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NOTES - Plutarch, Shakespeare’s Plutarch, Vol. 2 (containing the main sources of Anthony and Cleopatra and of Coriolanus) 
Shakespeare’s Plutarch, ed. C.F. Tucker Brooke (New York: Duffield and Company, 1909). Vol. 2 containing the main sources of Anthony and Cleopatra and of Coriolanus.
Part of: Shakespeare’s Plutarch, 2 vols.
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THE LIFE OF MARCUS ANTONIUS
P. I, 11. 4–9. marginal note. This note is borrowed from Amyot, who writes: ‘Pourautâá qu'il acheua & ter-mina par sa mort la guerre qu'il auoit peu heureusement conduicte cōtre ceux de Crete, 'est à dire, Candie. Florus en l’ épitome du liure 97. ‘Amyot's reference, omitted by North, is to the work of a Latin historian of the age of Trajan,L. Atnnæi Flori Rerum Romanarum Epitome. The passage alluded to is probably the seventh chapter of the third book (ed. 1827, Paris, pp. 230, 231), which is headed ‘Bellum Creticum,’ and mentions with dispraise the father of Antony: ‘Primus invasit insulam Marcus Antonius, cum ingenti quidem victoriæ spe atque fiducia, adeo ut plures catenas in navibus quam arma portaret, etc.’
1. 16. errand. The early editions have the old spelling ‘arrant,’ which survives in pronunciation in many dialects.
P. 3, 1. 22. and was. The subject of the verb is, of course, ‘Antonius.’
1. 24. a castle of his. Not a very exact rendering of the French, ‘la plus forte place qu'ilz eussent.’ The passage, from ‘and was’ in 1. 22, runs in the Greek: αντòς μÈν ÈπÉβη τοŨ μεγíσυ τòν Τςυμἄτων ππῶτος.
P. 4, 1. 9. made it dainty: ‘hesitated,’ a not uncommon idiom; cf. N.E.D. s. v. Dainty, sb. 7. The French has ‘faisoit quelque difficulté.’
1. 18. deep sands. Amyot has ‘des profondes sablonnieres,’ but adds the marginal note, ‘Autres lisent ωδοὺς βαθέιας, qui seroit à dire, chemin creux: mais le premier est meilleur.’ The accepted Greek reading, ψάμμου βαθείας, bears out his statement.
1. 20. Serbonides. This is the form of the adjective in the old editions, and in the French. Several modern editors substitute ‘Serbonian,’ doubtless with Miltonic reminiscence; cf. Paradise Lost, II. 593. The Greek uses the genitive of the noun,τῆς Σερβωνίδος.
1. 25. the sea on this side is, of course, the Mediterranean, as the Latin version explicitly states.
P. 5, II. 10, 11. and were many in number. A parenthetical clause referring to ‘battles and skirmishes.’ Amyot's wording is ‘battailies … grosses & en grand nombre.’ The 1603 version of North substituted ‘being’ for ‘and were.
P. 7,1. 18. that had changed his garments: i.e. ‘who had changed sides.’ An overliteral translation of ‘qui auoit tourné sa robbe.’ The Greek has merely Éκ μεταβολῆς.
P. 9, 1. 14. Philippics: i.e. the fourteen orations against Antony delivered after Caesar's assassination, so called from their analogy to Demosthenes's speeches against Philip of Macedon. The passage to which Plutarch alludes occurs in the second Philippic, chapter 22 (Delphin ed., London, 1830, Orationes, Vol. V. p. 2679) ‘Ut Helena Trojanis, sic iste huic reipublicae causa belli, causa pestis atque exitii fuit.’ The old editions of North print ‘Philippides,’ though Amyot has correctly ‘Phllippiques.’
P. 10, 1. 20. injuried. This is the spelling of the early editions of North. The verbs ‘injure’ and ‘injury’ were used quite interchangeably by Elizabethan writers.
P. 13,1. 3. before. An adverb.
P. 14, I. 27. Cytheris. North, following Amyot, spells ‘Cytheride.’
P. 15, I. 15. gillots. Probably the same word as ‘jilt.’ Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Gillot, fillet, and filt.
11. 22, 23. laid the reins of the bridle upon the soldiers' necks. A heightening of Amyot's ‘lascha la bride aux gens de guerre.’
P. 16, 1. 9. faults. The first and second editions of North have ‘fault,’ but this is a misprint. Amyot uses the plural, which is required by the sense, and is supplied in the editions of 1603, etc.
P. 17, I. 6. ‘for being known.’ The preposition is used in the very common Middle English sense of ‘for fear of,’ ‘to avoid.‘ Cf. N.E.D. s.v. 23, c, d.
