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SECTION II.: ON THE REMAINING WRITINGS OF WYCLIFFE STILL IN MANUSCRIPT, AND INCLUDING SUCH WORKS AS ARE KNOWN ONLY BY THEIR TITLES. - John Wyclife, Tracts and Treatises of John de Wycliffe 
Tracts and Treatises of John de Wycliffe, D.D. with Selections and Translations from his Manuscripts , and Latin Works. Edited for The Wycliffe Society, with an Introductory Memoir, by the Rev. Robert Vaughan, D.D. (London: Blackburn and Pardon, 1845).
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ON THE REMAINING WRITINGS OF WYCLIFFE STILL IN MANUSCRIPT, AND INCLUDING SUCH WORKS AS ARE KNOWN ONLY BY THEIR TITLES.
XXXII.Contra Mendicitatem Validam. In English, and beginning—Most Worshipful and Gentlest Lord Duke of Glocester. It sets forth the substance of a discussion before the duke on questions at issue between a clergyman and a friar. The former half of it is occupied in giving a summary of the debate as it respected certain theological opinions; the latter presents some of the most plausible things to be said in favour of the begging practices of the friars, with the common arguments opposed to that usage. In the preliminary discussion Wycliffe states, “God is so good, that in each goodness he is before, and in each evil he cometh after the effect.” This is one of a collection of MSS. in Trinity College, Dublin. Class C. Tab. iii. No. 12. The volume containing it is thus described in the “Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum Angliæ et Hiberniæ,” published in Oxford in 1697, as “Jo. Wicliffe’s Works to the Duke of Lancaster in 1368.” But this description is by a modern hand, and is erroneous. Most of the pieces in that volume are manifestly of a much later date. There is no ground to suppose that any of them should be ascribed to a period so early as 1368, except the piece intitled, De Ultima Ætate Ecclesiæ, of which mention will be made in the section relating to works of the Reformer which have been printed. The mention of the year 1356 in that tract, has probably led to the error in respect to the date of the other pieces. We have no means of fixing the date of this piece addressed to the Duke of Glocester. It should not, I think, be placed among his earlier or his latest productions.
XXXIII.De Sathanæ astu contra Fidem. This tract begins, The fiend seeketh many ways to mar men in belief. It consists of two pages only, and is in the same volume with the preceding piece, in Trin. Coll. Dub.
XXXIV.In Regulam Minoritarum. In English, in C.C.C. Cambridge. Sometimes described as the Rule of St. Francis—the Testament of St. Francis.
XXXV.Determinationes Eucharistiæ:—Ad rationis Kyningham:—and, Determinationes Magistri J. Wicklyff contra Carmelitam Kyningham, appear to be different descriptions of the same treatise, which was an answer to a Carmelite friar concerning a pretended miracle urged in support of the doctrine of transubstantiation. C.C.C. College, Cambridge. Lambeth Library. Knighton de Event. Angliæ, p. 2650.
XXXVI.De Questionibus variis contra Clerum. In English, in Lambeth Palace Library. Cat. MS. 151. Another copy in the same library, No. 30, called Questiones XXVI. It begins, Almighty God in Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, both in the old law and the new.
XXXVII.De Modo Orandi. In English, in the Bodleian Library, Laud, C. 3, and in the British Museum, Cotton MSS. Titus D. xix. It is also intitled, De Duodecim Impedimentis Precationum, or, The Twelve Lettings of Prayer. In the prologue of the MS. in the British Museum, the twelve hinderances of prayer are enumerated—“sin, doubting, asking things we ought not,” &c.
XXXVIII.De Anima. A part of this treatise, under the title, De Incarnatione Verbi, is in the British Museum. Bib. Reg. 7, B. iii.
XXXIX.De Virtutibus et Vitiis. In the British Museum, is a short tract under this title. Titus, D. xix. It treats on the following matters: The seven works of mercy, bodily and ghostly; five bodily wits; five wits ghostly; the cardinal virtues; septem mortalia peccata. “In Bib. Reg. 7, A. xxvi. is another copy of this tract which varies considerably from the former: in some instances the chapters are abridged, in others the chapters considerably altered,—a liberty very common with the transcribers of those times. This MS. varies from the preceding in another respect, as it treats of the Seven Sacraments; Six Manners of consenting to Sin; Four Things that needen to man.” Baber, 47.
