Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAP. XXV.—: HOW THE CONTROVERSY AROSE ABOUT THE DUE TIME OF KEEPING EASTER, WITH THOSE THAT CAME OUT OF SCOTLAND. - The Complete Works of Venerable Bede, 8 vols.
CHAP. XXV.—: HOW THE CONTROVERSY AROSE ABOUT THE DUE TIME OF KEEPING EASTER, WITH THOSE THAT CAME OUT OF SCOTLAND. - Saint Bede, The Complete Works of Venerable Bede, 8 vols. 
The Complete Works of Venerable Bede, in the original Latin, collated with the Manuscripts, and various printed editions, and accompanied by a new English translation of the Historical Works, and a Life of the Author. By the Rev. J.A. Giles (London: Whittaker and Co., 1843). * 8 vols.
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- Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum.: Liber Primus.: Prologus.— Gloriosissimo Regi Ceolwulpho, Beda, Famulus Christi Et Presbyter.
- Cap. I.—: De Situ BritanniÆ Vel HiberniÆ, Et Priscis Earum Incolis.
- Cap. II.—: Ut Britanniam Primus Romanorum Caius Julius Adierit.
- Cap. III.—: Ut Eandem Secundus Romanorum Claudius Adiens, Orcadas Etiam Insulas Romano Adjecerit Imperio; Sed Et Vespasianus Ab Eo Missus Vectam Quoque Insulam Romanis Subdiderit.
- Cap. IV.—: Ut Lucius Britannorum Rex, Missis Ad Eleutherum Papam Literis, Christianum Se Fieri Petierit.
- Cap. V.—: Ut Severus Receptam BritanniÆ Partem Vallo a Cetera Distinxerit.
- Cap. VI.—: De Imperio Diocletiani, Et Ut Christianos Persecutus Sit.
- Cap. VII.—: Passio Sancti Albani Et Sociorum Ejus, Qui Eodem Tempore Pro Domino Sanguinem Fuderunt.
- Cap. VIII.—: Ut, Hac Cessante Persecutione, Ecclesia In Britanniis Aliquantulum Usque Ad Tempora ArianÆ VesaniÆ Pacem Habuerit.
- Cap. IX.—: Ut, Regnante Gratiano, Maximus In Britannia Imperator Creatus, Cum Magno Exercitu Galliam Redierit.
- Cap. X.—: Ut, Arcadio Regnante, Pelagius Brito Contra Gratiam Dei Superba Bella Susceperit.
- Cap. XI.—: Ut, Regnante Honorio, Gratianus Et Constantinus In Britannia Tyranni Creati, Et Mox Prior In Britannia, Secundus In Gallia Sint Interempti.
- Cap. XII.—: Ut Britones a Scotis Vastati Pictisque Romanorum Auxilia QuÆsierint, Qui Secundo Venientes Murum Trans Insulam Fecerint; Sed Hoc Confestim a PrÆfatis Hostibus Interrupto, Majore Sint Calamitate Depressi.
- Cap. XIII.—: Ut, Regnante Theodosio Minore, Cujus Tempore Palladius Ad Scotos In Christum Credentes Missus Est, Britones Ab Ætio Consule Auxilium Flagitantes Non Impetraverint.
- Cap. XIV.—: Ut Britones, Fame Famosa Coacti, Barbaros Suis E Finibus Pepulerint; Nec Mora, Frugum Copia, Luxuria, Pestilentia, Et Exterminium Gentis Secutum Sit.
- Cap. XV.—: Ut Invitata Britanniam Gens Anglorum Primo Quidem Adversarios Longius Ejecerit; Sed Non Multo Post, Juncto Cum His FŒdere, In Socios Arma Verterit.
- Cap. XVI.—: Ut Britones Primam De Gente Anglorum Victoriam, Duce Ambrosio Romano Homine, Sumserint.
- Cap. XVII.—: Ut Germanus Episcopus Cum Lupo Britanniam Navigans Et Primo Maris Et Postmodum Pelagianorum Tempestatem Divina Virtute Sedaverit.
- Cap. XVIII.—: Ut Idem Filiam Tribuni CÆcam Illuminaverit, Ac Deinde Ad Sanctum Albanum Perveniens Reliquias Ibidem Et Ipsius Acceperit, Et Beatorum Apostolorum Sive Aliorum Martyrum Posuerit.
- Cap. XIX.—: Ut Idem Causa Infirmitatis Ibidem Detentus, Et Incendia Domorum Orando Restinxerit, Et Ipse Per Visionem a Suo Sit Languore Curatus.
- Cap. XX.—: Ut Iidem Episcopi Britonibus In Pugna Auxilium CŒleste Tulerint, Sicque Domum Reversi Sint.
- Cap. XXI.—: Ut, Renascentibus Virgultis PelagianÆ Pestis, Germanus Cum Severo Britanniam Reversus, Prius Claudo Juveni Incessum, Deinde Et Populo Dei, Condemnatis Sive Emendatis HÆreticis, Gressum Recuperarit Fidei.
- Cap. XXII.—: Ut Britones, Quiescentibus Ad Tempus Exteris, Civilibus Sese Bellis Contriverint, Simul Et Majoribus Flagitiis Submerserint.
