Front Page Titles (by Subject) QUESTION CXXVIII.: OF THE PARTS OF FORTITUDE. - Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas, vol. 2 (Summa Theologica - Secunda Secundae Pt.2)
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QUESTION CXXVIII.: OF THE PARTS OF FORTITUDE. - St. Thomas Aquinas, Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas, vol. 2 (Summa Theologica - Secunda Secundae Pt.2) 
Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas. A Translation of the Principal Portions of the Second part of the Summa Theologica, with Notes by Joseph Rickaby, S.J. (London: Burns and Oates, 1892).
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OF THE PARTS OF FORTITUDE.
Article I.—Are the parts of fortitude suitably enumerated?
R. To any virtue there may be three sorts of parts, subjective, integral, and potential.1 But to fortitude as a special virtue no subjective parts can be assigned, because it is not divided into many virtues specifically different, seeing that it is about a very special matter. But there are assigned to it integral and potential parts: integral, as representing the qualities that must concur to an act of fortitude; potential, inasmuch as what fortitude observes in very difficult matters, that is, where there is danger of death, the same is observed by other virtues in other matters less difficult; and these virtues are attached to fortitude as secondary virtues to their primary. Now the act of fortitude is twofold, to attack and to endure. To the act of attacking a difficulty there are two requisites. The first regards preparation of soul, that one should have a prompt and ready mind for the attack; and to this Tully assigns self-confidence. The second regards the execution, that one should not fail in the execution of what he has confidently begun; and to this Tully assigns magnificence. If these two virtues are limited to the proper matter of fortitude, that is to dangers of death, they will be integral parts of it, or qualities without which fortitude cannot be. But if they are referred to other matters in which there is less difficulty, they will be virtues distinct from fortitude in their species; still they will be attached to it as secondaries to their primary.1 In this way magnificence is assigned by the Philosopher to the matter of large expenses; and magnanimity, which seems to be the same as self-confidence, to the matter of great honours. To the other act of fortitude, which is endurance, there are again two requisites. The first is that the mind be not crushed and broken by sadness, and fall from its greatness in face of the difficulty of imminent evils; and to this purpose Tully assigns patience. The other is that a man be not wearied out by protracted suffering of difficulties, and brought to the point of desisting from his enterprise, as the text has it: “Be not wearied, fainting in your minds;”2 and to this he assigns perseverance. These two virtues also, if they are confined to the proper matter of fortitude, will be integral parts thereof: but if they are referred to any difficult matters whatsoever, they will be virtues distinct from fortitude, and yet attached to it as secondaries to their primary.
§ 1. Magnificence in the matter of liberality adds a certain magnitude, which reaches to the idea of arduousness; and that is the object of the irascible faculty, which faculty it is the principal office of fortitude to perfect; and under this aspect magnificence belongs to fortitude.
§ 2. The hope whereby one confides in God ranks as a theological virtue. But by the self-confidence here set down to be a part of fortitude, a man has hope in himself, yet under God.
§ 3. To attack any great matters may be accounted dangerous, because to fail in such matters is very hurtful. Hence, though self-confidence and magnificence are assigned to the doing or attacking of great businesses other than those that are the proper matter of fortitude, still they have a certain affinity with fortitude on the score of danger imminent.
[1 ]Q. 48.
[1 ]And therefore they will be potential parts of fortitude. (Trl.)
[2 ]Hebrews xii. 3.