which he was ordered £20 (February 28, Commons’ Journals, vi. 152). He was also appointed Governor of Portland, is henceforth designated as Captain Sexby, and was more than once charged with commissions requiring dexterity and energy (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1649-50, pp. 135, 155, 531). In June, 1650, he was, at Cromwell’s suggestion, selected for employment in Ireland, and charged to raise a foot regiment, but on September 23, 1650, was ordered to march to Scotland instead, as Cromwell complained of the want of foot (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1650, pp. 206, 332, 352). He took part with his regiment in the siege of Tantallon Castle, in February, 1651 (Mercurius Politicus, p. 621). In June, 1651, however, he was cashiered by court-martial, for what offence does not appear (Letters of Roundhead Officers to Captain Adam Baynes, Bannatyne Society, 1856, p. 27). This letter was evidently written from London to the agitators at Saffron Walden.
[a ]Lieutenant Frances Nicholls, of Lilburne’s regiment, was committed by the House of Commons on April 27, having been sent up from the army in custody on account of his opposition to the enlistment for Ireland (Lords’ Journals, ix. 154; Commons’ Journals, v. 155). The vote mentioned in the letter took place on May 14 (Commons’ Journals, v. 175) and is thus referred to in a newsletter of 17 May, amongst the Clarke Papers:—
“The House of Commons voted those that brought upp Ensigne Nicholls 10l. and debated very much about discharging the Ensigne, and giveing him 10l towards his charges, but going by voices foure carried it in the Negative, the Ensigne was informed by the Sargeant, that if he pleased to Petition the House they would give him his release and a gratuitie besides perhaps of 20l. The reason why it was carried in the negative was because then it would be said they repented them of what they had done.”
[a ]This letter is headed in the MS. “Letter from Lt. Cn.” It is perhaps also from Sexby, who was undoubtedly the leading spirit amongst the agitators. In that case the heading may have been added by the copyist in 1662, and may mean Lieutenant-Colonel Sexby, giving him his later title. On the other hand, the expression “it is expected they will stand to us,” seems to show that the author was an officer. Perhaps “Lt. Cn” signifies Lieutenant Edmund Chillenden of Whalley’s regiment of horse, one of the two officers elected in June, 1647, to act as “agitator” for the officers of his regiment.
[b ]There are two copies of this letter amongst the Clarke Papers, one of which gives it as a postscript to the preceding letter. It was evidently written on May 18, from the reference to the disbanding vote (Commons’ Journals, v. 176).
[c ]See Fairfax Correspondence, iii., 343.
[a ]A newsletter of 18 May says: “The petition of the well affected partie in the City should have been presented this day, but none can be found to present it though tendered at the House of Commons door. I understand that Mr. Hollis hath received the City petition, though himselfe is concerned in it, and hath presented it to the Speaker, with a promise to see it read to-morrow in the House.”
[b ]The advice about the printing press was followed. Hollis, in his Memoirs, § 66, describes the army as “countenancing and publishing seditious pamphlets, for which they had a press which followed the army.” The printer of these pamphlets seems to have been a certain John Harris, who himself wrote several pamphlets under the name of “Sirrahniho.” Harris printed, inter alia, the following pamphlets: “A Declaration of Master William Lenthall, Speaker of the House of Commons, wherein is contained the reasons that moved him to absent himself from the service of the House on Friday, July 30, 1647.” The imprint it bears is “Oxford, printed by J. Harris and H. Hills, living in Pennifarthing Street, 1647.” “The humble address of the Agitators, 14 Aug. 1647,” is said to be printed at London, “for J. Harris, Printer to his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax,” and also “the Resolutions of the Agitators of the army” “printed for John Harris, London, 1647.” On September 30, 1647, Parliament passed a stringent ordinance against unlicensed printing, and, at the request of Fairfax, appointed Gilbert Mabbot, licenser. The political press in general thus passed under the control of the army, and there was no further need of Harris and his travelling press. Old Parliamentary History, xvi., 300, 309. About November, 1647, Harris printed a pamphlet entitled “The Grand Designe or a discovery of that form of Slavery entended, and in part brought upon the free people of England by a powerfull party in the Parliament, and Lieutenant General Cromwell, Commissary General Ireton and others of that faction in the army.” From this time he became closely associated with the Levellers, and published pamphlets for that faction.