11. 9, 10. ramped of her neck, and kissed her: περιβαλν κατεφὶλκσε. ‘Ramped of’ means ‘leaped on.’ Ed. 1603 substitutes ‘on’ for ‘of,’ which in this sense was then rather archaic.
1. 21. fift. So the old editions, preserving the etymologically correct form (O.E. ‘fifth’). The modern ‘fifth’ follows the analogy of ‘fourth’ (O.E. ‘féorða’). So modern ‘sixth’ from O.E. ‘sixta.’
P. 18,Il. 11, 12. menning by: ‘entendant de.’
P. 20, I. 6. consort. Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Consort sb2, 1.
P. 28, 1. 17. Island. The first two editions preserve the etymological spelling ‘Iland’ (O.E. iglond). These editions generally omit the ‘ς’ in ‘Isle’ also, where, however, it is etymologically correct as the latter word is derived through the French from Latin insulam.
P. 29, 11. 18, 19. three hundred. ‘Two hundred’ in the Life of Brutus (cf. Vol. I. p. 149,1. 12). The inconsistency is Plutarch's. Shakespeare (fulius Caesar, IV. iii. 174–6) makes the number slain one hundred.
1. 24.. Philippides. Here again the early editions write ‘Philippides.’ Cf. note to p. 9, 1. 14. Amyot calls the orations ‘Antoniennes.’ The Greek uses no adjective, Plutarch's phrase being simply τοτ᾽ς κοὐαι'αὐιοῦ(i. e. Antonius) λόγους.
P. 31, 1. 7. policy: ‘trickery.’ For Shakespearean instances of the use of the word in this sense cf. Schmidt, Sh.-Lex. s.v. 4.
P. 34,11. 18, 19. These are the fourth and fifth lines of Oedipus Tyrannus. The Greek is:
which Amyot translated,
Plutarch quotes only the last verse; the other is added by Amyot.
P. 35, 1. 6. A citizen's house of Magnesia: a frequent construction in early writers. Cf. Kellner, Historical Outlines of English Syntax, § 469.
P. 36,1. 20. bourding: ‘jesting.’ Cf. N.E.D. s.v.
P. 39, 1. 12. post alone: ‘entirely alone.’ For a number of instances of this formerly not uncommon phrase, number cf. N.K.D. s.v. Post alone.
P. 40,1. 8. slents: ‘jokes.’ Nares appears to be the first lexicographer to notice this word. He quotes the present passage and another in North where ‘slent’ is used as a verb. Cf. also Century Dictionarys.v.
P. 44, 11. 11–13. Antonius shewed them a comical face … a grim look. The Greek has: τῷ|τραγικῷ πρὸτοῶς 'Ρωμαῦους χρῆται προσῷπῶ, τῷ δÈ κωμικῷ πρὸς αὺτοὑς.
P. 47, 1. 9. Accia. The received spelling is ‘Atia.’
P. 48, 1. 13. Misenum. North writes ‘Misena,’ here and elsewhere.
1. 21. a certain. The word ‘quantity,’ found in Amyot, is omitted, perhaps by mistake, but ‘certain’ is not infrequently used as a noun by old writers. Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Certain B. II. 4, and the instances there quoted.
P. 49, 1. 13. gables. An alternative form of ‘cables.’ Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Gable sb.2
II. 23, 24. to keep them they should come no further. The conjunction ‘that’ is, of course, to be supplied before ‘they.’
P. 51, 1. 20. stickler: a referee or judge. This is the original meaning of the word. It is spelled ‘stiteler’ in M.E. and seems certainly to be derived from M.E. stightlen, ‘to arrange.’ Cf. Nares' Glossary, Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, etc.
P. 52 1. l, Orodes' son king of Parthia: i.e. ‘son of Orodes king of Parthia.’ Cf. note to p. 35, 1. 6, and reference there cited.
11. 22–24. that they should not think he did anything but by his Lieutenant Ventidius. A mistranslation; ‘that they should not think he did everything by means of his lieutenant V.’ would be nearer the sense. The Greek is: Βουλόμενος ἔ ρν γε τοῦτο τῶν ἔργων ἐπώνυμον αὐτοῦ γενέσθαι κγί μὴ πάντα διά Οὐεντιδίου κατορθοῦσθαι.
P. 57, 1. 9. Phraates. Amyot and North adhere throughout to the incorrect spelling ‘Phraortes.’
1. 12, marginal note. Orodes, king of Parthia. Instead of ‘Parthia,’ the old editions have ‘Persia.’ The marginal notes, first found in North's translation, were obviously compiled very carelessly, but Parthia and Persia were not infrequently confused by Latin writers.