- Cap. XXIII.—: Ut Sanctus Papa Gregorius, Augustinum Cum Monachis Ad PrÆdicandum Genti Anglorum Mittens, Epistola Quoque Illos Exhortatoria, Ne a Laborando Cessarent, Confortaverit.
- Cap. XXIV.—: Ut Arelatensi Episcopo Epistolam Pro Eorum Susceptione Miserit.
- Cap. XXV.—: Ut Veniens Britanniam Augustinus Primo In Insula Taneto Regi Cantuariorum PrÆdicaret; Et Sic, Accepta Ab Eo Licentia, Cantiam PrÆdicaturus Intraverit.
- Cap. XXVI.—: Ut Idem In Cantia PrimitivÆ EcclesiÆ Et Doctrinam Sit Imitatus Et Vitam, Atque In Urbe Regis Sedem Episcopatus Acceperit.
- Cap. XXVII.—: Ut Idem Episcopus Factus Gregorio PapÆ QuÆ Sint BritanniÆ Gesta Mandarit, Et Simul Necessariis Ejus Responsa Petens Acceperit.
- Cap. XXVIII.—: Ut Papa Gregorius Epistolam Arelatensi Episcopo, Pro Adjuvando In Opere Dei Augustino, Miserit.
- Cap. XXIX.—: Ut Idem Augustino Pallium, Et Epistolam, Et Plures Verbi Ministros, Miserit.
- Cap. XXX.—: Exemplar EpistolÆ, Quam Mellito Abbati Britanniam Pergenti Misit.
- Cap. XXXI.—: Ut Augustinum Per Litteras, Ne De Virtutibus Suis Gloriaretur, Hortatus Sit.
- Cap. XXXII.—: Ut Ethelberto Regi Literas Et Dona Miserit.
- Cap. XXXIII.—: Ut Augustinus Ecclesiam Salvatoris Instauraverit, Et Monasterium Beati Petri Apostoli Fecerit; Et De Primo Ejus Abbate Petro.
- Cap. XXXIV.—: Ut Ethelfridus, Rex Northanhumbrorum, Scotorum Gentes PrŒlio Conterens Ab Anglorum Finibus Expulerit.
- The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation. Book I
- Preface.— to the Most Glorious King Ceolwulph, Rede, the Servant of Christ and Priest.
- Chap. I.—: Of the Situation of Britain and Ireland, and of Their Ancient Inhabitants.
- Chap. II.—: Caius Julius CÆsar, the First Roman That Came Into Britain.
- Chap. III.—: Claudius, the Second of the Romans Who Came Into Britain, Brought the Islands Orcades Into Subjection to the Roman Empire; and Vespasian, Sent By Him, Reduced the Isle of Wight Under Their Dominion.
- Chap. IV.—: Lucius, King of Britain, Writing to Pope Eleutherus, Desires to Be Made a Christian.
- Chap. V.—: How the Emperor Severus Divided That Part of Britain Which He Subdued, From the Rest By a Rampart.
- Chap. VI.—: The Reign of Diocletian, and How He Persecuted the Christians.
- Chap. VII.—: The Passion of St. Alban and His Companions, Who At That Time Shed Their Blood For Our Lord.
- Chap. VIII.—: The Persecution Ceasing, the Church In Britain Enjoys Peace Till the Time of the Arian Heresy.
- Chap. IX.—: How During the Reign of Gratian, Maximus, Being Created Emperor In Britain, Returned Into Gaul With a Mighty Army.
- Chap. X.—: How In the Reign of Arcadius, Pelagius, a Briton, Insolently Impugned the Grace of God.
- Chap. XI.—: How During the Reign of Honorius, Gratian and Constantine Were Created Tyrants In Britain; and Soon After the Former Was Slain In Britain, and the Latter In Gaul.
- Chap. XII.—: The Britons, Being Ravaged By the Scots and Picts, Sought Succour From the Romans, Who, Coming a Second Time, Built a Wall Across the Island; But the Britons Being Again Invaded By the Aforesaid Enemies, Were Reduced to Greater Distress Than
- Chap. XIII.—: In the Reign of Theodosius the Younger, Palladius Was Sent to the Scots That Believed In Christ; the Britons Begging Assistance of Ætius, the Consul, Could Not Obtain It.
- Chap. XIV.—: The Britons, Compelled By Famine, Drove the Barbarians Out of Their Territories; Soon After There Ensued Plenty of Corn, Luxury, Plague, and the Subversion of the Nation.
- Chap. XV.—: The Angles Being Invited Into Britain, At First Obliged the Enemy to Retire to a Distance; But Not Long After, Joining In League With Them, Turned Their Weapons Upon Their Confederates.
- Chap. XVI.—: The Britons Obtained Their First Victory Over the Angles, Under the Command of Ambrosius, a Boman.
- Chap. XVII.—: How Germanus the Bishop, Sailing Into Britain With Lupus, First Quelled the Tempest of the Sea, and Afterwards That of the Pelagians, By Divine Power.
- Chap. XVIII.—: The Same Holy Man Gave Sight to the Blind Daughter of a Tribune, and Then Coming to St. Alban’s, There Received Some Relics of His, and Left Others of the Blessed Apostles, and Other Martyrs.
- Chap. XIX.—: How the Same Holy Man, Being Detained There By an Indisposition, By His Prayers Quenched a Fire That Had Broken Out Among the Houses, and Was Himself Cured of His Distemper By a Vision.
