Front Page Titles (by Subject) QUESTION XXXV.: OF PAIN AND SORROW IN THEMSELVES. - Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas, vol. 1 (Summa Theologica - Prima Secundae, Secunda Secundae Pt.1)
Return to Title Page for Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas, vol. 1 (Summa Theologica - Prima Secundae, Secunda Secundae Pt.1)
The Online Library of Liberty
A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.
QUESTION XXXV.: OF PAIN AND SORROW IN THEMSELVES. - St. Thomas Aquinas, Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas, vol. 1 (Summa Theologica - Prima Secundae, Secunda Secundae Pt.1) 
Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas. A Translation of the Principal Portions of the Second part of the Summa Theologica, with Notes by Joseph Rickaby, S.J. (London: Burns and Oates, 1892).
About Liberty Fund:
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals.
The text is in the public domain.
Fair use statement:
This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.
OF PAIN AND SORROW IN THEMSELVES.
Article II.—Is sorrow the same as pain?
R. Pleasure and pain may be caused by a twofold apprehension, either by the apprehension of the exterior sense, or by the apprehension of the interior, whether intellect or imagination. But the interior apprehension reaches further than the exterior, because whatever things fall under the exterior apprehension fall under the interior, but not conversely. Therefore that pleasure alone which is caused by an interior apprehension is called joy; and that pain alone which is caused by an interior apprehension is called sorrow. And as that pleasure which is caused by an exterior apprehension is called pleasure indeed, but not joy, so that pain which is caused by an exterior apprehension is called pain, but not sorrow. Thus then sorrow is a species of pain, as joy is a species of pleasure.
Article V.—Is there any sorrow set over against the pleasure of contemplation?
R. The pleasure of contemplation has no sorrow annexed to it, as bodily pleasures have, which are like medicines against certain annoyances; as one takes pleasure in drinking because he is troubled with thirst, but when the thirst is wholly driven away, the pleasure of drinking likewise ceases.1 For the pleasure of contemplation is not caused by the exclusion of any annoyance, but by the fact that the contemplation is pleasurable of itself. But because the human mind in the act of contemplation makes use of the sensory powers of apprehension, and weariness is incident to their acts, therefore some affliction or pain comes incidentally to be mingled with contemplation.
Article VII.—Is exterior pain greater than interior?
R. Exterior pain follows the apprehension of sense. Interior pain follows an interior apprehension either of imagination or of reason. Interior pain comes of something going against the appetite itself. Exterior pain comes of something going against the appetite because it goes against the body. But what is of itself is always prior to that which is through something else. Hence from this point of view interior pain rises above exterior pain. In like manner also on the side of apprehension: for the apprehension of reason and imagination is more profound than the apprehension of sense. Hence absolutely and of itself interior pain weighs heavier than exterior pain; a sign whereof is the fact of exterior pain being voluntarily entered upon to avoid that which is interior; and in so far as the exterior pain goes not against the interior appetite, it becomes in a manner pleasant and agreeable in the way of inward joy. Sometimes, however, exterior pain is accompanied by interior pain, and then the pain is increased. For not only is interior pain greater than exterior, but it is also more universal. For whatever goes against the body may go against the interior appetite, and whatever is apprehended by sense may be apprehended by imagination and reason, but the converse does not hold.
[1 ]Bodily pleasures, in fact, as Aristotle says (quoted on q. 31. art. 5.), are restorations of equilibrium, and presuppose some disturbance of equilibrium which is more or less painful—a fact that Socrates philosophized upon in his last hours. See Plato, Phaedo, 60 b, c. (Trl.)