Front Page Titles (by Subject) SECTION II.: PRINCIPAL MEANS EMPLOYED FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF THE ABOVE ENDS. - The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 2
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SECTION II.: PRINCIPAL MEANS EMPLOYED FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF THE ABOVE ENDS. - Jeremy Bentham, The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. 2 
The Works of Jeremy Bentham, published under the Superintendence of his Executor, John Bowring (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838-1843). 11 vols. Vol. 2.
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PRINCIPAL MEANS EMPLOYED FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF THE ABOVE ENDS.
1. These means are comprisable, all of them, in one expression: maximization of appropriate official aptitude on the part of rulers.
2. Of this aptitude, three branches are distinguishable: 1. Appropriate moral aptitude; 2. Appropriate intellectual aptitude; 3. Appropriate active aptitude.
3. Of appropriate intellectual aptitude there are two distinguishable branches: 1. Appropriate knowledge; 2. Appropriate judgment.
4. By appropriate moral aptitude, understand—disposition to contribute, on all occasions and in all ways, to the greatest happiness of the greatest number; in other words, to the promoting or advancement of the universal interest.
5. If appropriate moral aptitude be to a certain degree deficient,—the consequence is, that by abundance of appropriate aptitude in those other shapes, the aggregate of appropriate aptitude will naturally, instead of being increased, be diminished. If hostile to the interests of the greatest number,—the more able the functionary, the more mischievous.
6. To the different branches of appropriate official aptitude, apply correspondently different means. Expressed in the shortest manner, indication may be given of them by the following rules.
7. I. Means applying to appropriate moral aptitude:—
Rule 1. In the hands of those of whose happiness the universal happiness is composed, keep at all times the choice of those agents, by whose operations that happiness is to be promoted.*
8. Rule 2. In the hands of each such agent, minimize the power of doing evil.
9. Rule 3. Leave, at the same time, as little diminished as may be, the power of doing good.
10. Rule 4. Minimize the quantity of public money at his disposal.
11. Rule 5. Minimize the time during which it remains at his disposal.
12. Rule 6. Minimize the number of hands through which it passes in its way to the hand by which it is received in payment.
13. Rule 7. Extra-reward give none, without proportionable extra-service—extra-service proved, and that by evidence not less conclusive than that which is required to be given of delinquency, with a view to punishment.
14. Rule 8. Maximize each man’s responsibility with respect to the power and the money with which he is entrusted.
15. Rule 9. Means by which such responsibility is maximized, are—1. Constant dislocability; 2. Eventual punibility.†
16. Rule 10. By the several means above mentioned,—so order matters, that, in the instance of each such agent, the course prescribed by his particular interest shall on each occasion coincide, as completely as may be, with that prescribed by his duty: which is as much as to say, with that prescribed by his share in the universal interest.
II. Means applying to appropriate intellectual and active aptitude:—
17. Rule 1. For appropriate intellectual and active aptitude,—establish, throughout the whole field of official duty, appropriate preliminary tests and securities. For these, see the code itself.
18. Rule 2. Maximize, throughout, the efficiency of these same tests and securities.
19. Rule 3. Minimize, in the instance of each office, the pecuniary inducements for the acceptance of it.
20. Follow the observations on which Rule 3 is grounded.
I. The less the money required by a man for subjecting himself to the obligations attached to the office, the stronger the proof afforded by him of his relish for the occupations.
21. Still stronger, and in a proportionable degree, will be the proof,—if, instead of receiving, he is content to give.
22. Every penny,—added to whatsoever remuneration is, as above, sufficient,—adds strength to predatory appetites, and to the means of gratifying them.
23. A throne,—seat of the most extravagantly fed,—is so, everywhere, of the most invariably insatiable, appetites.
24. As to the means, applying, as above, to appropriate moral aptitude,—there is not one of them, of which an exemplification may not be seen, in the constitution of the Anglo-American United States.
25. Under that constitution, in so far as depends on government,—has uncontrovertibly been, and continues to be,—enjoyed, a greater quantity of happiness, in proportion to population, than in any other political community, in these or any other times.
26. By that one example is excluded, and for ever, all ground for any such apprehension, real or pretended, as that of inaptitude, on the part of the people at large, as to the making choice of their own agents, for conducting the business of government.
27. Nowhere else has such universal satisfaction been manifested: satisfaction with the form of the government—satisfaction with the mode in which, satisfaction with the hands by which, the business of it has been carried on. No other political community is there, or has there ever been,—in which, by so large a proportion of the population, so large a part has been constantly taken in the conduct and examination of the affairs of government;—no other, in which the part so taken has been so perfectly unproductive of disorder and suffering in every shape.
28. No other constitution is there, or has there been, under which, in anything like so small a degree (slave-purchasing and pertinaciously slave-holding States always excepted,) the interest and happiness of the many have been sacrificed to those of the ruling and influential few;—no other, under which what yet remains of that sinister sacrifice, will, with so little difficulty, and sooner or later with such perfect certainty, be abolished.
29. Thus much as to the all-comprehensive end of government, in so far as the government is good. As to the several abovementioned specific ends,—the means for compassing them would not here have been in their place. The description of them will be found to be in great measure different, according to the differences between the respective ends: they will form the subject-matter—in the first place, of the constitutional—in the next place, of the penal and non-penal, codes.
LIBERTY OF THE PRESS, AND PUBLIC DISCUSSION.
[* ]To this arrangement, no objection, wearing the face of a rational one, could ever be made, other than that of impracticability—an objection formed by the assertion, that, consistently with internal peace and security, no such arrangement can have place. But, in the case of the Anglo-American United States, the groundlessness of this objection has been completely demonstrated by experience—demonstrated by the very first experiment ever made; while, to the purpose of all such persons as had a new constitution to make, this same arangement, even on the supposition that the experiments made of it had, in a considerable number, all of them failed, might still have remained the only eligible one: for, as will be seen below, the above-mentioned constitution is one, which, bating irresistible force from without, affords a reasonable promise of everlasting endurance; whereas every other form of government contains, in the very essence of it, the seeds of its own dissolution—a dissolution which, sooner or later, cannot but have place.
[† ]Namely, immediately or unimmediately, at the hands of those by whom the responsible agents in question were chosen; as is the case in the Anglo-American United States. Say—dislocability, immediately: punibility, unimmediately; namely, by the hands of other agents.