[a ]April 28, 1647.
[a ]This letter is not dated and no signatures are appended. It was, however, evidently written immediately after the abstract of the grievances had been drawn up, i.e. about May 20. Several agitators are mentioned as being sent with it to the northern troops. The names of three agitators belonging to the southern army are appended to a subsequent declaration, viz. Richard Kingdom of Cromwell’s regiment, Thomas Diggel, of Harrison’s, late Sheffield’s regiment, and John Caseby, of Flectwood’s. None of these signed the petition of May 29, but Diggel signed the letter of May 19, therefore their despatch to the north probably took place between 19th and 29th May.
[b ]It is difficult to determine the authorship of this letter. It seems to have been written by some one officially employed at headquarters. The signature does not occur again.
[c ]An account of the whole business of these petitioners is given in a pamphlet entitled Gold Tried in the Fire, 1647. British Museum, E. 392, (19). The petitioner committed to Newgate was one William Browne. Commons’ Journals, v. 179; Rushworth, vi., 488.
[a ]A news-letter of May 18 says: “Things growe very high; the Lord moderate them or else we are like to have a very sad kingdome. It is thought that the House intends to send down propositions to the King; it is thought such propositions will be sent as the King will signe, and then they thinke the King’s party and theirs will be hard enough for us. . . . . The great designe of the Parliament is to get the Magazine of Oxford into their hands upon pretence of the service of Ireland.”
[a ]See Army Declarations, p. 17.
[b ]These returns are amongst the Clarke Papers, Worcester MSS. vol. xli.
[a ]This report was presented to the House of Commons by Cromwell on May 21. Commons’ Journals, v. 181; Fairfax Correspondence, iii. 348. It forms a sequel to the letters printed in Cary’s Memorials of the Civil War, i. 205, 207, 214; and in Carlyle’s Cromwell, Appendix, 10. The originals of those letters are amongst the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian Library, but the MS. of this report is not amongst them. There are, however, amongst the Clarke MSS., copies of several letters which are in Tanner’s collection, and the two frequently supplement each other. A news-letter amongst the Clarendon Papers, No. 2,520, says, “Lieutenant-General Cromwell on Friday last made his report from the army, that it will without doubt disband, but they will not by any means hear of going for Ireland. The greatest difficulty, he said, would be to satisfy the demands of some (whom he had persuaded as much as he could possibly) but a great part of the army remitt themselves entirely to be ordered by the Parliament.” Compare Hollis, Memoirs, § 87, Walker, History of Independency, ed. 1661, pt. i. p. 31.
[a ]This letter is headed “Letter from Lt. C. to the Agitators:” see p. 85. The second sentence refers to the votes of the House of Commons on May 25: this letter was apparently written the same day. Of the cyphers some can be easily explained: 51 stands for London, 55, the army, 44, the agitators, 43, a rendezvous, 68, probably Fairfax.
[b ]The date above given can hardly be correct. Fairfax was ordered down to the army on May 18, and arrived at Walden on May 20 (ante p. 93, Rushworth, vi., 491). The letter “to the several regiments” is that of May 24, printed in Rushworth, vi., 495. The removal of the headquarters to Bury took place on Tuesday, May 25. The letter also refers to the votes of Parliament on May 25 “Tuesday last,” as having this day become known to the soldiers, and was therefore probably written on Thursday, May 27. The Friday on which Fairfax was ill would then be May 21, the day after his arrival at the army; if it be taken to refer to Friday, May 28, this letter must have been written on May 29, and in that case the absence of any reference to the council of war fixed for that day is curious. The authorship of the letter is more difficult to determine. It was evidently written by some one in authority in the army, to some one in the Parliament. The author speaks of the vote ordering Fairfax to the army as “your commands,” and says of the proceedings of Parliament, “unless you proceed,” etc. It was very probably addressed to Cromwell. The author had been recently in London, and it was his business in the army to keep things as right as he could; it was probably one of the four commissioners sent down at the beginning of May, two of whom, Skippon and Ireton, were still with the army. From substance and style it seems more likely to have been written by the latter.
