Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAPTER XIX.: ENTITLED SURAT AL MARYAM (MARY). Revealed at Makkah. - The Quran, vol. 3
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CHAPTER XIX.: ENTITLED SURAT AL MARYAM (MARY). Revealed at Makkah. - Mohammed, The Quran, vol. 3 
A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran: Comprising Sale’s Translation and preliminary Discourse, with Additional Notes and Emendations (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., 1896). 4 vols.
Part of: The Quran, 4 vols.
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ENTITLED SURAT AL MARYAM (MARY).
“Several circumstances,” says Sale, “relating to the Virgin Mary being mentioned in this chapter, her name was pitched upon for the title.” It contains the fullest and earliest accounts of gospel history found in the Qurán. According to Muslim authorities, it was recited by Jáfir, Muhammad’s uncle, before the Najáshi or king of Ethiopia, in the presence of the Quraishite envoys, sent from Makkah to secure the expulsion of Muslim refugees; whereupon “the king wept until his beard became moist, and the bishops also wept, so that their tears ran down upon their books, saying, ‘Verily this revelation and that of Moses proceed from one and the same source’ ” (Muir’s Life of Mohamet, vol. ii. pp. 172, 173, note).
Rodwell calls attention to the change of style of this chapter, vers. 1-37, and that of chap. iii. vers. 35-57, and suggests that it was due to a desire to avoid the imputation “of being merely a poet, a sorcerer, or person possessed.” This does not seem very likely; as these charges were peculiarly Makkan, he would hardly have waited until his arrival in Madína before making the change in his style, if indeed desirous of avoiding these particular charges against his prophetic character. It seems to me the cause of this change of style is to be sought in the change of his surroundings, his habits, and aspirations. The prophet had given place in some measure to the general of armies and the ruler of a people.
The numerous historical errors contained in this chapter prove that Muhammad had no personal acquaintance with Jewish or Christian records. He seems to have been indebted to Jewish or Christian informants, who were themselves very ignorant of their own traditions.
Probable Date of the Revelations.
Excepting vers. 35-41, the revelations of this chapter belong to an early period of Muhammad’s prophetic career at Makkah. Muir (Life of Moh., vol. ii. p. 278) assigns it to a period shortly succeeding Muhammad’s return from Tayif, but this period seems to me to be too late to accord with the general spirit of the chapter. The exhortations to the Quraish are earnest and the threatenings against unbelievers are solemn, but there is not a sign of that violent imprecation and bitter enmity against the people of Makkah which characterise the later Makkan chapters. I would therefore fix the date as early as the beginning of the second period of Muhammad’s ministry at Makkah.
Vers. 35-41 are more polemic in style than the rest of the chapter, and for this reason should be assigned to a later date, say the end of the second or the beginning of the third Makkan period.
Ver. 74 seq. have been thought to be Madínic, but on insufficient grounds. The change in rhyme belongs to vers. 35-41, though these are confessedly Makkan, while the words “two parties” may refer to infidels and unbelievers in general, and therefore may apply to Makkah as aptly as to Madína.
IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.
∥ (1) K. H. Y. A. S. A commemoration of the mercy of thy Lordtowards his servant Zacharias. (2) When he called upon his Lord, invoking him in secret, (3) and said, O Lord, verily my bones are weakened, and my head is become white with hoariness, (4) and I have never been unsuccessful in my prayers to thee, O Lord.(5) But now I fear my nephews, who are to succeed after me, for my wife is barren: wherefore give me a successor of my own body from before thee; (6) who may be my heir, and may be an heir of the family of Jacob; and grant, O Lord, that he may be acceptable unto thee. (7) And the angel answered him, O Zacharias, verily we bring thee tidings of a son, whose name shall be John; (8) we have not caused any to bear the same name before him. (9)Zacharias said, Lord, how shall I have a son, seeing my wife is barren, and I am now arrived at a great age, and am decrepit? (10) The angel said, So shall it be: thy Lord saith, This is easy with me; since I created thee heretofore, when thou wast nothing. (11)Zacharias answered, O Lord, give me a sign. The angel replied, Thy sign shall be that thou shalt not speak to men for three nights, although thou be in perfect health. (12) And he went forth unto his people from the chamber, and he made signs unto them, as if he should say, Praise ye God in the morning and in the evening. (13)And we said unto his son, O John, receive the book of the law, with a resolution to study and observe it. And we bestowed on him wisdom, when he was yet a child, (14) and mercy from us, and purity of life; and he was a devout person, and dutiful towards his parents, and was not proud or rebellious. (15) Peace be on him the day whereon he was born, and the day whereon he shall die, and the day whereon he shall be raised to life.
