Front Page Titles (by Subject) QUESTION XXXVI.: OF ENVY. - Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas, vol. 1 (Summa Theologica - Prima Secundae, Secunda Secundae Pt.1)
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QUESTION XXXVI.: OF ENVY. - St. Thomas Aquinas, Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas, vol. 1 (Summa Theologica - Prima Secundae, Secunda Secundae Pt.1) 
Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas. A Translation of the Principal Portions of the Second part of the Summa Theologica, with Notes by Joseph Rickaby, S.J. (London: Burns and Oates, 1892).
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§ 3. A man makes no effort on points in which he is very wanting: and therefore he feels no envy when any one excels him therein. But if he is wanting only a little, he thinks he can master that point, and so strives after it: hence, if his effort is made void by the height of another’s glory, he is rendered sad. This is why the lovers of honour are more prone to envy. The mean-spirited likewise are envious, because they count everything great; and whatever good happens to any one, they reckon that they have been outdone in a great matter. Hence in Job v. 2 it is said: “Envy slayeth the little one.”
Article II.—Is envy a sin?
R. Envy is a sadness at another’s good. Such sadness may happen in four ways. In one way, when you grieve at another’s good inasmuch as therein you have cause to fear for yourself, or for other good men. Such sadness is not envy, and may be without sin. Hence Gregory says: “It often happens, without loss of charity, that an enemy’s downfall delights us; and without reproach of envy, his elevation makes us sad: because by his fall we think that some are raised up, who deserve to be raised; and by his advancement we fear that many may be unjustly oppressed.” In another way we may be saddened at another’s good, not because he has the good, but because the good that he has is wanting to us; and this is properly emulation. If this emulation is about the goods of virtue, it is praiseworthy, according to the text: “Be emulous of the better gifts.”1 But if it is about temporal goods, it may or may not be sinful. In a third way a man is saddened at another’s good, inasmuch as the person to whom the good comes in is unworthy of it. This sadness cannot arise about the goods of virtue, which make a man just, but about riches and such-like gifts, as may accrue both to worthy and unworthy. This sadness, according to the Philosopher, is called righteous indignation, and is a point of virtue. But this he says because he considered the said temporal goods in themselves, as they appear great to those who have not an eye for eternal goods. But according to the teaching of faith, the increase of temporal goods in unworthy hands is directed by the just ordinance of God either to the correction of the enjoyers of them or to their condemnation; and such goods are as nothing in comparison with the good things to come, that are reserved for the good. And therefore such sadness as this is forbidden in Holy Scripture, according to the text: “Be not emulous of evil-doers, nor envy them that work iniquity.”1 In a fourth way a man may be sad at the goods of another inasmuch as that other surpasses him in good things; and this is properly envy, and is always evil, because it is grief over that which is matter of rejoicing, namely, our neighbour’s good.
[1 ]1 Cor. xii. 31. Aemulamini, ζηλον̂τε. The Rheims version has “be jealous of.” (Trl.)
[1 ]Psalm xxxvi. 1.