P. 59 1. 26. carriage. Cf. note to Vol. 1. p. 55, 1.2, and p. 62, 11. 3, 4 of this volume.
P. 60, 1. 23. fardels: ‘bundles,’ cf. N.E.D. s.v. Fardel sb.1 1.
P. 61, 11. 6, 7. they appeared to be soldiers indeed, to see them march in so good array as was possible. The meaning is clear enough, but the syntax of the sentence defies explanation. North has translated a little too closely Amyot's ‘leur semblolent bien gens de guerre à les ueoir marcher en si bonne ordonnance qu'il n'estoit pas possible de mieulx.’ The editor of 1631, troubled by the grammatical difficulty, changed the words above to ‘took them for soldiers indeed, for that they marched in as good array as was possible.’
P. 64, 11. 6–9. to the end it should not appear … danger he was in. A very involved way of expressing Plutarch's idea, ὡς δὴ μὴ παντάπασιν ὺγαπᾶν τὸ σωθῆναι καὶ διαφυγεῖν νομισθείη.
P. 65, 1. 13. fetch: ‘trick.’ Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Fetch sb.1 2.
P. 71, 1. 13. javelins. The spelling of the original edition is ‘javelings,’ as very commonly in early English.
P. 72, 1. 22. eight. The ordinal. Cf. Vol. 1. p. 106, 1. 17, and note.
P. 73, 1. 19. Cyrus. The second edition prints by mistake ‘Cyprus’ in the text, though the marginal note has ‘Cyrus’ correctly.
I. 20. farther. Ed. 1579 prints ‘farder.’
P. 75, 1. 4. champaign. The old editions use the common Elizabethan form of the word, ‘champion.’
11. 10, 11. the same fortune that Marcus Crassus did. The standard account of the destruction of Crassus and his army by the Parthians (b.c. 53) is found in Plutarch's Life of Crassus.
1.25. sallets: ‘light helmets.’ Cf. Vol. 1. p. 188, 1. 10.
P. 79, 1. 1. defended: ‘warded off.’ The primary sense of the word.
11. 2, 3. hand strokes: ‘handy strokes’ in ed. 1595, etc.
1. 15. sixt. The etymological form, answering to O.E. ‘sixta.‘ Cf. note on ‘rift,’ p. 17, 1. 21.
P. 80, 1. 17. Artabazus. The proper spelling is ‘Artavasdes.’
11. 17, 18. had reserved Antonius to end this war: mistranslated. The correct rendering would be, ‘had prevented A. from ending.’ Amyot has ‘auoit gardé Antonius de mener a chef ceste guerre,’ where ‘gardé’ means ‘hindered.’ Plutarch's words are: κατάδκλος ην Ἀρταουάσδκςὁ ἈρμÉνιος Ἀντώνμον τσ τÈλος ἀφελὸμενος.
P. 81, 1. 3 egg: ‘urge.’
1. 20. mew. Cf. Vol. I. p. 145, 1. 22, and note.
1. 22. Blancbourg. Αευκὴ κὼμκ in Plutarch. ‘Blancbourg’ is Amyot's translation, which North accepted apparently as a Greek proper name.
P. 83, il. 24, 25. knowing that Octavia would have Antonius from her. ‘Would’ means ‘wished to’; French ‘uouloit.’
P. 84, 11. 2–13. The means by which Cleopatra retains Antony's affection are quite different in Shakespeare. Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, I. iii. 2–5.
P. 85, 1. 7. made peace with him. ‘Formed a league with him’ would be a better translation of εἴςφιλίαν προσκγἀγειο: ‘him’ refers to the king of the Medes.
P. 87, 11. 2, 3. a high copped-tank hat on his head, narrow in the top. Amyot has ‘un hault chappeau pointu sur la teste, dont la pointe estoit droitte,’ translating Plutarch's κίταριν ὀρθὴν (c Liddell and Scott, s.v. κίδαρις). ‘Copped-tank’ is a word of very uncertain etymology; the little that is known of it will be found in N.E.D.s.v. Copin-tank.
1. 26. triumvirate. Used apparently in the sense of ‘fellow-triumvir.’ The Greek phrase is τὸν συνὰρχοντα ΑÉπιδον
P. 91, 1. 2. hits father. The 1579 edition reads ‘her father,’ an evident mistake, which ed. 1595 corrects. The French is ambiguous, ‘excepté I'aisné de ceulx de Fuluia, qui estoit auec son pere.’
P. 92, 1. 7. perfectly. The first two editions spell ‘perfidy,’ which is historically preferable to the newer Latinized form of the word. Cf. the Chaucerian ‘parfit.’ modern French ‘parfait.’
I1. 26, 27. in the which she had above two hundred thousand books. Ed. 1595 adds ‘several’ before ‘books,’ possibly as a translation of the adjective in Amyot's ‘esquelles il y auoit deux cῦts mille volumes simples.’ Neither in the French nor in the Greek is there anything corresponding to North's ‘above.’