[a ]Colonel William White, M.P. for Pontefract; see Fairfax Correspondence, iii., 42, 318, 342; Hollis, Memoirs, § 130.
[a ]Headed as before, “Letter from Lieutenant C— to the Agitators.”
[b ]92 is perhaps Cornet Joyce.
[c ]Tuesday, June 1. These three lines appear to be an enclosure, a message to be forwarded to the agitators. It is probably from some one at Oxford.
[d ]Lord De La Warr.
[e ]Colonel Rainborowe was appointed on May 25 to command the forces intended for the reduction of Jersey. On May 28 he was ordered to repair to his regiment with all speed and take course to stay it at the place he shall find it at his coming down. Commons’ Journals, v., 184, 193. For the reasons of this order see Hollis, Memoirs, § 95. He found it quartered about Abingdon, and in a state of great disorder. Cary, Memorials of the Civil War, i., 221. The cause of Rainborowe’s being ordered to his regiment is related by Hollis, Memoirs, § 95, and is thus stated in a royalist news-letter, “Friday last Colonel Rainsborough told the House of Commons ‘that his regiment was marching, being thereto invited by the other regiments of the army who have persuaded them to participate in the fortune with the rest of the soldiery.’ The said House asked the Colonel what that signified, he answered he knew not, that he had been three months past rather a sollicitor for the Colonel of that regiment, showing from time to time the wants of his soldiers, and that the country people, being injured by some of his necessitous soldiers, fell upon them, as he had formerly acquainted the House, in soe much that his regiment was constrained to dislodge, and was now marched towards Oxon.” Clarendon MS. 2,522. The regiment had been quartered in Hampshire.
[a ]Skippon was not present at the council of war; see list of persons present, Army Declarations, p. 15. On June 1, the House of Commons ordered him to return at once to London, and he was again in his place on June 4. Commons’ Journals, v., 195, 198. The letter should be dated, Bury, May 29.
[a ]These votes for disbanding were passed by the House of Commons on 25 May, on the report of the Derby House Committee, brought in by Hollis. They were agreed to by the Lords on May 28.
[b ]“The humble petition of the souldiers of the army” is printed with the names of the agitators appended in the book of Army Declarations, published in 1647, p. 16, and without the names in Rushworth, vi., 498.
[c ]A list of the names of the officers present is given in the book of Army Declarations, p. 15. A short account of the Councils in Rushworth, vi., 497.
[a ]“The opinion and humble advise of the Councell of Warre, convened at Bury, Saturday, 29 May, 1647.” Army Declarations, p. 12; Lords’ Journals, ix., 226; Old Parliamentary History, xv., 385.
[b ]On May 28, Parliament ordered the votes to be sent to the General with a joint-letter from the Speakers of the two Houses. The letter is printed in the Lords’ Journals, ix., 217; Old Parliamentary History, xv., 380. Fairfax’s answer to Manchester, Lords’ Journals, 226; Old Parliamentary History, 384; his reply to Lenthall, Rushworth, vi., 499; Old Parliamentary History, 390.
[a ]The mention of the council of war gives the date of this letter to 29 May.
[b ]According to the Lords Journals, ix., 207, only three Lords protested.
[a ]Fairfax’s letter of May 30 is printed in the Lords’ Journals, ix., 226.
[a ]Colonel Richard Ingoldsby’s regiment was then quartered at Oxford. They were to be disbanded at Woodstock on June 14, and £3,500 was sent down to pay them, but recalled by vote of June 1. “The messenger being too slow, the money was got into Oxford before he could overtake it, and the soldiers, notwithstanding the Parliament’s commands, were resolved not to part with it. The convoy of Dragoons who had guarded it from London attempted to have carried it back again, out the garrison soldiers fell upon them in the High Street by All Souls’ College (where the money then stood), wounded several, and beat the rest so shamefully out of the city that they were glad not only to leave the money but a waggon and team of horses behind them.” Wood, Annals, ii., 508. The agitators despatched Cornet Joyce and a body of horse to seize the magazine at Oxford, which was effected about June 1. Hollis, Memoirs, § 95; Huntingdon’s reasons for laying down his commission, Maseres Tracts, i. 398. According to John Harris, whose statement is copied by Huntingdon and Hollis, the seizure of the magazine was approved by Cromwell, The Grand Design, 1647, p. 3.