- Chap. XX.—: How the Same Bishops Procured the Britons Assistance From Heaven In a Battle, and Then Returned Home.
- Chap. XXI.—: The Pelagian Heresy Again Reviving, Germanus, Returning Into Britain With Severus, First Healed a Lame Youth, Then Having Condemned Or Converted the Heretics, They Restored Spiritual Health to the People of God.
- Chap. XXII.—: The Britons, Being For a Time Delivered From Foreign Invasions, Wasted Themselves By Civil Wars, and Then Gave Themselves Up to More Heinous Crimes.
- Chap. XXIII.—: How Pope Gregory Sent Augustine, With Other Monks, to Preach to the English, and Encouraged Them By a Letter of Exhortation, Not to Cease From Their Labour.
- Chap. XXIV.—: How He Wrote to the Bishop of Arles to Entertain Them.
- Chap. XXV.—: Augustine, Coming Into Britain, First Preached In the Isle of Thanet to King Ethelbert, and Having Obtained Licence, Entered the Kingdom of Kent, In Order to Preach Therein.
- Chap. XXVI.—: St. Augustine In Kent Followed the Doctrine and Manner of Living of the Primitive Church, and Settled His Episcopal See In the Royal City.
- Chap. XXVII.—: St. Augustine, Being Made Bishop, Sends to Acquaint Pope Gregory With What Had Been Done, and Receives His Answer to the Doubts He Had Proposed to Him.
- Chap. XXVIII.—: Pope Gregory Writes to the Bishop of Arles to Assist Augustine In the Work of God.
- Chap. XXIX.—: The Same Pope Sends Augustine the Pall, an Epistle, and Several Ministers of the Word.
- Chap. XXX.—: A Copy of the Letter Which Pope Gregory Sent to the Abbot Mellitus, Then Going Into Britain.
- Chap. XXXI.—: Pope Gregory, By Letter, Exhorts Augustine Not to Glory In His Miracles.
- Chap. XXXII.—: Pope Gregory Sends Letters and Presents to King Ethelbert.
- Chap. XXXIII.—: Augustine Repairs the Church of Our Saviour, and Builds the Monastery of St. Peter the Apostle; Peter the First Abbot of the Same.
- Chap. XXXIV.—: Ethelfrid, King of the Northumbrians, Having Vanquished the Nations of the Scots, Expels Them From the Territories of the English.
- Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum.: Liber Secundus.
- Cap. I. De Obitu Beati PapÆ Gregorii.
- Cap. II.—: Ut Augustinus Britonum Episcopos Pro Pace Catholica, Etiam Miraculo CŒlesti Coram Eis Facto, Monuerit; QuÆve Illos Spernentes Ultio Secuta Sit.
- Cap. III.—: Ut Idem Mellitum Ac Justum Episcopos Fecerit; Et De Obitu Ejus.
- Cap. IV.—: Ut Laurentius Cum Coepiscopis Suis Scotos Unitatem SanctÆ EcclesiÆ, Et Maxime In Pascha Observando, Sequi Monuerit, Et Ut Mellitus Romam Venerit.
- Cap. V.—: Ut, Defunctis Ethelberto Et Saberto Regibus, Successores Eorum Idololatriam Resuscitarint, Ob Quod Et Mellitus Ac Justus a Britannia Discesserint.
- Cap. VI.—: Ut Correptus Ab Apostolo Petro Laurentius Eadbaldum Regem Ad Christum Converterit, Qui Mox Mellitum Et Justum Ad PrÆdicandum Revocaverit.
- Cap. VII.—: Ut Mellitus Episcopus Flammas Ardentis SuÆ Civitatis Orando Restrinxerit.
- Cap. VIII.—: Ut Bonifacius Papa Justo Successori Ejus Pallium Et Epistolam Miserit.
- Cap. IX.—: De Imperio Regis Edwini, Et Ut Veniens Ad Evangelizandum Ei Paulinus Primo Filiam Ejus Cum Aliis, Fidei ChristianÆ Sacramentis Imbuerit.
- Cap. X.—: Ut Papa Bonifacius Eundem Regem, Missis Literis, Sit Hortatus Ad Fidem.
- Cap. XI.—: Ut Conjugem Ipsius, Per Epistolam, Salutis Illius Sedulam Agere Curam Monuerit.
- Cap. XII.—: Ut Edwinus Per Visionem Quondam Sibi Exsuli Ostensam Sit Ad Credendum Provocatus.
- Cap. XIII.—: Quale Consilium Idem Cum Primatibus Suis De Percipienda Fide Christi Habuerit; Et Ut Pontifex Ejus Suas Aras Profanaverit.
- Cap. XIV.—: Ut Idem Edwinus Cum Sua Gente Fidelis Sit Factus; Et Ubi Paulinus Baptizaverit.
- Cap. XV.—: Ut Provincia Orientalium Anglorum Fidem Christi Susceperit.
- Cap. XVI.—: Ut Paulinus In Provincia Lindissi PrÆdicaverit; Et De Qualitate Regni Edwini.
- Cap. XVII.—: Ut Idem Ab Honorio Papa Exhortatorias Literas Acceperit, Qui Etiam Paulino Pallium Miserit.