XL.Pauper Rusticus; Confessio derelicti Pauperis; and the Pore Caitif—different titles of the same treatise. It consists of a series of tracts in English, intended to present the elements of religious instruction in a form adapted to the humblest of the people capable of reading. It is described by its author, as “sufficient to teach simple men and women, of good-will, the right way to heaven.” There are copies of this work in the Lambeth Palace Library; in Trinity College, Dublin; and in the British Museum. These collections vary a little from each other. The pieces included in the Dublin MS. are as follows: Of the Creed.—The ground of all goodness is stedfast faith, &c. Of the Commandments,—A man asked of Christ what he should do, &c. Of the Paternoster,—Christ saith, Who that loveth me shall keep my commandments, &c. Of Perfect Life,—Christ, not compelling, but freely counselling each man, &c. Of Temptation,—But he that is verily fed with this bread that came down, &c. Of the Charter of our Heavenly Heritage,—Every wise man that claimeth his heritage, &c. Of Ghostly Battle,—The Almighty saith by holy Job, &c. Of the Love of Jesus,Whoever you be that araiest thee to love God, &c. Of Man’s will,—Every deed punishable, either reproveable of man’s will, &c. Of Contemplative Life,—Christ loved much Mary, and Martha her sister, &c. Of Chastity,—I write this treatise in five short chapters, &c. The substance of this work has been printed in the British Reformers, from the copy in the British Museum.
XLI.Expositio Orationis Dominicæ. This is a different comment on the Lord’s Prayer from that which forms part of the “Pore Catif.” It enters more on the subject of ecclesiastical abuses. “In Lambeth Library, Cott. MSS. 594, is a transcript of the ‘Prologus in Expositionem Orationis Dominicæ.’ Herein are condemned the lucrative catholic tenets of works of supererogation, indulgences, and auricular confession, and the Romish hierarchy are reproved for withholding from the people the scriptures in the vernacular tongue.” Baber, 48. Lewis, No. 89.
XLII.In Apocalypsin. This is an exposition of parts of the Apocalypse. It begins thus—Saint Paul the apostle saith that all those who would live meekly in Christ Jesus, &c. It is in the British Museum, Bib. Reg. E. 67.
XLIII.Sermo in festo Animarum; de Sermone Domini in Monte; and Octe Beatitudines, appear to be different titles of the same work. It is in English in the British Museum, Cott. MSS. Titus, D. xix. It is in Latin in Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. 362. S.C. 5. 8. No. 13. The English discourse begins—Friends, St. John Chrysostom on the homily upon this Gospel saith, &c. Wycliffe was charged with having published seventy-four erroneous opinions in this discourse.
XLIV.In XVII. caput Joannis.Publevatis oculis in cælum Jesus. This is a homily in English, beginning—This Gospel of John telleth what loves, &c. It is among the Wycliffe MSS. in C.C.C. Cambridge.
XLV.De Surdo et Muto apud Marcum.Iterum exiens de finibus Tyri. This is another homily in English. It begins—This Gospel telleth a miracle, &c. It is in Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. 349. Class 4.
XLVI.De Pharisæo et Publicano. This is a detached homily also, attributed to Wycliffe. Lewis, No. 97. It begins—This Gospel telleth in a parable, &c.
XLVII.Speculum Peccatoris.Quoniam in via sumus vitæ labentis. This tract has the English title—Visitation of sick men, and begins thus—My dear son or daughter, it seemeth that thou lightest fast, &c. &c. It is attributed to Wycliffe, and is in the British Museum. Bib. Reg. E. 1732.
XLVIII.Augustinus arguam te quando nescis. It begins—The holy Doctor St. Austin, speaking in the person of Christ. It is in the collection, C.C.C. Cambridge.
XLIX.Speculum Secularium Dominorum.Cum veritas fidei eo plus rutilet. “Archbishop Usher tells us that a copy of this tract is in MS. in the King’s Library, in Latin. By what his grace has transcribed from it, it appears that Dr. Wiclif had written before, Prospeculum Secularum Dominorum, in English.” Lewis, No. 137.
L.De Blasphemia. “Archbishop Usher quotes this tract in his book De Christianarum Ecclesiarum Successione, and tells us that in it Wiclif observes that the true doctrine of the sacrament of the eucharist was retained in the church a thousand years, ‘even till the loosing of Satan.’ ” Lewis, No. 199.
LI.Five Bodily Witts. There is a tract under this title in Trinity College, Cambridge, B. 8. 37. It begins—Thus should a man rule his five bodily witts.
LII.Seven Works of Bodily Mercy, and Seven Deeds of Ghostly Mercy. Works with these titles are in the Public Library of Cambridge, 120. No. 467.
LIII.Of Pride. It begins—Pride is too much love that a man hath to himself, &c. Bib. Reg. Titus, D. xix.
LIV.De Actubus Animæ. There is a Latin treatise under this title in C.C.C. Cambridge, attributed to Wycliffe. It begins—Gratia dicendarum restat tractatus de actubus.
LV.Here beginneth the Nine Virtues, &c. There is a tract in the British Museum under this title, attributed to Wycliffe. Bib. Reg. E. 1732. It begins—All manner of men should hold God’s biddings, &c.
LVI.A Discourse in old English against the Vices of the Clergy, and the Usurpations of the Bishop of Rome in the Affairs of the Church of England, drawn up in Thirty-seven Articles. Trinity College, Dublin, Class C. Tab. i. No. 14. This work is also in the British Museum, Bib. Reg. Titus, D., and is attributed to Wycliffe by Wanley. It is throughout expressive of Wycliffe’s opinions, and many passages are transcripts from his different works: it may be the work of the Reformer, or it may have been an attempt on the part of some disciple to bring the sum of his doctrines together, in the shape of so many distinct articles.