∥ (16) And remember in the book of the Qurán the story of Mary, when she retired from her family to a place towards the east, (17) and took a veil to conceal herself from them; and we sent our spirit Gabriel unto her, and he appeared unto her in the shape of a perfect man. (18) She said, I fly for refuge unto the merciful God, that he may defend me from thee: if thou fearest him, thou wilt not approach me.(19) He answered, Verily I am the messenger of thy Lord,and am sent to give thee a holy son. (20) She said, How shall I have a son, seeing a man hath not touched me, and I am no harlot? (21) Gabriel replied, So shall it be: thy Lord saith, This is easy with me; and we will perform it, that we may ordain him for a sign unto men, and a mercy from us: for it is a thing which is decreed. (22) Wherefore she conceived him; and she retired aside with him in her womb to a distant place; (23) and the pains of child-birth came upon her near the trunk of a palm-tree. She said, Would to God I had died before this, and had become a thing forgotten and lost in oblivion. (24) And he who was beneath her called to her, saying, Be not grieved; now hath God provided a rivulet under thee; (25) and do thou shake the body of the palm-tree, and it shall let fall ripe dates upon thee ready gathered. (26) And eat, and drink, and calm thy mind. Moreover, if thou see any man, and he question thee,(27) say, Verily I have vowed a fast unto the Merciful: wherefor I will by no means speak to a man this day. (28) So she brought the child to her people, carrying him in her arms.And they said unto her, O Mary, now hast thou done a strange thing. (29) O sister of Aaron, thy father was not a bad man, neither was thy mother a harlot. (30) But she made signs unto the child to answer them; and they said, How shall we speak to him, who is an infant in the cradle? (31)Whereupon the child said, Verily I am the servant of God; he hath given me the book of the gospel, and hath appointed me a prophet. (32) And he hath made me blessed, wheresoever I shall be; and hath commanded me to observe prayer, and to give alms, so long as I shall live; (33) and he hath made me dutiful towards my mother, and hath not made me proud or unhappy. (34) And peace be on me the day whereon I was born, and the day whereon I shall die, and the day whereon I shall be raised to life. (35) This was Jesus, the son of Mary; the Word of truth, concerning whom they doubt. (36) It is not meet for God, that he should have any son; God forbid! When he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be; and it is. (37) And verily God is my Lord and your Lord; wherefore, serve him: this is the right way. (38) Yet the sectaries differ among themselves concerning Jesus: but woe be unto those who are unbelievers, because of their appearance at the great day. (39) Do thou cause them to hear, and do thou cause them to see, on the day whereon they shall come unto us to be judged: but the ungodly are this day in a manifest error. (40) And do thou forewarn them of the day of sighing, when the matter shall be determined, while they are now sunk in negligence, and do not believe. (41) Verily we will inherit the earth, and whatever creatures are therein; and unto us shall they all return.
∥ (42) And remember Abraham in the book of theQurán; for he was one of great veracity, and a prophet. (43) When he said unto his father, O my father, why dost thou worship that which heareth not, neither seeth, nor profiteth thee at all? (44) O my father, verily a degree of knowledge hath been bestowed on me, which hath not been bestowed on thee: wherefore follow me; I will lead thee into an even way. (45) O my father, serve not Satan; for Satan was rebellious unto the Merciful. (46) O my father, verily I fear lest a punishment be inflicted on thee from the Merciful, and thou become a companion of Satan. (47)His father answered, Dost thou reject my gods, O Abraham? If thou forbear not, I will surely stone thee: wherefore leave me for a long time. (48)Abraham replied, Peace be on thee: I will ask pardon for thee of my Lord; for he is gracious unto me. (49) And I will separate myself from you, and from the idols which ye invoke besides God; and I will call upon my Lord: it may be that I shall not be unsuccessful in calling on my Lord,as ye are in calling upon them.(50)(50) And when he had separated himself from them, and from the idols which they worshipped besides God, we gave him Isaac and Jacob; and we made each of them a prophet, (51) and we bestowed on them, through our mercy, the gift of prophecy, and children and wealth; and we caused them to deserve the highest commendations. (52) And remember Moses in the book of the Qurán: for he was sincerely upright, and was an apostle and a prophet. (53) And we called unto him from the right side of Mount Sinai, and caused him to draw near, and to discourse privately with us. (54) And we gave him, through our mercy, his brother Aaron a prophet, for his assistant.(55) Remember also Ismáíl in the same book; for he was true to his promise, and was an apostle and a prophet. (56) And he commanded his family to observe prayer and to give alms; and he was acceptable unto his Lord.(57) And remember Idrís in the same book; for he was a just person and a prophet: (58) and we exalted him to a high place. (59) These are they unto whom God hath been bounteous, of the prophets of the posterity of Adam, and of those whom we carried in the ark with Noah; and of the posterity of Abraham, and of Israel, and of those whom we have directed and chosen. When the signs of the Merciful were read unto them, they fell down, worshipping, and wept.