- Cap. XVIII.—: Ut Honorius, Qui Justo In Episcopatum Dorovernensis EcclesiÆ Successit, Ab Eodem Papa Honorio Pallium Et Literas Acceperit.
- Cap. XIX.—: Ut Primo Idem Honorius, Et Post Joannes, Literas Genti Scotorum Pro Pascha Simul Et Pro Pelagiana HÆresi Miserit.
- Cap. XX.—: Ut, Occiso Edwino, Paulinus Cantiam Rediens, Rhofensis EcclesiÆ PrÆsulatum Susceperit.
- The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation.: Book II.
- Chap. I.—: Of the Death of the Blessed Pope Gregory.
- Chap. II.—: Augustine Admonished the Bishops of the Britons to Catholic Peace and Unity, and to That Effect Wrought a Heavenly Miracle In Their Presence; of the Vengeance That Pursued Them For Their Contempt.
- Chap. III.—: How St. Augustine Made Mellitus and Justus Bishops; and of His Death.
- Chap. IV.—: Laurentius and His Bishops Admonish the Scots to Observe the Unity of the Holy Church, Particularly In Keeping of Easter; Mellitus Goes to Rome.
- Chap. V.—: How, After the Death of the Kings Ethelbert and Sabert, Their Successors Restored Idolatry; For Which Reason, Both Mellitus and Justus Departed Out of Britain.
- Chap. VI.—: Laurentius, Being Reproved By the Apostle, Converts King Eadbald to Christ; Mellitus and Justus Are Recalled.
- Chap. VII.—: Bishop Mellitus By Prayer Quenches a Fire In His City.
- Chap. VIII.—: Pope Boniface Sends the Pall and an Epistle to Justus, Successor to Mellitus.
- Chap. IX.—: The Reign of King Edwin, and How Paulinus, Coming to Preach the Gospel, First Converted His Daughter and Others to the Faith of Christ.
- Chap. X.—: Pope Boniface, By Letter, Exhorts the Same King to Embrace the Faith.
- Chap. XI.—: Pope Boniface Advises Queen Ethelberga to Use Her Best Endeavours For the Salvation of Her Consort, King Edwin.
- Chap. XII.—: King Edwin Is Persuaded to Believe, By a Vision He Had Seen When He Was In Exile.
- Chap. XIII.—: Of the Council He Held With His Chief Men About Embracing the Faith of Christ, and How the High Priest Profaned His Own Altars.
- Chap. XIV.—: King Edwin and His Nation Become Christians; Paulinus Baptizes Them.
- Chap. XV.—: The Province of the East Angles Receives the Faith of Christ.
- Chap. XVI.—: How Paulinus Preached In the Province of Lindsey; and of the Reign of Edwin.
- Chap. XVII.—: Edwin Receives Letters of Exhortation From Pope Honorius, Who Also Sends Paulinus the Pall.
- Chap. XVIII.—: Honorius, Who Succeeded Justus In the Bishopric of Canterbury, Receives the Pall and Letters From Pope Honorius.
- Chap. XIX.—: How the Aforesaid Honorius First, and Afterwards John, Wrote Letters to the Nation of the Scots, Concerning the Observance of Easter, and the Pelagian Heresy.
- Chap. XX.—: Edwin Being Slain, Paulinus Returns Into Kent, and Has the Bishopric of Rochester Conferred On Him.
- Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum.: Liber Tertius.
- Cap. I.—: Ut Primi Successores Edwini Regis Et Fidem SuÆ Gentis Prodiderunt, Et Regnum Porro Oswaldus Christianissimus Rex Utrumque Restauravit.
- Cap. II.—: Ut De Ligno Crucis, Quod Idem Rex Contra Barbaros Pugnaturus Erexerat, Inter Innumera Sanitatum Miracula, Quidam a Dolentis Brachii Sit Languore Curatus.
- Cap. III.—: Ut Idem Rex, Postulans De Gente Scotorum Antistitem, Acceperit Aidanum, Eidemque In Insula Lindisfarnensi Sedem Episcopatus Donaverit.
- Cap. IV.—: Quando Gens Pictorum Fidem Christi Perceperit.
- Cap. V.—: De Vita Aidani Episcopi.
- Cap. VI.—: De Religione Ac Pietate Miranda Oswaldi Regis.
- Cap. VII.—: Ut Provincia Occidentalium Saxonum Verbum Dei, PrÆdicante Birino, Susceperit; Et De Successoribus Ejus Agilberto Et Eleutherio.
- Cap. VIII.—: Ut Rex Cantuariorum Earconbertus Idola Destrui PrÆceperit; Et De Filia Ejus Ercongota Et Propinqua Ethelberga, Sacratis Deo Virginibus.
- Cap. IX.—: Ut In Loco, In Quo Occisus Est Rex Oswaldus, Crebra Sanitatum Miracula Facta; Utque Ibi Primo Jumentum Cujusdam Viantis, Ac Deinde Puella Paralytica Sit Curata.
- Cap. X.—: Ut Pulvis Loci Illius Contra Ignem Valuerit.
- Cap. XI.—: Ut Super Reliquias Ejus Lux CŒlestis Tota Nocte Steterit; Et Ut Per Eas Sint DÆmoniaci Curati.