[a ]Undated, but pretty certainly written on June 2 from the references to the votes of the Commons of June 1, as to locking up the doors and sending to the Lords to sit. The end of the debate was a resolution “That this debate of this business concerning the army be laid aside for the present: and resumed the first business to-morrow morning; and nothing to intervene.” Commons’ Journals, v., 195.
[a ]See p. 92; this second petition was rejected by 128 to 112 votes, Hollis and Sir William Lewes being tellers for the majority. Commons’ Journals, v., 195. Sir Richard Price’s and Sir Philip Percival’s cases were referred to a committee.
[a ]See Cary’s Memorials of the Civil War, i., 219-222, and Rushworth, vi., 499, 500, 502.
[b ]See on the London Militia, Rushworth, vi. 648, 745.
[c ]The question whether this letter is the famous letter addressed to Cromwell is discussed in the preface. There are reasons for believing that it should be dated June 3. It appears to have been written immediately after the events related in it. Joyce surrounded Holdenby on the night of Wednesday, June 2, and occupied it about daybreak on June 3. By eight the house was in his possession, and he was peacefully setting his guards. According to the letter of Lord Montague, one of the Commissioners, Colonel Greaves escaped before one of the clock on the Wednesday night, which agrees exactly with the statement in this letter. About one o’clock in the morning seems to refer to the morning of the day on which the letter was written, rather than the morning of the day before. By the morning of the 4th, Joyce had arranged to carry the King to Newmarket, and needed no instructions. His plans were made.
The best accounts of the seizure of the King are that in Rushworth, vi., 513, apparently written by Joyce himself, and those contained in the letters of Lord Montague, dated June 3rd and 4th. Lords’ Journals, ix., 237, 240, 250.
[a ]As in the case of Joyce’s first letter, there is no note of any name or address. It is possible however to deduce from the contents of the letter certain conclusions as to the person to whom it was directed. Joyce was now on his way to Newmarket, where the rendezvous of the army was to take place. The letter is evidently written to some person at Newmarket, near it, or on the way to it. He is asked to assist in conveying the King thither, by giving Joyce a party to help him, and by coming with his friends to meet the King. The person to whom the letter is addressed was apparently not in the plot himself. Joyce thinks it necessary to tell him that the King has been taken from Holdenby, that it is at the King’s own desire that he is being conveyed to Fairfax, and he also thinks it necessary to protest the excellence of his own intentions. After telling him what has been done he urges him to make the best of it. These points suggest that Joyce was not writing to an accomplice but rather to a person whom he wanted to become one after the event. A suggestion based on these general conclusions may perhaps be ventured. Joyce purposed to go to Newmaket by way of Cambridge, as the fact that Whalley met him on the way the next day proves (Lords’ Journals, ix. 248). His route from Huntingdon to Cambridge lay through the hundred of Papworth. On May 30, Major Adrian Scroope and that portion of the regiment of Colonel Graves which was not actually assigned to guard the King had been ordered to take up their quarters at once in Papworth hundred. (See Appendix C.) Had Scroope and his soldiers been so disposed they could have seriously hindered Joyce’s journey to Newmarket. I suggest therefore that this letter was addressed to Major Scroope in general reliance on his sympathy and assistance. If so, Joyce in asking for “a partie” employs the word in the technical sense of a detachment of horse, and by “friends” probably means to ask Scroope to bring all the officers he can to meet the King.
[a ]In the copy from which this letter is printed these lines are appended to the preceding letter as if they were a postscript to it. This appendix however is evidently not addressed to the same person as the letter. I take that letter to be itself the enclosure referred to, and this an endorsement appealing to some person to deliver it. The person to whom it was addressed was evidently in constant communication with the agitators. I should suggest that it was directed to some inferior officer, or possibly to some agitator belonging to the regiment of Colonel Graves, that he might deliver it to Scroope.
[b ]There are two copies of this letter. In one, the last line runs, “I know that I speak nothing but truth.” The reading given above is that of the earlier copy.