LVII.Of Temptation of the Fiend. There is an imperfect work under this title in Trinity College, Dublin, Class C. Tab. iii. No. 12.
LVIII.How Men of private Religion should love more the Gospel of God’s Hests, and his Ordinance, than any new Laws, new Rules, and Customs of sinful Men. This is a piece which immediately follows the preceding in the same collection, pp. 152—156.
LIX.Tractatus Evangelii de Sermone Domini in Monte, cum Expositorio Orationis Dominicæ. This is the title given to the first section of a manuscript volume in Trinity College, Dublin, Class C. Tab. i. No. 23. These expositions, with a further exposition of the sixth and seventh chapters of Matthew, extend, if my notes may be trusted on this point, to page 195 of the volume.
Tractatus de Antichristo, cum expositorio in xxiii. xxiv. xxv. cap. St. Matthew. This work closes with page 313.
Tractatus in Sermonem Domini, quem fecerat valedicendo discipulis suis. pp. 313—333.
These three pieces, as bearing three distinct titles, have been not unnaturally described separately, in the catalogue of the Trinity College MSS., and by Bale, Lewis, and other writers. It is plain, however, from certain passages, that they have a connexion with each other, though they appear to have been written as separate treatises, and to have been first known as such to the Reformer’s disciples.
LX.Tractatus de statu Innocentiæ. This work is in the same volume. It extends to about seventeen pages, and begins—Ut supradicta magis appareant oportet parumper disgredi. To what this “supradicta” refers, does not appear; and it is not uncommon in the writings of Wycliffe to find parts of treatises thus detached, and known by separate titles,—a circumstance which has added much to the difficulty of presenting a complete and accurate account of his productions.
LXI.Tractatus de Tempore. This work is detached from its original connexion. It is the treatise described by the same title in Trinity College Library, Cambridge, and numbers thirty-seven pages in the Dublin volume, but not more than ten of the large folio volume in Cambridge.
The remaining part of this volume is occupied with pieces expository of different passages of Scripture, and with one document under the following title:—
LXII.De Captivo Hispanensi—filia comitis de Dene incarcerato infra septa Westmonast. It relates to a question concerning the rights of sanctuary. I am not aware of the ground on which it has been attributed to Wycliffe. Wycliffe’s connexion with John of Gaunt may have led to his giving publicity to such a paper. Mention is made of the case to which it refers by several historians, and a number of papers relating to it may be seen in Rymer’s Fœdera.
LXIII.De Veritate Scripturæ. A large work under this title is preserved in the Bodleian Library, and in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. The copy in the Bodleian is imperfect at the beginning, the first page commencing in a part of the first chapter. The copy in Dublin, which is perfect, commences with these words,—Restat parumper discutere errores et concordias circa sensus Scripturæ hodie plus solito seminatos, tum quia in ea consistit salus fidelium. The treatise ends thus,—Istud itaque dixerim pro nunc in communi de heresi, ut sciatur ex fructu veritatis Scripturæ notare et cavare hereticos, et ut planius intelligatur tractatus de simonia, quem si Deus voluerit diffusius pertractare. The close of the Bodleian MS. agrees with that of the MS. in Dublin, but the first page is without any initial letter or heading, and begins in the middle of a sentence.
In both manuscripts the chapters are thirty-one in number, but the chapters six and seven are not duly marked in the Bodleian copy. This copy closes on the middle of the last page, and the scribe has indicated the completeness of the work by placing its title in the space below.
The volume in the Bodleian is a small folio; it numbers 621 pages, and each page consists of about twenty-six lines. The Dublin copy does not exceed 244 pages, but the pages are larger, and double-columned, with nearly a thousand words in each. The volume in the Bodleian includes no other treatise; in the Dublin volume the De Veritate Scripturæ is followed by three other treatises, bearing the following titles:—De Simonia—De Apostasia—De Blasphemia. The treatise De Simonia begins thus,—Post generalem sermonem de heresi, restat de ejus partibus pertractandum. It consists of eight chapters, and extends to about forty pages. The treatise De Apostasia commences—Restat ulterius ponere aliud principium pro ambitu heresis simoniacæ perscrutando; quamvis enim simonia, blasfemia, et apostasia committuntur ad subsistendi, &c. It extends to nearly twenty pages, and is divided into two chapters. The remaining part of the volume is occupied with the treatise De Blasphemia, which begins—Restat succincte de blasfemia pertractandum. Est autem blasfemia insipiens detractio honoris domini.