- Cap. XII.—: Ut Ad Tumbam Ejus Sit Puerulus E Febre Curatus.
- Cap. XIII.—: Ut In Hibernia Sit Quidam Per Reliquias Ejus a Mortis Articulo Revocatus.
- Cap. XIV.—: Ut, Defuncto Paulino, Ithamar Pro Eo Rhofensis EcclesiÆ PrÆsulatum Susceperit; Et De Humilitate Mirabili Regis Oswini, Qui Ab Oswio Crudeli CÆde Peremtus Est.
- Cap. XV.—: Ut Episcopus Aidanus Nautis Et Tempestatem Futuram PrÆdixerit, Et Oleum Sanctum, Quo Hanc Sedarent, Dederit.
- Cap. XVI.—: Ut Idem Admotum Ab Hostibus Urbi RegiÆ Ignem Orando Amoverit.
- Cap. XVII.—: Ut Apposta EcclesiÆ, Cui Idem Accumbens Obierat, Ardente Cetera Domo, Flammis Absumi Nequiverit; Et De Interna Vita Ejus.
- Cap. XVIII.—: De Vita Vel Morte Religiosi Regis Sigeberti.
- Cap. XIX.—: Ut Furseus Apud Orientales Anglos Monasterium Fecerit; Et De Visionibus Vel Sanctitate Ejus, Cui Etiam Caro Post Mortem Incorrupta Testimonium Perhibuerit.
- Cap. XX.—: Ut, Defuncto Honorio, Pontificatu Sit Functus Deusdedit; Et Qui In Tempore Illo Orientalium Anglorum, Qui Rhofensis EcclesiÆ, Fuerint Antistites.
- Cap. XXI.—: Ut Provincia Mediterraneorum Anglorum Sub Rege Peada Christiana Sit Facta.
- Cap. XXII.—: Ut Orientales Saxones Fidem Quam Dudum Abjecerant, Sub Rege Sigeberto, PrÆdicante Cedd, Receperint.
- Cap. XXIII.—: Ut Idem Episcopus Cedd Locum Monasterii Construendi Ab Ethelwaldo Rege Accipiens Orationibus Ac Jejuniis Domino Consecraverit; Et De Obitu Ipsius.
- Cap. XXIV.—: Ut Provincia Merciorum, Occiso Rege Penda, Fidem Christi Susceperit: Et Oswius, Pro Adepta Victoria, Possessiones Et Territoria Ad Construenda Monasteria Dederit.
- Cap. XXV.—: Ut QuÆstio Sit Mota De Tempore PaschÆ Adversus Eos, Qui De Scotia Venerant.
- Cap. XXVI.—: Ut Colmanus Victus Domum Redierit, Et Tuda Pro Illo Episcopatu Sit Functus; Qualisque Illis Doctoribus Fuerit Habitus EcclesiÆ.
- Cap. XXVII.—: Ut Egbertus, Vir Sanctus De Natione Anglorum, Monachicam In Hibernia Vitam Duxerit.
- Cap. XXVIII.—: Ut, Defuncto Tuda, Wilfridus In Gallia, Ceadda Apud Occidentales Saxones, In Provincia Northanhumbrorum Sint Ordinati Episcopi.
- Cap. XXIX.—: Ut Wighardus Presbyter, Ordinandus In Archiepiscopum, Roman De Britannia Sit Missus; Quem Remissa Mox Scripta PapÆ Apostolici Ibidem Obiisse Narraverint.
- Cap. XXX.—: Ut Orientales Saxones Tempore Mortalitatis Ad Idololatriam Reversi, Sed Per Instantiam Jarumanni Episcopi Mox Sint Ab Errore Correcti.
- The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation.: Book III.
- Chap. I.—: How King Edwin’s Next Successors Lost Both the Faith of Their Nation and the Kingdom; But the Most Christian King Oswald Retrieved Both.
- Chap. II.—: How Among Innumerable Other Miraculous Cures Wrought By the Cross, Which King Oswald, Being Ready to Engage Against the Barbarians, Erected, a Certain Youth Had His Lame Arm Healed.
- Chap. III.—: The Same King Oswald, Asking a Bishop of the Scottish Nation, Had Aidan Sent Him, and Granted Him an Episcopal See In the Isle of Lindisfarne.
- Chap. IV.—: When the Nation of the Picts Received the Faith.
- Chap. V.—: Of the Life of Bishop Aidan.
- Chap. VI.—: Of King Oswald’s Wonderful Piety.
- Chap. VII.—: How the West Saxons Received the Word of God By the Preaching of Birinus; and of His Successors, Agilbert and Eleutherius.
- Chap. VIII.—: How Earconbert, King of Kent, Ordered the Idols to Be Destroyed; and of His Daughter Earcongota, and His Kinswoman Ethelberga, Virgins Consecrated to God.
- Chap. IX.—: How Miraculous Cures Have Been Frequently Done In the Place Where King Oswald Was Killed; and How First, a Traveller’s Horse Was Restored, and Afterwards a Young Girl Cured of a Palsy.
- Chap. X.—: The Power of the Earth of That Place Against Fire.
- Chap. XI.—: Of the Heavenly Light That Appeared All the Night Over the Bones of King Oswald, and How Persons Possessed With Devils Were Delivered By Them.