P. 93, 1. 13, was pleading: ‘was a-pleading,’ ed. 1595, etc.
1. 27. made him be set: ‘made him to be set,’ ed. 1595, etc.
P. 94, 1. 22. Falernus. ‘Falerna’ in the old editions.
I. 25. jays. A translation of Amyot's ‘delices.’ The word is, of course, the well-known Latin ‘deliciae,’ which Plutarch takes over as διλιíια.
P. 96, 1. 6. they did hurt. The number is wrong, as the ‘blustering storm‘ is the subject of the verb. Amyot has the singular.
1. 23. Adallas. The Greek form of the name is Σαδáλας.
1. 26. Malchus. I have adopted this the correct form (Gk. Máλχος), but North wrote ‘Manchus’ and was followed by Shakespeare. The ‘Manchus’ of the 1623 folio has been changed to ‘Malchus’ by all modern editors of Shakespeare.
P. 97, 11 12, 3. Mare Siculum. Plutarch has, τò Tυῤῥκνικὸν καὶ Σικεὸν πέλαγος. The Sicilian Sea is, of course, the Mediterranean.
I. 20. Press. The 1595 edition prints ‘prest,’ an alternative form. Cf. p. 158, 1. 19. ‘Prest,’ from Old French brest, ‘ready,’ is etymologically the preferable form.
P. 98, 1. 3. light of yarage: ‘easily propelled and managed.’ Cf. ‘heavy of yarage,’ p. 104, 1. 4. ‘Yarage’ is formed from the adjective ‘yare’ (cf Antony and Cleopatra, III. vii. 38), which represents O.E. genru, ‘ready.’
P. 99, ll. 2–18. marginal note. Translated from Amyot.
1. 7. element. Cf. Vol. I. p. 67, 1. 17, and note.
P. 100, 1. 13. Getae: ‘Getes’ old editions and Amyot.
P.101, 1. 6. often used: ‘used often’ ed. 1595, etc.
I. 8. an: ed. 1595 substitutes ‘if.’
P. 105, 1. 25. had already begun. For ‘had’ ed. 1595 substitutes ‘was.’
P. 106, 1. 2. this galley: ‘his galley’ ed. 1595.
P. 107, 1. 13. carracks: ‘carects,’ old editions.
P. 108, 1. 11. hardly: ‘very hardly,’ ed. 1595.
P. 109, 1. 26, 27. because Brutus in the meantime might have liberty to save himself. ‘Because’ is here a conjunction of purpose = ‘in order that.’ Cf. N.E.D. s.v. B, 2.
P. 110, 1. 15. where the two seas are narrowest. ‘Narrowest’ must be taken in the sense of ‘closest together.’ Plutarch wrote π σφíγγεται μάλιστα τοῖς πελάγεσι καὶ βραχύτερος εύρός Èστι, the subject being the isthmus.
P. 111,11. 13, 14. as appeareth by Plato and Aristophanes' comedies. ‘Plato’ is in the possessive case as well as ‘Aristophanes,’ as the Greek shows: ἐκ τῶν Ἀριστοφάνους καὶ πλάάτωνος δραμάτων. This Plato, so-called the Comic, was a younger contemporary of Aristophanes. He appears to have been the last writer of the ‘old comedy.’ Aristophanes himself mentions Timon in The Birds, 1. 1549, and again at greater length in Lysistrata, 809–15.
11. 25, 26. like to his nature and conditions. So the first edition; the second edition substitutes ‘of’ for ‘to’ Amyot's reading is, ‘semblable de nature & de meurs à luy.’
P. 112, 1. 19. Halae: ‘Hales’ in the old editions and in Amyot.
11. 24, 25. Shakespeare incorporates this epitaph with the single change of ‘wicked wretches’ in the second line to ‘wicked caitiffs.’ North has departed considerably from Amyot's version, which runs:
P. 113, 11. 4, 5. Shakespeare appends this second epitaph to the first, without making any change in the wording. It is thus given by Amyot:
1. 18. in the sea. So the first edition, translating Amyot's ‘dedans la mer.’ The second edition reads ‘by the sea.’ Plutarch uses the adjective ἔναλον.
1. 21. of rioting and banfueting. Ed. 1595 changes ‘of’ to ‘on.’
P. 114, 11. 19–21. For when she saw the poisons that were sudden and vehement, and brought speedy death. This is inaccurate and hardly grammatical. To get Plutarch's idea we should insert the conjunction ‘that’ after ‘saw,’ and delete ‘and’ before ‘brought.’ The Greek runs, Ἐπεὶ δÈ ἑώρα τὰς μèν ὠκνμόμους τὴν ὀξύτκτῦ τοῦ θανάτον δι' ὀδύνκς ἐπιφερούσας.