It has been supposed, partly from the order in which these pieces succeed each other, and partly from the references made in them from one to the other, that they were all portions of a large theological work. This notion derives some support also from the manner in which the names of these pieces occur in a work bearing the title Summa Theologica. “This title appears in a very ancient manuscript catalogue of Wycliffe’s writings, which is in the imperial library at Vienna. The work is described as consisting of twelve chapters, the titles of which are as follows:—1. De Mandatis. 2. De Statu Innocentiæ. 3, 4, 5. De Dominio. 6. De Veritate Scripturæ. 7. De Ecclesia. 8. De Officio Regis. 9. De Postate Papæ. 10. De Simonia. 11. De Apostasia. 12. De Blasphemia.”—Baber, xlvi. Here it will be seen that three pieces intervene between the De Veritate Scripturæ, and the three treatises which immediately succeed it in the Dublin MS. On what authority the title Summa Theologica is given to the whole collection we do not know. That title is possibly of a later date than the works themselves. Indeed, few things were more common among the transcribers of the fourteenth century, than to place a number of treatises together, all having completeness in themselves, and all, it may be, published separately, while certain of them contain allusions, and have, probably, some relation to each other. In the writings of Wycliffe, references in one treatise, to the contents of another, are very common, without being meant to indicate more than that it was not necessary to discuss a topic again which had been discussed elsewhere.
It is important to remark, that in the tenth chapter of the Bodleian copy of the De Veritate Scripturæ, there is a reference to the vigil of the annunciation in 1378, which determines the date of this production. This work, in both the existing copies, is exceedingly difficult to read, consisting as it does, in great part, of obscure discussions, which have been rendered still more unintelligible by the barbarous and technical Latin in which they are clothed, and by the abbreviated, and almost illegible, character of the writing. Dr. James, the author of the work intitled “An Apology for John Wicliffe,” was the librarian of the Bodleian, in the time of James I. In that work he has given many passages from the De Veritate Scripturæ, but in the manuscript volume of extracts from the writings of Wycliffe, preserved in the Bodleian, in the hand-writing of Dr. James, there are characteristic passages transcribed from the De Veritate Scripturæ, extending to nearly a hundred pages. These passages, and such parts of the work itself as may be deciphered with an approach to certainty, warrant the description which I have given of his treatise in the “Life and Opinions of Wycliffe.”
LXIV. In a volume in Trinity College, Dublin, are the following works attributed to Wycliffe. Class C. Tab. 5. No. 6.
i. Three pieces, on the Creed, the Paternoster, and the Ave Maria, two pages each. The first begins—It is sooth that belief is grounded, &c. The second—We shall believe that this Paternoster, &c. The third—Men greet commonly our Lady, God’s moder, &c.
ii.Of the Seven Heresies. It begins—For false men multiply books of the church, &c. The seven heresies are divided into seven chapters. The contents of this piece show it to be from the pen of Wycliffe, the whole being directed after his manner against the friars; and the fourth heresy, which is said to consist in saying, “that the sacred host is in no manner bread, but either nought, or an accident without a subject,” shows that this is one of the Reformer’s later productions. Fol. 4—9.
iii.Of the Decalogue. This begins—All manner of men should hold God’s biddings. The part of the decalogue relating to God, is treated in twelve chapters; that relating to man in twenty-eight. Fol. 9—27.
iv.On Faith, Hope, and Charity. It begins—For it is said in holding of our holiday. This is a work in six chapters, but does not exceed six pages. Fol. 27—30.
v.Of the Seven Works of Bodily Mercy. It begins—If a man were sure that to-morrow he should come before a judge. Fol. 30—35.
vi.Opera Caritatis. Beginning—Sith we should serve our parishioners in spiritual alms. Fol. 35—38. This piece, and the two preceding, are in the library of New College, Oxford.
vii.Septem Peccata Capitalia. Beginning—Since belief teacheth us that every evil is either sin or cometh of sin. This is the work of which an account is given from the copy in the Bodleian in the preceding pages. See pp. 66—71. It extends, in the MS. from page 38 to 63.
viii.De Ecclesia et Membris ejus. This work is also in the British Museum, and for an account of it see pp. 74—79 of this volume. Fol. 63 to 75.
ix.De Apostasia et Dotatione Ecclesiæ. It begins—Since each Christian man is holden. It exhibits, as the title suggests, the doctrine of Wycliffe concerning the evils of ecclesiastical endowments. Fol. 76—80.
x.Tractatus de pseudo Freris. It begins—For many beren heavy that friars be called pseudo, or hypocrites. It consists of arguments against the peculiarities of the religious orders. Fol. 81—95.
xi.Of the Eight Woes that God wished to Friars. Beginning—“Christ biddeth us beware with these false prophets.” This piece relates to the same subject with the preceding, but consists of a parallel between the Pharisees and the mendicants. Fol. 95—101.
