Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAPTER XCVIII.: ENTITLED SURAT AL BAIYANA (THE EVIDENCE). Revealed at Madína. - The Quran, vol. 4
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CHAPTER XCVIII.: ENTITLED SURAT AL BAIYANA (THE EVIDENCE). Revealed at Madína. - Mohammed, The Quran, vol. 4 
A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran: Comprising Sale’s Translation and preliminary Discourse, with Additional Notes and Emendations (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., 1896). 4 vols.
Part of: The Quran, 4 vols.
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ENTITLED SURAT AL BAIYANA (THE EVIDENCE).
This chapter has been thought by some authors to be of Makkan origin, but this opinion has nothing in its favour beyond the fact that it is found among Makkan revelations. We find herein all three of the Madína parties, Idolaters, Jews, and Christians, mentioned; while the style, language, and contents all point to Madína.
This chapter tells of the divisions and disputes which arose among the different religious sects at Madína, owing to some individuals from each party having become Muslims.
Probable Date of the Revelations.
The mention of disputes having arisen among the Jews and Christians owing to the proclamation of Islám at Madína, points to an early period at Madína as the date of this chapter. The same may be inferred from that kindly spirit in which allusion is made to the Jews, who were so soon separated from the Prophet by bitterest enmity. For reasons like these, Noëldeke places this chapter immediately after chap. ii. in his chronological list of Suras.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
∥ (1) The unbelievers among those to whom the Scriptures were given, and among the idolaters, did not stagger until the clear evidence had come unto them: (2) an apostle from God, rehearsing unto them pure books of revelations, wherein are contained right discourses. (3) Neither were they unto whom the Scriptures were given divided among themselves until after the clear evidence had come unto them. (4) And they were commanded no other in the Scriptures than to worship God, exhibiting unto him the pure religion, and being orthodox; and to be constant at prayer, and to give alms; and this is the right religion. (5) Verily those who believe not, among those who have received the Scriptures, and among the idolaters, shall be cast into the fire of hell, to remain therein for ever. These are the worst of creatures. (6) But they who believe and do good works, these are the best of creatures: (7) their reward with their Lordshall be gardens of perpetual abode, through which rivers flow; they shall remain therein for ever. (8) God will be well pleased in them; and they shall be well pleased in him. This is prepared for him who shall fear his Lord.
[(1) ]Did not stagger, i.e., “did not waver in their religion, or in their promises to follow the truth, when an apostle should come unto them. For the commentators pretend that before the appearance of Muhammad, the Jews and Christians, as well as the worshippers of idols, unanimously believed and expected the coming of that Prophet; until which time they declared they would persevere in their respective religions, and then would follow him; but when he came they rejected him through envy.”—Sale, Jaláluddín, &c.
[(3) ]Until after, &c. “But when the promised Apostle was sent, and the truth became manifest to them, they withstood the clearest conviction, differing from one another in their opinions, some believing and acknowledging Muhammad to be the prophet foretold in the Scriptures, and others denying it.”—Sale, Baidháwi.
[(4) ]They were commanded, &c. “But these divine precepts in the law and the Gospel have they corrupted, changed, and violated.”—Sale, Baidháwi, &c.