[a ]A life of Poyntz is given in Sir John Maclean’s Historical and Genealogical Memoir of the Family of Poyntz. Sydenham Poyntz, b. 1607, was the fourth son of John Poyntz of Reigate. Originally a London apprentice he took service in Germany and rose to high rank in the imperial army. On his return to England he entered the parliamentary service, and on May 27, 1645, was voted by the House of Commons the command of a regiment of horse and a regiment of foot in the north, and shortly after was nominated commander-in chief of the seven associated northern counties. Commons’ Journals, iv., 248, 250. On September 24, 1645, he defeated the King’s forces at Rowton Heath, near Chester. On March 13, 1647, he was confirmed by the Commons in the post of Governor of York, and Clifford’s Tower was also placed under his command. He had some difficulty in getting control of Clifford’s Tower. A news-letter written about this time says, “The northern general struts and looks big, and instead of true blue hath got a bundle of orange ribbon in his hat, much like a plume of feathers behind.” The adherents of Fairfax wore blue ribbons in their hats, the Levellers adopted sea-green as their colour, and the Clubmen in 1645 chose white ribbons. Lilburne, An Impeachment of High Treason against Oliver Cromwell, p. 41; Whitelock, Memorials, iii., 23, ed. 1854; Sprigge, Anglia Rediviva, p. 61, ed. 1854.
[b ]Matthew Boynton, confirmed as governor of Scarborough, March 13, 1647. In the second civil war he sided with the royalists. Rushworth, vii., 1370.
[a ]On Friday, June 4, when Fairfax was at Kenford, near Bury, he received the news of the seizure of the King, and immediately sent Whalley and his regiment to march to Holdenby to take charge of the guard of the King and attend the Commissioners there. On the morning of Saturday, June 5, he learnt that Joyce had on the preceding day removed the King from Holdenby to Hinchinbrook, near Huntingdon, and sent Whalley further orders to guard the King back to Holdenby, despatching also two more regiments of horse to assist him. To his great surprise the King refused to return. See Fairfax’s letters of June 4 and 7, Old Parliamentary History, xv., 400, 409; Lords’ Journals, ix., 243, 248.
[a ]Fairfax’s answer to this letter is shown by a letter to Lenthal, June 8. Rushworth, vi., 551.
[a ]An abridged version of this letter is given in Rushworth, vi., 549.
[a ]Skippon’s regimen
[a ]From John Cosens. Rushworth, vi., 559; see also Commons’ Journals, June 12, and two letters from Skippon on the subject. Cary, i. 229, 230.
[a ]On June 15, the House of Commons voted that the General should deliver the person of the King to the Commissioners formerly appointed, that he should be placed at Richmond, and guarded by Colonel Rossiter’s regiment. Twistleton was Major of Rossiter’s regiment. His letter shows that a detachment of that regiment had before formed part of the King’s guard. Further references to the subject are contained in the Lords’ Journals, ix., 283, 287, 289. Twistleton succeeded Rossiter in the command of the regiment.
[a ]Lieutenant Griffith Lloyd.
[a ]The headquarters were at St. Alban’s on the night of June 12. Fairfax received on June 11 a petition from the peaceable and well-affected inhabitants of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. Lords’ Journals, ix., 260, 261, 263; Rushworth, vi., 559.
[a ]From the officers of the army, but apparently never sent. Compare the letter of June 10, given by Carlyle and Rushworth.
[b ]Friday, June 11, and Saturday, June 12. See Rushworth, vi., 553, 557.
[a ]Sir John Gayer, impeached for his share in the tumults of July. Lords’ Journals, ix., 201.
[b ]On June 11, a Committee of Lords and Commons was appointed to join with the Committee of the Militia of the City of London, with power to put London in a posture of defence, suppress insurrections, etc. The same afternoon the letter from Fairfax and the chief officers of the army to the city of London was communicated to the Parliament, and at the request of the city the army was ordered not to approach within 40 miles of London. On the 12th, hearing that the army was still approaching, the Mayor and Aldermen despatched a conciliatory answer to the letter and abandoned all intention of resistance. Commons’ Journals, v., 206-209; Rushworth, vi., 554, 557; see also Fairfax Correspondence, iii., 355.