P. 115, 1. 2. all them: ‘them all,’ ed. 1595.
1. 3, 4, only causeth: ‘causeth only,’ ed. 1595.
1. 14. for her children. So ed. 1579: the later editions print ‘for their children.’ There is no doubt that the former is correct, though without the context both Amyot's ‘pour ses enfans’ and Plutarch's τοῖς παισὶν would be ambiguous.
P. 116, 1. 16. Thyreus. So North, followed by Shakespeare, but the name in Plutarch is Θύρσος.
11. 18, 19. unto a noble Lady, and that besides greatly liked her beauty. Very clumsily translated; it would seem that North understood the relative to refer to the ‘young Lord,’ but Amyot's language is quite clear: ‘à une femme haultaine, & qui se contentoit grandemῦt & se fioit de sa beauté’ — where ‘qui,’ of course, means Cleopatra.
P. 117, 11. 11, 12. she now in contrary manner did keep it with such solemnity. This is an incorrect translation of Amyot's ‘au contraire elle celebroit le iour de la siene de telle sorte,’ where ‘la siene’ refers to Antony, not Cleopatra. Plutarch has τὴν ἐκείνου(γενέθλιον.
P. 119,11. 2, 3. Caesar answered him, that he had many other ways to die than so. The antecedent of ‘he’ is doubtful in North as in Amyot. Shakespeare takes it as referring to Caesar and so North probably intended; but from the Greek it is evident that it should allude to Antony:πολλὰς ὁδοὺς Ἀντωνίῳ παρεῖναι θανάτων.
1. 5. to set up his rest: ‘to put everything at stake.’ A common Elizabethan idiom; cf. p. 139, l. 24, and Nares' Glossary, s.v. ‘Rest, to set up.’
P. 123, l. 7. berayed: ‘soiled.’ Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Beray.
P. 126, 1. 23. for the founder's sake of the same city. Cf. p. 35, 1. 6, and note.
P. 127, 11. II, 12.
North has missed the point of the epigram and with it the reason why it affected Caesar. The clause ‘if that he be wise indeed’ should apply to Arrius, not to Philostratus himself. Plutarch wrote: ΣοΦοὶ σοΦοὺς σώξουσιν, άν ὠσιν σοφοί, which Amyot translates freely but accurately enough:
The anecdote is used by Samuel Daniel in his Tragedie of Cleopatra (III. i.).
P. 128, l. 7. Too many Caesars is not good: οὐκ ἀγαθὸν πολυκαισαρίη.
ll. 8, 9. Alluding unto a certain verse of Homer that saith: Too many Lords doth not well. This explanation is not found in Plutarch; it was added by Amyot. The verse of Homer to which he refers is Iliad, II. 204, which begins: οὐκ ἀγαθὸν πολυκοιρανίη. P. 129, l. 18, 19. torn in sunder. Rather strong for Amyot's ‘deschiré & meurtry,’ which in its turn heightens the Greek: δÈ πολλὰ καὶ τῆς περὶ τὸ στέριον αίκίας καταΦανῆ.
ll. 22, 23. yet she showed herself within by her outward looksand countenance: ‘elle apparoissoit du dedans, & se demonstroit aux mouuemens de son uisage.’
P. 133, l. 21. trimming: ‘adjusting,’ the original sense of the word. Greek, κατεκύσμει.
P. 134, l. 14. razor. The correct translation is probably ‘pin.’ Amyot and North have apparently blundered in mistaking Plutarch's κνηστίδι from the rare κνηστίς, translated in the Latin version by ‘fistula,’ for a form of the commoner κνῆστις, which means ‘knife.’
P. 135, l. 12. a thousand talents. In Plutarch δισΧίλισ τάλαντα.
l. 18. yuba. ‘King Juba,’ ed. 1595, etc.
P. 136, l. 17. the one whose name was Caius: the Emperor Caligula, A.D. 12–41.
THE LIFE OF MARTIUS CORIOLANUS
P. 137, l. 8, 9. Censorinus also came of that family, that was so surnamed. These words suggested the emendation of Delius (Coriolanus, II. iii. 251): ‘And Censorinus, that was so surnam'd.’ The line is not found in the folio of 1623, our only source for the text of Coriolanus, but it or something similar is required by the sense, and it is not at all improbable that North here helps us to the identical words which Shakespeare wrote and his printer by mistake omitted. The folio version of ll. 250–253 is obviously defective:
The printer was no doubt confused by two successive lines beginning with ‘And,’ and accidentally omitted the first.
l. 16. who taught us by experience: ‘who’ refers to Caius Martius. ‘Experience ‘must be understood as meaning ‘our actual observation.’ There is no corresponding word in the Greek, but the Latin version has ‘suo exemplo docuit.’ Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Experience sb. 3.
l. 19. they are. We should say ‘they who are.’ For another instance of this very common omission of the relative see the next page, l. 4, ‘that were meet.’