- Chap. XII.—: Of a Boy Cured of an Ague At St. Oswald’s Tomb.
- Chap. XIII.—: Of a Certain Person In Ireland That Was Recovered, When At the Point of Death, By the Bones of King Oswald.
- Chap. XIV.—: On the Death of Paulinus, Ithamar Was Made Bishop of Rochester In His Stead, of the Wonderful Humility of King Oswin, Who Was Cruelly Slain By Oswy.
- Chap. XV.—: How Bishop Aidan Foretold to Certain Seamen a Storm That Would Happen, and Gave Them Some Holy Oil to Lay It.
- Chap. XVI.—: How the Same Aidan, By His Prayers, Saved the Royal City When Fired By the Enemy.
- Chap. XVII.—: How the Post of the Church On Which Bishop Aidan Was Leaning When He Died, Could Not Be Burnt When the Rest of the Church Was Consumed By Fire; and of His Inward Life.
- Chap. XVIII.—: Of the Life and Death of the Religious King Sigebert.
- Chap. XIX.—: How Fursey Built a Monastery Among the East Angles, and of His Visions and Sanctity, of Which, His Flesh Remaining Uncorrupted After Death, Bore Testimony.
- Chap. XX.—: Honorius Dying, Deusdedit Is Chosen Archbishop of Canterbury, of Those Who Were At That Time Bishops of the East Angles, and of the Church of Rochester.
- Chap. XXI.—: How the Province of the Midland Angles Became Christian Under King Peada.
- Chap. XXII.—: How the East Saxons Again Received the Faith, Which They Had Before Cast Off Under King Sigebert, Through the Preaching of Cedd.
- Chap. XXIII.—: Bishop Cedd, Having a Place Given Him By King Ethelwald, Consecrates the Same to Our Lord With Prayer and Fasting. of His Death.
- Chap. XXIV.—: King Penda Being Slain, the Mercians Received the Faith of Christ, and Oswy Gave Possessions and Territories to God, For Building Monasteries, In Acknowledgment For the Victory Obtained.
- Chap. XXV.—: How the Controversy Arose About the Due Time of Keeping Easter, With Those That Came Out of Scotland.
- Chap. XXVI.—: Colman, Being Worsted, Returned Home; Tuda Succeeded Him In the Bishopric; the State of the Church Under Those Teachers.
- Chap. XXVII.—: Egbert, a Holy Man of the English Nation, Led a Monastic Life In Ireland.
- Chap. XXVIII.—: Tuda Being Dead, Wilfrid Was Ordained, In France, and Ceadda, In the Province of the West Saxons, to Be Bishops of the Northumbrians.
- Chap. XXIX.—: How the Priest Wighard Was Sent From Britain to Rome, to Be Consecrated Archbishop, of His Death There, and of the Letters of the Apostolic Pope Giving an Account Thereof.
- Chap. XXX.—: The East Saxons, During a Pestilence, Returning to Idolatry, Are Immediately Brought Back From Their Error By the Bishop Jaruman.
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HOW THE CONTROVERSY AROSE ABOUT THE DUE TIME OF KEEPING EASTER, WITH THOSE THAT CAME OUT OF SCOTLAND.
Of Bishop Finan. 652.
In the meantime, Bishop Aidan being dead, Finan, who was ordained and sent by the Scots, succeeded him in the bishopric, and built a church in the Isle of Lindisfarne, the episcopal see; nevertheless, after the manner of the Scots, he made it, not of stone, but of hewn oak, and covered it with reeds; and the same was afterwards dedicated in honour of St. Peter the Apostle, by the reverend Archbishop Theodore. Eadbert, also bishop of that place, took off the thatch, and covered it, both roof and walls, with plates of lead.
At this time, a great and frequent controversy happened about the observance of Easter; those that came from Kent or France affirming, that the Scots kept Easter Sunday contrary to the custom of the universal church. Among them was a most zealous defender of the true Easter, whose name was Ronan, a Scot by nation, but instructed in ecclesiastical truth, either in France or Italy, who, disputing with Finan, convinced many, or at least induced them to make a more strict inquiry after the truth; yet he could not prevail upon Finan, but, on the contrary, made him the more inveterate by reproof, and a professed opposer of the truth, being of a hot and violent temper. James, formerly the deacon of the venerable Archbishop Paulinus, as has been said above, kept the true and Catholic Easter, with all those that he could persuade to adopt the right way. Queen Eanfleda and her followers also observed the same as she had seen practised in Kent, having with her a Kentish priest that followed the Catholic mode, whose name was Romanus. Thus it is said to have happened in those times that Easter was twice kept in one year; and that when the king, having ended the time of fasting, kept his Easter, the queen and her followers were still fasting, and celebrating Palm Sunday. This difference about the observance of Easter, whilst Aidan lived, was patiently tolerated by all men, as being sensible, that though he could not keep Easter contrary to the custom of those who had sent him, yet he industriously laboured to practise all works of faith, piety, and love, according to the custom of all holy men; for which reason he was deservedly beloved by all, even by those who differed in opinion concerning Easter, and was held in veneration, not only by indifferent persons, but even by the bishops, Honorius of Canterbury, and Felix of the East Angles.
Bishop Colman. 661.