∥ (60) But a succeeding generation have come after them, who neglect prayer and follow their lusts; and they shall surely fall into evil: (61) except him who repenteth and believeth, and doth that which is right; these shall enter Paradise, and they shall not in the least be wronged: (62) gardens of perpetual abode shall be their reward, which the Merciful hath promised unto his servants, as an object of faith; for his promise will surely come to be fulfilled.(63) Therein shall they hear no vain discourse, but peace; and their provision shall be prepared for them therein morning and evening. (64) This is Paradise, which we will give for an inheritance unto such of our servants as shall be pious. (65) We descend not from heaven, unless by command of thy Lord: unto him belongeth whatsoever is before us, and whatsoever is behind us, and whatsoever is in the intermediate space; neither is thy Lord forgetful of thee.(66)He is the Lord of heaven and earth, and of whatsoever is between them: wherefore worship him, and be constant in his worship. Dost thou know any named like him?
∥ (67) Man saith, After I shall have been dead, shall I really be brought forth alive from the grave? (68) Doth not man remember that we created him heretofore, when he was nothing? (69) But by thy Lord we will surely assemble them and the devils to judgment; then will we set them round about hell on their knees: (70) afterwards we will draw forth from every sect such of them as shall have been a more obstinate rebel against the Merciful; (71) and we best know which of them are more worthy to be burned therein. (72) There shall be none of you but shall approach near the same: this is an established decree with thy Lord.(73) Afterwards we will deliver those who shall have been pious, but we will leave the ungodly therein on their knees. (74) When our manifest signs are read unto them, the infidels say unto the true believers, Which of the two parties is in the more eligible condition, and formeth the more excellent assembly? (75) But how many generations have we destroyed before them, which excelled them in wealth, and in outward appearance? (76) Say, Whosoever is in error, the Merciful will grant him a long and prosperous life, (77) until they see that with which they are threatened, whether it be the punishment of this life, or that of the last hour; and hereafter they shall know who is in the worse condition, and the weaker in forces. (78) God shall more fully direct those who receive direction; (79) and the good works which remain for ever are better in the sight of thy Lordthan worldly possessions, in respect to the reward, and more eligible in respect to the future recompense. (80) Hast thou seen him who believeth not in our signs, and saith, I shall surely have riches and children bestowed on me? (81) Is he acquainted with the secrets of futurity; or hath he received a covenant from the Merciful that it shall be so? (82) By no means. We will surely write down that which he saith; and increasing we will increase his punishment; (83) and we will be his heir as to that which he speaketh of; and on the last day he shall appear before us alone and naked. (84) They have taken other gods, besides God, that they may be a glory unto them. (85) By no means. Hereafter shall they deny their worship; and they shall become adversaries unto them.
∥ (86) Dost thou not see that we send the devils against the infidels, to incite them to sin by their instigations? (87) Wherefore be not in haste to call down destruction upon them; for we number unto them a determined number of days of respite. (88) On a certain day we will assemble the pious before the Merciful in an honourable manner, as ambassadors come into the presence of a prince: (89) but we will drive the wicked into hell, as cattle are driven to water: (90) they shall obtain no intercession, except he only who hath received a covenant from the Merciful. (91) They say, The Merciful hath begotten issue. Now have ye uttered an impious thing: (92) it wanteth little but that on occasion thereof the heavens be rent, and the earth cleave in sunder, and the mountains be overthrown and fall, (93) for that they attribute children unto the Merciful; whereas it becometh not God to beget children. (94) Verily there is none in heaven or on earth but shall approach the Merciful as his servant. He encompasseth them by his knowledge and power, and numbereth them with an exact computation: (95) and they shall all come unto him on the day of resurrection, destitute both of helpers and followers.(96) But as for those who believe and do good works, the Merciful will bestow on them love. (97) Verily we have rendered the Qurán easy for thy tongue, that thou mayest thereby declare our promises unto the pious, and mayest thereby denounce threats unto contentious people. (98) And how many generations have we destroyed before them? Dost thou find one of them remaining? Or dost thou hear so much as a whisper concerning them?