P. 138, l. 7, 8. like as a fat soil bringeth forth herbs and weeds that lieth unmanured. The editors of 1603, ff. had grown more squeamish about the position of relative clauses; so we read in their texts: ‘as a fat soile that lyeth vnmanured bringeth foorth both hearbes and weedes.’
l. 24. bringeth men unto: bringeth unto men, 1595, etc.
P. 139, l. 2. called: ‘call,’ 1595, etc. self: ‘it selfe,’ 1595, etc.
l. 23. with all the aid of the Latins. Cf. Vol. I. p. 165, l. 24, 25, and note. The Greek has here simply πλεῖστοι ∧ατίνων.
l. 24. set up his whole rest. Cf. p. 119, 1. 5, and note.
P. 140, l. 15. in very old time. For ‘very’ ed. 1595 substitutes ‘the,’ while ed. 1603, etc., omit both.
P. 141, ll. 9–13, marginal note. It will be observed that the note here fails, as is often the case, to represent accurately the substance of the text.
l. 12. no great courage. The 1603 edition relieves the ears of modern readers by substituting ‘any’ in place of ‘no.’
P. 142, l. 7. from whence he returned not without somereward. The 1603 edition changes ‘without’ to ‘with,’ which is, of course, what we should say. But it is probable that North wrote ‘without’; he has no prejudice against double negatives.
l. 21. Leuctra. North, following Amyot, spells the word ‘Leuctres.’
P. 143, ll. 1, 2. two children. The numeral is North's contribution. Plutarch and Amyot use the plural only.
l. 20. Marcus. The name is ‘Manius’ in Plutarch.
P. 144, l. 1. made. So ed. 1595, etc. The first edition prints ‘make’—probably a typographical error.
P. 145, l. 27. were: ‘was’ in the first edition.
P. 147, l. 7. Volsces. This is the spelling of North and Shakespeare, due to Amyot's ‘Volsques.’ The Latin form of the word is Volsci, which Plutarch transliterates Oὐολ-οῦσκοι. Similarly Corioli is spelled by Amyot and North ‘Corioles’ (e.g. l. 9), but in the case of this word Shakespeare restores the Latin form.
P. 149, l. 13. Lartius. The edition of 1595 prints ‘Martius,’ a mere blunder which, however, some modern editors retain.
l. 18. to lock up. The early editions print ‘to looke up.’
P. 150, l. 5. to be so gracious. Ed. 1595 omits ‘so.’
l. 9. to gird them upon. For another instance of this common transposition of preposition and pronoun see p. 167, l. 3.
P. 151, l. 24. distressed. Cf. Vol. 1. p. 28, l. 20.
P. 152. ll. 13–18, marginal note. The tenth part of the enemies' goods offered Martius for reward, etc. Observe that this is not at all equivalent to the ‘ten of every sort’ mentioned in the text; the English writer who appended the notes was frequently careless.
l. 24. price. Used here in the sense of ‘prize.’ The two words were formerly not distinguished. Cf. ‘games of price,’ p. 51, l. 13.
P. 153, l. 18. they were moe: ‘there were more,’ ed. 1595, etc. In Elizabethan usage little difference was made between the use of the adverbial ‘moe’ (O.E. mᾱ) and the adjectival ‘more’ (O.E. mᾱra).
l. 19. contentation: ‘contentment.’
P. 154, l. 17. our Christian name. The adjective is, of course, not in Plutarch, whose phrase is τῶν ὀνομάτων ἴδιον.
ll. 17–20, marginal note. How the Romans came to have three names. The first edition omits ‘have,’ which is supplied by ed. 1595.
P. 155, l. 7. the second of the Batti. For some account of Battus II. and his family cf. Harper's Dict. Classical Literature and Antiquities, s.v. ‘Battiadae.’ The marginal note, added by Amyot, is substantially correct.
ll. 17, 18. Celer, the quick fly. The definition is North's own.
11. 19, 20. the cruel fight of fencers at unrebated swords. North's imaginative rendering of Plutarch's μονομάΧων ἀγῶνας. Amyot had been satisfied with ‘escrimeurs ὰ oultrance.’
P. 156, l. 1. As Sylla, to say, crooked-nosed. North omits Amyot's note to this passage: ‘Toutefois Sex. Pompeius escrit que les homes bruns s'appelloient Sullae.’
l. 16. earabie. The native English adjective from O.E. erian, ‘to plough.’ The edition of 1595 substitutes the more common ‘arable,’ derived from Latin arabilis.