xii.Egressus Jesus de templo. It begins—This Gospel telleth much wisdom that is hid to many men. Homily on Matt. xxiv. Also, in Trinity College, and C. C. C. Cambridge. This is a detached homily. In the volume of homilies in the British Museum, Bib. Reg. 18 B. ix. p. 175, is the following passage—“All our west land is with one pope or the other, and he that is with the one hateth the other and all his. And yet hypocrites feign that all this is for charity, but this hypocrisy is worse than the sin before.” The first part of this sentence, it seems, is in the Dublin MS., and comparison would probably show that it is merely a strayed postil. Fol. 101—116.
xiii.Of Antichrist and his Meynee, or train—followers. This begins—Davidsaith, Lord, set thou a law-maker upon me. This is probably the tract mentioned under the title De Antichristo et Membris. But the latter piece, according to Bale, begins—Quemadmodum Dominus Jesus ordinavit. Fol. 116—124.
xiv.Of Antichrist’s Song in the Church. It begins—Also prelates, priests, and friars, put on simple men, that they say that God’s office or service be not to be sung with note. Fol. 124—126.
xv.Of Prayer, a Treatise. Beginning—Also bishops and friars putten to poor men that they say, &c. This piece ends on the next fol., 127.
xvi.Nota de Confessione. This work extends to eleven pages, and begins—Two virtues be in man’s soul, by which a man should be ruled. Fol. 127—138.
xvii.Christ, forsooth, did all that he could to obey Lords. This is the beginning of a tract without title, ending on the same page.
xviii.Nota de Sacramento Altaris. It begins—Christian men’s belief, taught of Jesus Christ, God and man.—Fol. 138—145.
xix.Chrysostom saith, that fishers and buystouse men, making each day nets. This is the beginning of a piece without a title. It does not exceed two pages. Fol. 146.
xx.St. Bernard speaketh thus to the Pope. This is the beginning of another piece without title. Fol. 146—152.
xxi.God moveth Holy Church by many manner of speeches to know. This also is the beginning of a piece without title. It consists of a dialogue between Christ and Satan. Fol. 152—154.
xxii.Neither man nor woman may perfectly do the seven works of mercy—Clerks know that a man hath five wits outward. These are the beginnings of pieces without title. They extend to little more than a page each. They appear to be shorter tracts on subjects which the Reformer had discussed more largely in other works, if indeed they are to be regarded as from his pen.
xxiii.Here are questions and answers put that are written hereafter. The work which thus begins is without title. It extends over more than forty leaves—from page 164 to 218 of the volume: and I had taken this note of its extent at the time of examining it, but from some subsequent oversight I failed to describe it correctly in my former catalogue of the Wycliffe MSS. This is the piece which has been recently published by the Camden Society, under the editorship of Dr. Todd, librarian of Trinity College, Dublin. It is published under the title of “Wycliffe’s Apology,” but I have shown elsewhere that it is not a work of the Reformer’s.a
xxiv. The following are the beginnings of three other short pieces, forming the conclusion of this volume. It is written in the first book of Holy Writ, that there were three patriarchs. These be the nine points that the Lord Jesus answered a holy man. Of the deeds of mercy God will speak at the dreadful day. Fol. 218, 219.
LXV. In the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, is a folio volume with the following works attributed to Wycliffe. MS. 326. c. 5, 8. They consist of scholastic treatises on philosophical and theological topics, and the uninitiated reader will be able to form a sufficient notion of their character from the account of the first three books of the Trialogus in the present volume.
i.De ente Communi.In primis supponitur ens esse, hoc enim non probari potest nec ignorari ab aliquo. Fol. 1—5.
ii.De ente Primo.Extenso ente secundum ejus marimam ampliationem, possibile est venari in tanto ambitu ens primum. Fol. 5—9.
iii.De Purgando Errores et Veritate in Communi.Consequens est purgare errores. Fol. 15—23.
iv.De Purgando Errores et Universalibus in Communi.Tractatu continentur dicta de universalibus.
v.De Universalibus.Tractatus de universalibus continet xvi. capitula cujus primum. Fol. 23—37.
vi.De Tempore.In tractando de tempore sunt aliqua ex dictis superius capienda. Fol. 37—47.
vii.De Intellectione Dei.Illorum quæ insunt Deo communiter quædam insunt sibi soli. Fol. 47—53.
viii.De Scientia Dei.Ex dictis superius satis liquet quod scientiam quam Deus. Fol. 53—70.
ix.De Volitione Dei.Tractando de volitione Dei quam oportet ex dictis supponere. Fol. 70—91.
x.De Personarum Distinctione.Superest investigare de distinctione et convenientia personarum quas credimus plena fide. Fol. 91—115.
xi.De Ydeis.Tractando de ydeis primo oportet quærere si sunt. Fol. 115—122.
xii.De Potentia productiva Dei.Veritatum quas Deus non potest renovare. Fol. 122—134.
xiii.De Sermone Domini in iii. part.Licet totum Evangelium. Fol. 134—141.
LXVI.De Universalibus. Eccl. Cathed. Lincoln. A. 9.
LXVII.De ente Universali et Attributis Divinis. Trin. Coll. Dub.