[(1) ]K. H. Y. A. S. See Prelim. Disc., pp. 100-102. The conjecture of Golius, that these letters represent Koh Y’as = thus he counselled, or that of Sprenger (Journal As. Soc. Bengal, xx. 280) that they signify, Jesus of the Nazarenes, king of the Jews, may be placed in the same category with that of the commentators, that each letter is the initial of one of the Divine attributes—All having sometimes addressed God in prayer, Yá Káhy’as.
[(2) ]Invoking him in secret, or in a low tone of voice, through fear of ridicule. See chap. iii. 38, note.
[(5) ]My nephews. “These were his brother’s sons, who were very wicked men, and Zacharias was apprehensive lest, after his death, instead of confirming the people in the true religion, they should seduce them to idolatry. And some commentators imagine that he made this prayer in private, lest his nephews should overhear him.”—Sale, Baidháwi, Jaláluddín.
[(6) ]An heir of . . . Jacob, viz., “in holiness and knowledge, or in the government and superintendence of the Israelites. There are some who suppose it is not the patriarch who is here meant, but another Jacob, the brother of Zacharias, or of Imrán Ibn Máthán, of the race of Solomon.”—Sale, Jaláluddín, Tafsír-i-Raufi.
[(8) ]We have not caused any to bear the same name. “For he was the first who bore the name of John, or Yahya (as the Arabs pronounce it); which fancy seems to be occasioned by the words of St. Luke misunderstood, that none of Zacharias’s kindred was called by that name: for otherwise John, or, as it is written in Hebrew, Johanan, was a common name among the Jews.
[(9) ]See note on chap. iii.
[(11) ]Thy sign. See note on chap. iii. 41.
[(12) ]He made signs. “Some say he wrote the following words on the ground.”—Sale. See chap. iii. 41.
[(13) ]Wisdom The Tafsír-i-Raufi gives the following illustration of John’s wisdom. When three years of age, some children asked him to play with them, but he declined, saying that he had not been created for play!
[(15) ]Compare with ver. 34 below. This verse was probably first applied by Muhammad to Jesus, but misplaced here by the compilers.
[(16) ]A place towards the east. “To the eastern part of the temple; or to a private chamber in the house, which opened to the east: whence, says Al Baidháwi, the Christians pray towards that quarter.”
[(17) ]Our spirit . . . appeared . . . a perfect man. “Like a fullgrown, but beardless youth. Al Baidháwi, not contented with having given one good reason why he appeared in that form, viz., to moderate her surprise, that she might hear his message with less shyness, adds, that perhaps it might be to raise an emotion in her, and assist her conception.”—Sale.
[(18) ]If thou fearest. The original is In kuntá taqían. Some commentators understanding taqían to be a proper name, translate the passage if thou art Taqí. They say this man was a noted villain, who had assaulted many women in the neighbourhood. Mary fancying that the man, who now appeared to her in her private apartments, must be Taqí, took refuge in God against him. Tafsír-i-Raufi.
[(19) ]A holy son. The only fair inference from this statement is that Jesus was thus miraculously conceived in order that he might be holy and sinless. See notes on chap. ii. 253.
[(22) ]Wherefore she conceived him. “For Gabriel blew into the bosom of her shift, which he opened with his fingers, and his breath reaching her womb, caused the conception. The age of the Virgin Mary at the time of her conception was thirteen; or, as others say, ten; and she went six, seven, eight, or nine months with him, according to different traditions; though some say the child was conceived at its full growth of nine months, and that she was delivered of him within an hour after.”—Sale, Baidháwi, Yahya, &c.
[(23) ]A palm-tree. “The palm to which she fled, that she might lean on it in her travail, was a withered trunk, without any head or verdure, and this happened in the winter season; notwithstanding which, it miraculously supplied her with fruits for her refreshment, as is mentioned immediately.
[(24) ]He who was beneath her. The commentators are divided in opinion as to who addressed Mary on this occasion. Some say it was Jesus, who spoke as soon as he was born: others, that it was Gabriel, who spoke from behind the palm-tree (Baidháwi).
[(25) ]Ripe dates. “And accordingly she had no sooner spoken it than the dry trunk revived, and shot forth green leaves, and a head loaded with ripe fruit.”—Sale.