P. 158, l. 7. tuition. Used in the sense of Latin tuitio, ‘protection.’
P. 159, ll. 12, 13. the home-tarriers and house-doves, that kept Rome still. There is no suggestion of this picturesqueness of epithet either in Plutarch or in Amyot. For keep in the sense ot ‘remain in,’ cf. N.E.D. s.v. Keep, v. 33.
P. 161, ll. 6, 7. the first that fee'd the judges with money: ‘celuy qui premier donna de l'argent aux iuges pour les corrompre.’ Instead of ‘fee'd’ the early editions print ‘fedde.’
l. 9. Pylos. North retains the French form ‘Pyle.’ I. 10. unfoiled: ‘undefiled.’ For this meaning of ‘foil’ cf. N.E.D. s.v. Foil v.1, 6.
P. 163, l. 25. good cheap. Cf. Vol. I. p. 7, l. 19, and note.
P. 167, ll. 2, 3. how it stood them upon: ‘how it behoved them.’ A very common Elizabethan idiom. For Shakespearean examples cf. Schmidt, Shakespeare-Lexicon, s.v. Stand, e. 4.
P. 170, l. 24. Nundinae: originally the name applied to the market days, which occurred at the end of each eight day week. It was only relatively late that courts were held on the Nundinae. Cf. Harper's Dict. Class. Lit. and Antiq. s.v.
P. 171, ll. 8, 9. Appius Claudius, the founder of the Gens Claudia. By birth a Sabine, he attached himself with a number of his followers to the Roman state and became Consul B.C. 495. The Decemvir of the same name was either his son or his grandson.
P. 174, l. 16. good hap. The edition of 1603 substitutes ‘evil hap,’ but North probably wrote ‘good hap’ as we use the similar word ‘fortune,’ without any favourable or unfavourable connotation.
P. 175, l. 1. in that taking: ‘in that condition.’
ll. 12, 13. sundry sorts and kind of thoughts. The second edition substitutes ‘kinds,’ but ‘kind’ in such cases is almost an indeclinable. For an account of the stages by which it became so, cf. Kellner, Historical Outlines of EnglishSyntax, §§ 167–169.
l. 25. called Tullus Aufidius. The proper form of the name is Amfidius ('AμΦίδιος).
P. 176, l. 13, the true words of an ancient poet. The ‘ancient poet’ is Amyot's fabrication. Plutarch refers to the author of the saying merely as τῷ εἰπόντι; he was in fact the philosopher Heraclitus, the first of the Greek prose writers. The maxim which North has expanded into four lines of verse is thus quoted by Plutarch: Θυμῷ μάΧεσθαι Χαλεπόν ὀ γàρ άν θέλη ΨυΧὴς ὠνεῖται. The accepted version differs somewhat. It runs as follows: Θυμῷ μάΧεσθαι Χαλεπόν ὄ τι γὰρ ἄν Χρηίξῃ γινέσθαι, ΨυΧῆς ὠνέεται. (CY. Heracliti Ephesii Reliquiae, ed. I. Bywater. Oxon, 1877, p. 41, frog. CV.)
1. 22. So did he enter into the enemy's town: 'Aνδρῶν δυσμενέων κατέδυ πόλιν (Odyssey, IV. 246).
P. 178, l. 10. between my enemies. The earliest editions have the misprint ‘thy’ for ‘my.’
P. 181, l. 4. limmer: ‘a shaft.’ Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Limber, sb.1 1.
P. 182, l. 16. hollowed coaches or charrets. Charrets or charets, from Fr. ‘charette,’ were ordinarily carriages with two wheels, whereas chariots had four. Cf. N.E.D. s.v. Charet.
P. 184, l. 13. tract of time. A very common phrase answering to the Latin tractus temporis. Cf. Paradise Lost, V. 498.
P. 185, ll. 18, 19. that had the enemy abroad, to keep thatthey had in safety: ‘qu'ilz auoient au dehors l'ennemy mesme qui leur gardoit leurs biens.’
P. 186, l. 21. Vicanians. By some accident the word has lost its first syllable in Amyot and North. Plutarch's form is ∧αουικάνους, corresponding to Latin ‘Lavicos.’
P. 190, l. 26. in reason. So ed. 1603, etc., but the first two editions read ‘in treason’—apparently a misprint. Amyot's equivalent of lines 25, 26 runs: ‘qui estoit perte de plus grande consequence, pource que c'estoit ordinairement ce qui faisoit ou perdre ou cōseruer cela & toute autre chose.’
P. 191, ll. 6, 7. seven cities of theirs well inhabited. So ed. 1579; the second edition, however, inserts ‘great’ before ‘cities,’ which is supported by Amyot's ‘sept uilles grandes & bien peuplees.’