LXVIII.De Temporis Quidditate. In the library of the cathedral church at Lincoln (A. 9.) is a part of this treatise under the title De Tempore.
The manuscripts which follow are in the Imperial Library of Vienna: they are mentioned in Mr. Baber’s catalogue of the writings of Wycliffe prefixed to his edition of the Reformer’s New Testament, and are copied from Denis’s Cat. of the Latin Theol. MSS. in the Imperial Library.
LXIX. i.De Minoribus Fratribus se Extollentibus. This and the piece intitled De Perfectione Statuum, are the same tract.
ii.De Sectis Monachorum. It exists in the same collection, intitled De concordatione Fratrum cum sectâ simplici Christi.
iii.De Quatuor Sectis Novellis. This tract is also intitled, De Prævaricatione Præceptorum.
iv.De fundatione Sectarum.
v.De solutione Sathanæ.
vi.Responsiones ad xiv. Argumenta Radulphi Strodi.a
vii.Litera parva ad quendam Socium.
viii.Speculum Militantis Ecclesiæ.
ix.De Oratione et Ecclesiæ Purgatione.
x.De gradibus Cleri.
xii.De duobus geniribus Hereticorum. The persons here denominated heretics, are those who have contracted the guilt of either simony or apostacy.
xiii.De quatuor Interpretationibus.
xiv.Super impositis Articulis, and Socii argumentum contra veritatem, are different titles given to the same tract.
xv.De citationibus Frivolis et aliis Versutiis Antichristi.
xvi.De juramento Arnoldi (de Grannario) collectoris Papæ.
xvii.De sex jugis. A treatise upon the relative duties.
xviii.De Exhortatione novi Doctoris. This is conjectured to be an exercise performed for the degree of Doctor in Divinity.
xix.De ordine Christiano. Twelve opinions subversive of the power of the pope were extracted from this book. MSS. Twini, A. 218.
xxi.Dialogus inter Veritatem et Mendacium.
xxii.Epistola, de peccato in Spiritum Sanctum.
xxiii.Litera parva ad quendam Socium.
xxiv.Epistola ad Archiepiscopum Cantuar.
xxv.Litera ad Episcopum Lincoln. de amore, sive de quintuplici quæstione.
xxvi.De Eucharistiâ et Pœnitentia. In this treatise Wycliffe opposes the doctrine of transubstantiation, and questions the use of auricular confession.
xxvii.De octo quæstionibus Propositis Discipulo. It is a letter upon the subject of tithes.
xxviii.De triplici Vinculo Amoris.
xxix.De origine sectarum, and De novis ordinibus, are the same tract under different titles. A part of this tract is in the Imperial Library at Vienna, intitled De sectarum perfidiâ.
xxx.Summa Theologica. This title appears in a very ancient manuscript catalogue of Wycliffe’s writings, which is in the Imperial Library at Vienna. The work here called Summa Theologica, is described as consisting of twelve chapters, the titles of which are as follows:—i. De Mandatis. ii. De Statu Innocentiæ.aiii. iv. v. De Dominio.bvi. De Veritate Scripturæ.cvii. De Ecclesiâ. viii. De Officio Regis. ix. De Postate Papæ. x. De Simonia.dxi. De Apostasiâ. xii. De Blasphemiâ.
The following are the titles of extinct works, or different names given to some of the preceding treatises. They are found in the lists published by Bale, Tanner, and subsequent writers, with no other description than is here given: and they appear to have been, for the most part, treatises or tracts on grammar, philosophy, and a variety of scholastic questions.
LXX. i.Questiones logicales.
ii.Logica de singulis.
iii.Logica de aggregatis.
iv.De propositionibus temporalibus.Sequitur jam ultimo de proposit.
vi.De exclusivis exceptivis.Secundarie superius est promissum.
vii.De causalibus.Pertractandum venit de causalibus.
viii.De comparativis.Consequens est ad dicta superad.
ix.De conditionalibus.Primo supponitur omnem hypotheti.
x.De disjunctivis.Tertio sequitur de disjunctivis.
xi.De copulativis et relativis.Sequitur de copulativis pertract.
xiv.De universo reali.
xvi.De summâ intellectualium.
xvii.De formis idealibus.
xviii.De spiritu quolibet.
xix.De speciebus hypotheticis.
xx.De esse intelligibili creaturæ.
xxi.De esse suo prolixco.
xxii.De arte sophistica.
xxiii.De una communis generis essentia.
xxiv.De essentiâ accidentium.
xxv.De temporis ampliatione.
xxvi.De physica naturali.
xxvii.De intentio physicâ.
xxviii.De materia et formâ.Cum materia et forma sint uni.
xxix.De materiâ celestium.
xxx.De raritate et densitate.Videtur ex tertio sequi quod nihil.
xxxi.De mota locali.Sequitur de localibus pertract.
xxxii.De velocitate motus localis.Tam ultimo restat videre quid.
xxxiii.De centro infiniti.