[c ]Undated, but pretty clearly written early in June, as shown by the reference to the advice of the council of war of May 29 as recent; it was evidently written soon after the army declared its resolution not to disband, and before its political demands had been definitely set forth, i.e., before the representation of the army of June 14. On 11 June, Parliament and City made preparations for fighting, on 12 June, the City gave way and sent a deputation to the army with a conciliatory answer to the letter of the officers of June 10. As that letter was written by Cromwell the statement about his speaking home must refer to it.
[a ]Lords’ Journals, ix., 264.
[b ]Sir Philip Stapleton.
[c ]O. C. is not O. Cromwell. It is evidently written to Fairfax, and probably by some member of the House of Commons.
[a ]Dated in the MS. June 16, but apparently referring to the tumult of June 14. Commons’ Journals, v., 209; Rushworth, 561, 571. One of the charges against the 11 members evidently refers to this tumult of June 14 described in this letter. See also the Army Declaration of June 23, and the Fairfax Correspondence, iii., 357, 358.
[a ]See Lord Montague’s letter of June 27, 1647, and subsequent letters. Lords’ Journals, ix., 299, 300. The commissioners of the Parliament complained on June 27 to Fairfax of his allowing these persons to have access to the King. They report, “the General tells us that it is very true that the King wrote to him about a fortnight since about those two chaplains, and he never gave him an answer; whereat the King was angry.” In his letter to Parliament of July 8 Fairfax vindicated hiconduct in permitting Richmond and these chaplains to attend the King.
[a ]Undated, probably written June 21, 1647. See Lord Montague’s letter of June 20. Lords’ Journals, ix., 283.
[a ]Compare a paper printed at the end of the “Solemn Engagement” of June 5, 1647, entitled, “Severall Reasons, why we Souldiers cast out our Dissenting Officers.” British Museum, E., 392, 26.
[b ]Lords’ Journals, ix., 290, 292; Commons’ Journals, v., 222.
[c ]MS. “soe.”
[a ]See Commons’ Journals, v., 224, 225. The ten members asked for leave to be absent, which was granted on the afternoon of June 26.
[a ]In a letter dated June 17, Poyntz gave Parliament an account of the commencement of the disturbances amongst his soldiers. Cary, Memorials of the Civil War, i., 233, see also pp. 264-282. For the orders in question see Lords’ Journals, ix., 288; Commons’ Journals, v., 218, 219. The Major Lilburne referred to appears to have been Major Henry Lilburne.
[a ]Robert Newcomen. Lords’ Journals, ix., 288; Cary, Memorials, i., 265.
[a ]See p. 168, where this letter is made the the basis of the first charge of the agitators against Poyntz. Copley was impeached by the army in 1648. Rushworth, vii., 1354. Some other letters written by Poyntz at this period are in vol. 58 of the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian Library. He invariably spells his own surname with a final “s,” and his Christian name as above.
[a ]The petition and representation of eight regiments of the Northern Association is dated July 5, and was presented to Fairfax at Reading on July 15, and presented by him to Parliament on July 16. Rushworth, vi., 620-623. On June 25, Poyntz wrote to Fairfax informing him that several “gentlemen pretending dependence” on the southern army were causing disturbance amongst the northern regiments, and that in pursuance of the orders of Parliament he intended to arrest them. Fairfax’s answer reached Poyntz, July 3. It was, “That if any officers or soldiers were come from his army into the northern army, and laboured to inform that army of the fair carriage of his, and that such demands as were desired were just, and that the reports cast upon himself and his army in disobeying ordinances of parliament were untrue, he had sent none such; but if any such were come from his army and had endeavoured to satisfy any of the truths aforesaid, he and the forces under him would countenance and protect such good instruments.” Fairfax Correspondence, iii., 359, 363. Fairfax’s answer was dated June 28, or 29. This letter was probably written about the same time.
In his Short Memorial Fairfax says that he concurred with the Army against his will. “From the time they declared their usurped authority at Triploe Heath I never gave my free consent to anything they did; but being yet undischarged of my place, they set my name in a way of course to all their papers whether I consented or not” (p. 9). This and the other letters of Fairfax here printed seem to show that he acted more heartily with the Army than he was afterwards willing to admit.