P. 192, ll. 26, 27. all this goodly rabble of superstition and priests: ‘ces gens de religion.’ The difference between the point of view of the French and that of the English translator could hardly be brought out more strikingly.
P. 193, ll. 11, 12. Tῷ δ'ἂρ' ἐπὶ Φρεσὶ θῆκε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Aθήνη. The line occurs in the Odyssey, V. 427, with the substitution of ἐι μὴ for Tῷ δ' ἂρ'.
ll. 14–17. 'Aλλά τις αθανάτων Φρένασ, ός γ' ένὶ θυμῷ δήμου θῆκε Φάτιν. Cf. Iliad, IX. 459, 460, where the modern editors read παῦσεν Χόλον ὄς ῤ' ἐνὶ θυμῷ.
ll. 19, 20. *Hτοι ὀϊσσάμενος ἢ καὶ θεὸς ὢς ἐκέλευε.. The modern texts of Homer (Od. IX. 339) vary in one or two small details from Plutarch's version as given above.
P. 194, l. 3. Aὐτὰρ ἐγὼ βόυλευσα κατὰ μεγαλήτορα θυμόν (Od. IX. 299).
ll. 5, 6. “Ως Φάτο IIηλείωνι δ' ὄΧος γένετ', ἐν δέ οί ἧτορ στήθεσσιν λασίοισι διὰνδιΧα μερμήριξεν (Iliad, I. 188, 189).
11. 8, 9.
τεῖθ' ἀγαθὰ Φρονέοντα δαἱΦρονα BελλεροΦόντντην (Iliad, VI. 161, 162).
P. 196, l. 25–27. rather to see him forthcoming and safe kept, than of any love to defend his person: ‘plus tost pour s'asseurer de luy que pour le garder.’
P. 197, l. 20. knowing his wife. On the last word Amyot has a note, omitted by North: ‘Aucuns uieux exēplaires lisēt, μητέρα, sa mere.’ However, the modern texts of Plutarch give neither the one nor the other, but instead τὰς γυναῖκας, ‘the women.’ The phrase which cameforemost (l. 21) is represented in the Greek by προσιούσας, ‘advancing.’
P. 198, l. 16. most pleasant to all other. Doubtless we ought to read ‘of all other.’
l. 26-p. 199, l. 3. For the bitter sop of most hard choice is offered thy wife and children, to forgo the one of the two: either to lose the person of thy self, or the nurse of their native country. Much improved by North. Amyot wrote: ‘pource qu'il est force ὰ ta femme & ὰ tes enfans qu'ilz soient priuez de l'un des deux, ou de toy, ou de leur paϊs.’ The nurse of their native country is a case of apposition like ‘the city of Rome.’
P. 202, ll. 24, 25. a temple of Fortune of the women: a sutficiently accurate translation of Amyot's ‘temple de Fortune feminine,’ which answers to the TύΧης Tυναικείας ἱερὸν of Plutarch. The compiler of the marginal notes in North seems, however, to have misunderstood the text, and it is worthy of remark that in this case, as on p. 152, Shakespeare adopts the less authentic statement.
P. 206, l. 7. ought: used in its original sense as preterite of ‘owe.’
P. 207, l. 12. that fray s and murders fell out. ‘That’ is the reading of the second and all subsequent editions; the editio princeps has ‘and,’ which is probably a printer's error. Amyot's expression is ‘iusques à.’
Richard Clay & sons, Limited,
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III vi. 1–16.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. vi. 16–19.
Ibid. III. vi. 19–22.
Cf Antony and Cleopatra, III. vi. 22–30.
Ibid. III. vi. 32–7.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. vii. 1–12.
Cf. Antony and cleopatra, III. vii. 12–15.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. viii. 12.
Ibid. IV. x. 16, 17.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra III vi. 68–76.
Ibid. III. vii. 27–53.
Ibid. III. vii. 34–6.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. vii. 38.
Ibid. III. vii. 30–2.
Ibid. III. vii. 20–3, 54–7.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, IV. v. 4–17.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, IV. vi. 20–39; ix. 5–24.
Ibid. III. viii. 43, 4.
Ibid. III. vii. 36, 7.
Ibid. III vii. 41–8
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. vii. 50.
Ibid. III. vii. 49.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. vii. 60–6.
Ibid. III. vii. 72, 3.
Ibid. III. vii. 77, 8.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. viii. 12, 13, 21–5.
Ibid. III. viii. 40.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. viii. 27–33.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. ix. 25, ff.
Ibid. III. ix. 2–24.
Cf. Antony and Cleopatra, III. vii. 58–9
Ibid. III viii. 42–3.
Cf. Timon of Athens, V. i. 210–1,7.