The pieces thus described appear to have been treatises, or, more probably, short tracts, or detached parts of treatises, on grammar, logic, and philosophy, embracing, as before intimated, such topics as are found in the first and second books of the Trialogus. The titles which follow denote works more strictly theological, and some of them no doubt exhibited many of the distinctive opinions of the Reformer.
xxxiv.Dialogus de fratribus.
xxxv.Johannes a rure contra fratres.Ego Johannes a rure Deum verum precor.
xxxvi.De charitate fraternâ.Premum cum quolibet homine qui.
xxxvii.Dæmonum æstus in subvertandâ religione.Ut omnipotens Deus homines disponit.
xxxviii.De Diabolo millenario.Cum consummati fuerint mille anni.
xxxix.De perverso Antichristi dogmate.Cum puri concionatores doceant Dei verbum.
xl.Defensio contra impios.Evangelii predicationem lites suscipere.
xli.Contra P. Stokes.a
xlii.Responsio ad Argumenta Monachi de Salley.
xliii.Contra Monachum Dunelmensem.b
xliv.De imitate Christi.
xlv.De unico salutis Agno.
xlvi.Christus alius non expectandus.
xlvii.De humanitate Christi.
xlviii.De defectione a Christo.
xlix.De fide et perfidiâ.
l.De fide sacramentorum.
li.De fide evangelii.
liii.De censuris ecclesiæ.Quantum ad excommunicationem attigit.
liv.De sacerdotio Levitico.
lv.De sacerdotio Christi.
lvi.De statuendis pastoribus ad plebem.
lvii.Speculum cleri per dialogum.Sed adhuc arquitur si querus sic.
lviii.De non saginandis sacerdotibus.Cavete qui sacerdotes ad honestatem.
lix.De ministrorum conjugio.Fuit in diebus Herodes sacerdos.
lx.Cogendi sacerdotes ad honestatem.Apertam eruditionem in Dei lege.
lxi.De ritibus sacramentorum.
lxii.De quiddite hostiæ consecratiæ.
lxiii.De quintuplici Evangelio.
lxv.De Trinitate.Superest investigare de distinctione.
lxvi.De excommunicatis absolvendis.Quoniam sub pœna excommunicationis.
lxvii.Distinctiones rerum theologicarum.
lxviii.De fonte errorem.
lxix.De falsatoribus legæ divinæ.Postquam interpretes subdoli legem.
lxx.De immortalitate animæ.
lxxii.De cessatione legalium.Redeundo autem ad propositum de.
lxxiii.De dilectione.In quelibet homine peccatore.
lxxv.De contrarietate duorum dominorum.Sicut est unus, verus et summus.
lxxvi.De lege divinâ.Ut de legibus loquar Christianorum.
lxxvii.De necessitate futurorum.
lxxviii.De operibus spiritualibus.Quia paræcianos spiritualibus.
lxxix.De operibus corporalibus.Si certus esset homo quod in.
lxxx.De ordine Christiano.
lxxxi.De ordinaria laicorum.
lxxxii.De ordine sacerdotali.Quia presbyterorum ordo instituitur.
lxxxiii.De purgatorio piorum.Dona eis, Domine requiem semper.
lxxxv.Replicationes et positiones.
lxxxvi.De præscito ad beatitudinem.
lxxxvii.De quaternario doctorum.
lxxxviii.De religiosis privatis.Omnes Christiani in spiritus fervore.
lxxxix.De studio lectionis.Malum est in eis perseverare ea.
xc.De servitute civili.Cum secundum philosophos sit relativorum.
xcii.De virtute orandi.Ut sabbatizatio nostra sit Deo acceptabilis.
xciii.Contra monachum de S. Albano.
xciv.De compositione hominis.Tria enovent me ad tractandum.
xcv.De homine misero.
ci.Commentarii vulgares.aStabat Johannes, et ex discipulis.
cii.Lectiones in Danialem.
ciii.De dotatione eccleslæ, and De dotatione Cæsareâ, are different titles of the same work, beginning—Utrum clerus debuerit dotationem.
civ.De Antichristo et membris.Quemadmodum Dominus Jesus ordinavit.
cv.Iterum de Antichristo.Nota quod Antichristus 4 com.
cvi.Speculum militantis Ecclesiæ.Cum identitas mater sit fastidii.
cvii.De perfectione evangelica.Primo fratres dicunt suam religionem.
cviii.De officio pastorali.Cum duplex debeat esse officium.
cix.De Simonia sacerdotum.Heu magni sacerdotes in tenebris.a
cx.Super penitentius injungendis.Pro eo quod curatorum officium sit.
cxi.De divite apud Marcum.Cum egressus esset in viam salvator.
cxii.De remissione fraternâ.Si autem peccaverit in te frater.
cxiii.De tribus sagittis.Quisquis mente tenere cupit quid.