But after the death of Finan, who succeeded him, when Colman, who was also sent out of Scotland, came to be bishop, a greater controversy arose about the observance of Easter, and the rules of ecclesiastical life. Whereupon this dispute began naturally to influence the thoughts and hearts of many, who feared, lest having received the name of Christians, they might happen to run, or to have run, in vain. This reached the ears of King Oswy and his son Alfrid; for Oswy, having been instructed and baptized by the Scots, and being very perfectly skilled in their language, thought nothing better than what they taught. But Alfrid, having been instructed in Christianity by Wilfrid, a most learned man, who had first gone to Rome to learn the ecclesiastical doctrine, and spent much time at Lyons with Dalfin, archbishop of France, from whom also he had received the ecclesiastical tonsure, rightly thought this man’s doctrine ought to be preferred before all the traditions of the Scots. For this reason he had also given him a monastery of forty families, at a place called Rhypum; which place, not long before, he had given to those that followed the system of the Scots for a monastery; but forasmuch as they afterwards, being left to their choice, prepared to quit the place rather than alter their opinion, he gave the place to him, whose life and doctrine were worthy of it.
Agilbert, bishop of the West Saxons, above-mentioned, a friend to King Alfrid and to Abbot Wilfrid, was at that time come into the province of the Northumbrians, and made some stay among them; and at the request of Alfrid, he made Wilfrid a priest in his monastery, and had in his company a priest, whose name was Agatho. The controversy being there started, concerning Easter, or the tonsure, or other ecclesiastical affairs, it was agreed, that a synod should be held in the monastery of Streaneshalch, which signifies the Bay of the Lighthouse, where the Abbess Hilda, a woman devoted to God, then presided; and that there this controversy should be decided. The kings, both father and son, came thither, the bishops Colman, with his Scottish clerks, and Agilbert, with the priests Agatho and Wilfrid, and James and Romanus, were on their side; the Abbess Hilda and her followers were for the Scots, as was also the venerable Bishop Cedd, long before ordained by the Scots, as has been said above, and he was in that council a most careful interpreter for both parties.
King Oswy first observed, that it behoved those who served one God to observe the same rule of life; and as they all expected the same kingdom in heaven, so they ought not to differ in the celebration of the Divine mysteries; but rather to inquire which was the truest tradition, that the same might be followed by all; he then commanded his bishop, Colman, first to declare what the custom was, which he observed, and whence it derived its origin. Then Colman said, “The Easter which I keep, I received from my elders, who sent me bishop hither; all our forefathers, men beloved of God, are known to have kept it after the same manner; and that the same may not seem to any contemptible or worthy to be rejected, it is the same which St. John the Evangelist, the disciple beloved of our Lord, with all the churches over which he presided, is recorded to have observed.” Having said thus much, and more to the like effect, the king commanded Agilbert to show whence his custom of keeping Easter was derived, or on what authority it was grounded. Agilbert answered, “I desire that my disciple, the priest Wilfrid, may speak in my stead; because we both concur with the other followers of the ecclesiastical tradition, that are here present, and he can better explain our opinion in the English language, than I can by an interpreter.”
Controversy between Colman and Wilfrid.
Then Wilfrid, being ordered by the king to speak, delivered himself thus:—“The Easter which we observe, we saw celebrated by all at Rome, where the blessed apostles, Peter and Paul, lived, taught, suffered, and were buried; we saw the same done in Italy and in France, when we travelled through those countries for pilgrimage and prayer. We found the same practised in Africa, Asia, Egypt, Greece, and all the world, wherever the church of Christ is spread abroad, through several nations and tongues, at one and the same time; except only these and their accomplices in obstinacy, I mean the Picts and the Britons, who foolishly, in these two remote islands of the world, and only in part even of them, oppose all the rest of the universe.” When he had so said, Colman answered, “It is strange that you will call our labours foolish, wherein we follow the example of so great an apostle, who was thought worthy to lay his head on our Lord’s bosom, when all the world knows him to have lived most wisely.” Wilfrid replied, “Far be it from us to charge John with folly, for he literally observed the precepts of the Jewish law, whilst the church still Judaized in many points, and the apostles were not able at once to cast off all the observances of the law which had been instituted by God. In which way it is necessary that all who come to the faith should forsake the idols which were invented by devils, that they might not give scandal to the Jews that were among the Gentiles. For this reason it was, that Paul circumcised Timothy, that he offered sacrifice in the temple, that he shaved his head with Aquila and Priscilla at Corinth; for no other advantage than to avoid giving scandal to the Jews. Hence it was, that James said, to the same Paul, ‘You see, brother, how many thousands of the Jews have believed; and they are all zealous for the law. And yet, at this time, the Gospel spreading throughout the world, it is needless, nay, it is not lawful, for the faithful either to be circumcised, or to offer up to God sacrifices of flesh.’ So John, pursuant to the custom of the law, began the celebration of the feast of Easter, on the fourteenth day of the first month, in the evening, not regarding whether the same happened on a Saturday, or any other day. But when Peter preached at Rome, being mindful that our Lord arose from the dead, and gave the world the hopes of resurrection, on the first day after the Sabbath, he understood that Easter ought to be observed, so as always to stay till the rising of the moon on the fourteenth day of the first moon, in the evening, according to the custom and precepts of the law, even as John did. And when that came, if the Lord’s day, then called the first day after the Sabbath, was the next day, he began that very evening to keep Easter, as we all do at this day. But if the Lord’s day did not fall the next morning after the fourteenth moon, but on the sixteenth, or the seventeenth, or any other moon till the twenty-first, he waited for that, and on the Saturday before, in the evening, began to observe the holy solemnity of Easter. Thus it came to pass, that Easter Sunday was only kept from the fifteenth moon to the twenty-first. Nor does this evangelical and apostolic tradition abolish the law, but rather fulfil it; the command being to keep the passover from the fourteenth moon of the first month in the evening to the twenty-first moon of the same month in the evening; which observance all the successors of St. John in Asia, since his death, and all the church throughout the world, have since followed; and that this is the true Easter, and the only one to be kept by the faithful, was not newly decreed by the Council of Nice, but only confirmed afresh; as the Church History informs us.