[(26) ]Calm thy mind. Literally, Calm thine eye, an expression which may apply either to the birth of a son or to refreshment derived from the sight of delicious fruit or food of any kind.
[(27) ]Say, Verily I have vowed a fast. The bountiful provision of fruit and the command to eat and drink (ver. 26) must then be regarded as preparatory to this fast.
[(29) ]A sister of Aaron. “Several Christian writers think the Qurán stands convicted of a manifest falsehood in this particular, but I am afraid the Muhammadans may avoid the charge; as they do by several answers. Some say the Virgin Mary had really a brother named Aaron, who had the same father, but a different mother; others suppose Aaron, the brother of Moses, is here meant, but say Mary is called his sister, either because she was of the Levitical race (as by her being related to Elizabeth it should seem she was), or by way of comparison; others say that it was a different person of that name who was contemporary with her, and conspicuous for his good or bad qualities, and that they likened her to him either by way of commendation or of reproach, &c.”—Sale, Zamaḳhshari, Baidháwi, &c.
[(31) ]I am the servant of God. “These were the first words which were put into the mouth of Jesus, to obviate the imagination of his partaking of the Divine nature, or having a right to the worship of mankind, on account of his miraculous speaking so soon after his birth.”—Sale, Baidháwi.
[(34) ]See notes on chap. iii. 53, 54, and below on ver. 156.
[(35) ]The Word of truth. “This expression may either be referred to Jesus as the Word of God, or to the account just given of him.”—Sale.
[(36) ]It is not meet for God. See notes on chaps. ii. 116, vi. 101, 102, and xvii. 111.
[(38) ]The sectaries. Either Jews and Christians differ, or Christians differ among themselves.—Tafsír-i-Raufi.
[(39) ]“These words are variously expounded, some taking them to express admiration (chap. xviii. 27) at the quickness of those senses in the wicked at the day of judgment, when they shall plainly perceive the torments prepared for them, though they have been deaf and blind in this life, and others supposing the words contain a threat to the unbelievers of what they shall then hear and see, or else a command to Muhammad to lay before them the terrors of that day.”—Sale, Baidháwi.
[(41) ]We shall inherit the earth, i.e., “alone surviving when all creatures shall be dead and annihilated. See chap. xv. 23.”—Sale.
[(42) ]Abraham. See notes on chap. iv. 124 and xvi. 121.
[(43-50) ]See notes on chap. vi. 75-85.
[(50) ]When he had separated himself from them. “By flying to Harrán, and thence to Palestine.”—Sale.
[(51) ]To deserve, &c. Literally, We granted them a lofty tongue of truth.
[(52) ]An apostle and a prophet. See above on ver. 42.
[(53) ]To draw near. “Or, as some expound it, And we raised him on high; for, say they, he was raised to so great an elevation, that he heard the creaking of the pen writing on the table of God’s decrees.”—Sale, Baidháwi.
[(55) ]He was true to his promise. “Being celebrated on that account, and particularly for his behaving with that resignation and constancy which he had promised his father, on his receiving God’s command to sacrifice him: for the Muhammadans say it was Ismáíl, and not Isaac, whom he was commanded to offer.”—Sale, Baidháwi.
[(57) ]Idrís, “or Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, who had that surname from his great knowledge; for he was favoured with no less than thirty books of divine revelations, and was the first who wrote with a pen, and studied the sciences of astronomy and arithmetic, &c.”—Baidháwi, Jaláluddín.
[(58) ]We exalted him. “Some understand by this the honour of the prophetic office and his familiarity with God; but others suppose his translation is here meant: for they say he was taken up by God into heaven at the age of three hundred and fifty, having first suffered death, and been restored to life, and that he is now alive in one of the seven heavens, or in paradise.”—Sale, Jaláluddín, Baidháwi.
[(59) ]And wept. The Tafsír-i-Raufi draws from these words the inference that tears should be shed during the reading of the Qurán. “If they do not flow voluntarily,” says a tradition, “then strain them out with difficulty.”
[(61) ]Except him who repenteth, &c. Salvation is here promised on the ground of repentance, faith, and good works (prayer, fasting, almsgiving, &c.) In other words, those who live the lives of good Muslims will be saved—Islám being the one true religion of God on earth. See also note on chap. iii. 31.
[(62) ]Gardens. See note on chap. iii. 15.
[(63) ]Peace, i.e., “words of peace and comfort, or the salutations of the angels, &c.”—Sale. See also chap. x. 10, and note there.