cxiv.De ecclesia catholica.Sunt sacerdotes qui certis rationibus.
cxv.De mandatis Divinis.Præmissa sententia de Domino.
cxvi.Conciones de morte.Beati qui in Domino moriuntur.
cxvii.De peccatis fugiendis.Dum fides nos doceat malum quodlibet.
cxviii.De ablatis restituendis.Quæritur 1° utrum omnium errum.
cxix.De seductione simplicium.Septem sunt quibus decipiuntur simplices.
cxx.De ocio et mendacitate.A manuum labore excusantur fratres.
cxxi.In symbolum fidei.Certum est fidem esse omnium virtutum.
cxxii.Super salutatione angelica.Solent homines Christissaram salutare.
cxxiii.Ad simplices sacerdotes.Videtur meritorium bonos colore.
cxxiv.Ad quinque questiones.Quidam fidelis in Domino quærit.
cxxvi.De trino amoris vinculo.
cxxvii.Contra concilium terræ motus.
cxxviii.De solutione Satanæ.
cxxix.De spiritu quolibet.
cxxxi.Si quis sitit.
cxxxii.De confessione Latinorum.
cxxxiii.De Christianorum Baptismo.
cxxxiv.De clavis regni Dei.
cxxxv.De clavium potestate.
cxxxvi.De homine misero.
cxxxvii.Contra cruciatum Papæ.
cxxxviii.De legibus et veneno.
cxxxix.Collectiones contra Dominicanos.
cxli.Ad rationes Kyningham.
cxlii.Contra Bynhamum monachum.
cxliii.Replicationes et positiones.
cxliv.De bullis papalibus.
cxlv.De veritate et mendacio.
cxlvi.De prevaricatione preceptorum.
cxlviii.De vera innocentia.
cxlix.De vii. donis Spiritus Sancti.
cl.De versatiis pseudo cleri.
clii.The Life of the Virgin Mary.
[a]The reader will find this question discussed, and some other points at issue between Dr. Todd and myself, in the Eclectic Review for January, 1843. Soon after that article appeared, a paper was inserted in the British Magazine, purporting to show, that Mr. Lewis, the biographer of Wycliffe, has left evidence among his private papers of being acquainted with the series of Dublin MSS, which I had ventured to describe as unknown to him. But strange enough, the proof furnished by these papers is, that Mr. Lewis did certainly possess some second-hand knowledge of the Dublin MSS. he does mention, but that he possessed no knowledge whatever of those he does not mention! This was precisely my impression of the matter, and this led me to describe my catalogue of the writings of Wycliffe as containing mention of nearly forty MSS. unknown to the Reformer’s biographers.
[a]Radulphus Strodes, non Anglus sed Scotus, in Monasterio Dryburgh, provinciæ Teviotdale, educatus, Ord. Fratrum Prædicatorum, poeta-laureatus, Oxonii diu studuit, socios collegii Mertonensis, Galliam peragravit et Italiam, Syriam item Terram Sanctam, contra Wiclefi dogmata acriter disputans circa a.c. 1370. Musices quoque fuit studiosus. Scripsit fabulas, panegyricos, consequentiarum formulas, (Ven. 1517. 4to. impressas) summulas logicales, sophismatum strophas, phantasma carmen elegiacum, itinerarium Terræ Sanctæ, positiones et xiv. argumenta contra Wiclefum opuscula. Fabricius. Bib. Med. Lat. lib. xviii. Baber. 41.
[a]Biographia Wiclefiania, sive elenchus multorum ejus operum cum eorum initiis, unde Catalogi Balei et Tanneri non parum supplevi et perfice possint. Inter alia disco, tractatus varios, qui nunc separatim feruntur, partes esse Summæ Theologicæ nostri.—Verum id esse, vel horum librorum initia comprobant Cod. Sæc. XV. Denis, Cat. Lat. Theol. MSS. in Bib. Pal. Vind. 391. xii. In C. C. College, Oxford, is a manuscript intitled—Quædam abstracta ex Summâ, doctoris Anglici, Wiclefi. MS. 116. Baber. 46. See XXXII. in this series.
[b]See No. XXX. of this series. There are two copies of the De Dominio in the Imperial Library. Forty-four opinions in the part of this treatise intitled De Dominio Civili, were condemned. MS. Twini, A. 220.
[c]See No. LXIII. of the preceding series.
[d]Thirty-four opinions in this tract were censured. MS. Twini, A. 217.
[a]Stokes was a Carmelite friar. He was commanded by the Archbishop of Canterbury to publish at Oxford the condemnation which had been pronounced against the opinions of Wycliffe and his disciples by the court assembled in the Preaching Friars.
[b]This monk was named Ughtred Bolton, and had written several tracts against Wycliffe.
[a]“It is probable that the six preceding titles are various descriptions of the same work.”—Baber. 48.
[a]These words are the commencement of the piece entitled “The Last Age of the Church,” of which mention will be made elsewhere.