Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAPTER CVII.: ENTITLED SURAT AL MÁÚN (NECESSARIES). Revealed at Makkah. - The Quran, vol. 4
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CHAPTER CVII.: ENTITLED SURAT AL MÁÚN (NECESSARIES). Revealed at Makkah. - Mohammed, The Quran, vol. 4 
A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran: Comprising Sale’s Translation and preliminary Discourse, with Additional Notes and Emendations (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., 1896). 4 vols.
Part of: The Quran, 4 vols.
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ENTITLED SURAT AL MÁÚN (NECESSARIES).
This chapter, which is evidently merely a fragment of a longer Sura, deals with those who fail to make their religious practice conform to their profession. The title is taken from the seventh verse. It is also sometimes entitled Dín (Religion), which name is found in the first verse.
Probable Date of the Revelations.
The first part of this chapter is probably Makkan, though Zamaḳhshari, Baidháwi, &c. (Itqán 30) classify the whole chapter as Madínic. Noëldeke places it very early in the first period. Muir fixes it, with more probability, at about the fifth year of Muhammad’s public ministry. Verses 4-7 may also be Makkan, but there is much in favour of their being regarded as Madínic.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
∥ (1) What thinkest thou of him who denieth the future judgment as a falsehood? (2)It is he who pusheth away the orphan; (3) and stirreth not up others to feed the poor. (4) Woe be unto those who pray, (5) and who are negligent at their prayer: (6) who play the hypocrites, (7) and deny necessaries to the needy.
[(1) ]Judgment as a falsehood. Rodwell translates, “who treateth our religion as a lie.”
[(2) ]He who pusheth away the orphan. “The person here intended, according to some, was Abu Jahl, who turned away an orphan, to whom he was guardian, and who came to him naked, and asked for some relief out of his own money. Some say it was Abu Sufián, who, having killed a camel, when an orphan begged a piece of the flesh, beat him away with his staff; and others think it was al Walíd Ibn al Mughaira, &c.”—Sale.
[(7) ]Necessaries. “The original word, al máún, properly signifies utensils, or whatever is of necessary use, as a hatchet, a pot, a dish, and a needle, to which some add a bucket and a hand-mill; or, according to a tradition of Ayesha, fire, water, and salt; and this signification it bore in the time of ignorance; but since the establishment of the Muhammadan religion, the word has been used to denote alms, either legal or voluntary; which seems to be the true meaning in this place.”—Sale.