“Thus it appears, that you, Colman, neither follow the example of John, as you imagine, nor that of Peter, whose traditions you knowingly contradict; and that you neither agree with the law nor the Gospel in the keeping of your Easter. For John, keeping the Paschal time according to the degree of the Mosaic law, had no regard to the first day after the Sabbath, which you do not practise, who celebrate Easter only on the first day after the Sabbath. Peter kept Easter Sunday between the fifteenth and the twenty-first moon, which you do not, but keep Easter Sunday from the fourteenth to the twentieth moon; so that you often begin Easter on the thirteenth moon in the evening, whereof neither the law made any mention, nor did our Lord, the author and giver of the Gospel, on that day, but on the fourteenth, either eat the old passover in the evening, or deliver the sacraments of the New Testament, to be celebrated by the church, in memory of his passion. Besides, in your celebration of Easter, you utterly exclude the twenty-first moon, which the law ordered to be principally observed. Thus, as I said before, you agree neither with John nor Peter, nor with the law, nor the Gospel, in the celebration of the greatest festival.”
To this Colman rejoined: “Did Anatolius, a holy man, and much commended in church history, act contrary to the law and the Gospel, when he wrote, that Easter was to be celebrated from the fourteenth to the twentieth? Is it to be believed that our most reverend Father Columba and his successors, men beloved by God, who kept Easter after the same manner, thought or acted contrary to the Divine writings? Whereas there were many among them, whose sanctity is testified by heavenly signs and the working of miracles, whose life, customs, and discipline I never cease to follow, not questioning their being saints in heaven.”
“It is evident,” said Wilfrid, “that Anatolius was a most holy, learned, and commendable man; but what have you to do with him, since you do not observe his decrees? For he, following the rule of truth in his Easter, appointed a revolution of nineteen years, which either you are ignorant of, or if you know it, though it is kept by the whole church of Christ, yet you despise it. He so computed the fourteenth moon in the Easter of our Lord, that according to the custom of the Egyptians, he acknowledged it to be the fifteenth moon in the evening; so in like manner he assigned the twentieth to Easter-Sunday, as believing that to be the twenty-first moon, when the sun had set, which rule and distinction of his it appears you are ignorant of, in that you sometimes keep Easter before the full of the moon, that is, on the thirteenth day. Concerning your Father Columba and his followers, whose sanctity you say you imitate, and whose rules and precepts you observe, which have been confirmed by signs from heaven, I may answer, that when many, on the day of judgment, shall say to our Lord, ‘That in his name they prophesied, and cast out devils, and wrought many wonders,’ our Lord will reply, ‘That he never knew them.’ But far be it from me, that I say so of your fathers, because it is much more just to believe what is good, than what is evil, of persons whom one does not know. Wherefore I do not deny those to have been God’s servants, and beloved by him, who with rustic simplicity, but pious intentions, have themselves loved him. Nor do I think that such keeping of Easter was very prejudicial to them, as long as none came to show them a more perfect rule; and yet I do believe that they, if any catholic adviser had come among them, would have as readily followed his admonitions, as they are known to have kept those commandments of God, which they had learned and knew.
“But as for you and your companions, you certainly sin, if, having heard the decrees of the Apostolic See, and of the universal church, and that the same is confirmed by holy writ, you refuse to follow them; for, though your fathers were holy, do you think that their small number, in a corner of the remotest island, is to be preferred before the universal church of Christ throughout the world? And if that Columba of yours, (and, I may say, ours also, if he was Christ’s servant,) was a holy man and powerful in miracles, yet could he be preferred before the most blessed prince of the apostles, to whom our Lord said, ‘Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it, and to thee I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven?’ ”
When Wilfrid had spoken thus, the king said, “Is it true, Colman, that these words were spoken to Peter by our Lord?” He answered, “It is true, O king!” Then says he, “Can you show any such power given to your Columba?” Colman answered, “None.” Then added the king, “Do you both agree, that these words were principally directed to Peter, and that the keys of heaven were given to him by our Lord?” They both answered, “We do.” Then the king concluded, “And I also say unto you, that he is the door-keeper, whom I will not contradict, but will, as far as I know and am able, in all things obey his decrees, lest, when I come to the gates of the kingdom of heaven, there should be none to open them, he being my adversary who is proved to have the keys.” The king having said this, all present, both great and small, gave their assent, and renouncing the more imperfect institution, resolved to conform to that which they found to be better.