[(65) ]“These are generally supposed to have been the words of the Angel Gabriel in answer to Muhammad’s complaint for his long delay of fifteen, or, according to another tradition, of forty days, before he brought him instructions what solution he should give to the questions which had been asked him concerning the sleepers, Dhu-’l-Qarnain, and the spirit (see chap. xviii. 23, note).
[(66) ]Dost thou know any named like him? “That is, deserving or having a right to the name and attributes of God.”—Sale.
[(67) ]Man saith. “Some suppose a particular person is here meant, namely, Ábí Ibn half.”—Sale. See note on chap. xvi. 4.
[(69) ]Them and the devils. “It is said that every infidel will appear at the day of judgment chained to the devil who seduced him.”—Sale, Baidháwi.
[(70) ]We will draw forth from every sect, &c. “Hence, says al Baidháwi, it appears that God will pardon some of the rebellious people. But perhaps the distinguishing the unbelievers into different classes, in order to consign them to different places and degrees of torment, is here meant.”—Sale.
[(71) ]More worthy, viz., “the more obstinate and perverse, and especially the heads of sects, who will suffer a double punishment for their own errors and their seducing of others.”—Sale.
[(72) ]You . . . shall approach near the same. “For the true believers must also pass by or through hell, but the fire will be damped, and the flames abated, so as not to hurt them, though it will lay hold on the others. Some, however, suppose that the words intend no more than the passage over the narrow bridge, which is laid over hell.”—Sale. See Prelim. Disc., p. 147.
[(73) ]See above on ver. 70.
[(74) ]The two parties, viz., “of us or of you. When the Quraish were unable to produce a composition to equal the Qurán, they began to glory in their wealth and nobility, valuing themselves highly on that account, and despising the followers of Muhammad.”—Sale.
[(76) ]A long and prosperous life. Not in order that he may have a longer day of probation, but that he may thus treasure up a greater degree of suffering. See chap. iii. 179, and note on chap. ii. 211.
[(80) ]“This passage was revealed on account of ’Aás Ibn Waíl, who being indebted to habbáh, when he demanded the money refused to pay it, unless he would deny Muhammad; to which proposal habbáb answered that he would never deny that prophet, neither alive, nor dead, nor when he should be raised to life at the last day. Therefore, replied al ’Aás, ‘When thou art raised again, come to me, for I shall then have abundance of riches and children, and I will pay you.’ ”—Sale, Baidháwi, Jaláluddín.
[(83) ]We shall be heir, &c., i.e., “God will take from him all his wealth and children, whom he will be obliged to leave behind at death.” See the same idea above in ver. 41.
[(85) ]They shall deny their worship, viz., “at the resurrection, when the idolaters shall disclaim their idols, and the idols their worshippers, and shall mutually accuse one another.”—Sale.
[(86) ]We send devils . . . to incite. This contradicts the teaching of the Bible. Comp. James i. 13.
[(90) ]Except he only. “That is, except he who shall be a subject properly disposed to receive that favour, by having possessed Islám. Or the words may also be translated, according to another exposition, ‘They shall not obtain the intercession of any, except the intercession of him,’ &c. Or else, ‘None shall be able to make intercession for others, except he who shall have received a covenant (or permission) from God;’ i.e., who shall be qualified for that office by faith and good works, according to God’s promise, or shall have special leave given him by God for that purpose.”—Sale, Baidháwi.
[(91-95) ]The fact, however clearly explained, that the word walada, used throughout the Qurán, involves the notion of sex, while the equivalent word, used in the New Testament to express the Christian doctrine of the divine sonship, never does so, will do little to remove Muslim misconception on this subject. (Bosworth Smith, Mahom., p. 275.) This misconception is based upon the statements of the Qurán, whose author certainly believed that Christians held these carnal notions of the Godhead. So long, therefore, as Muslims believe in the Qurán, they are bound to believe that the Christians’ language on this subject is to be understood in a grossly carnal sense. See notes on chap. iv. 169-174, v. 19, 116, and vii. 101, 102.
[(96) ]The Merciful will bestow on them love, viz., “the love of God and all the inhabitants of heaven. Some suppose this verse was revealed to comfort the Muslims, who were hated and despised at Makkah on account of their faith, by the promise of their gaining the love and esteem of mankind in a short time.”—Sale.
[(97) ]The Qurán easy. Either because it is written in the Arabic language, or because the Prophet had received facility in recollecting and repeating the revelations of the Qurán. See Tafsír-i-Raufi, in loco.