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PÚRUṢA - Misc (Rigveda), A Vedic Reader for Students 
A Vedic Reader for Students, by Arthur Anthony MacDonnell. Containing Thirty Hymns of the Rigveda in the original Samhita and Pada Texts, with Transliteration, Translation, Explanatory Notes, Introduction, Vocabulary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917).
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There are six or seven hymns dealing with the creation of the world as produced from some original material. In the following one, the well-known Puruṣa-sūkta or Hymn of Man, the gods are the agents of creation, while the material out of which the world is made is the body of a primaeval giant named Puruṣa. The act of creation is here treated as a sacrifice in which Puruṣa is the victim, the parts when cut up becoming portions of the universe. Both its language and its matter indicate that it is one of the very latest hymns of the Rigveda. It not only presupposes a knowledge of the three oldest Vedas, to which it refers by name, but also, for the first and only time in the Rigveda, mentions the four castes. The religious view is moreover different from that of the old hymns, for it is pantheistic: ‘Puruṣa is all this world, what has been and shall be’. It is, in fact, the starting-point of the pantheistic philosophy of India.
x. 90. Metre: Anuṣṭubh; 16 Triṣṭubh.
See Page Number 195, Hymn Number 1 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Thousand-headed was Puruṣa, thousand-eyed, thousand-footed. He having covered the earth on all sides, extended beyond it the length of ten fingers.
sahásraśīrṣā &c.: that is, having innumerable heads, eyes, and feet, as representing all created beings (cp. 2). sahasrākṣás: of the very numerous Bv. cds. formed with sahásra this and sahasraarghá are the only ones with irr. accent (cp. p. 455, 10 c). daśāṅgulám: probably only another way of expressing that his size was greater even than that of the earth. atiṣṭhat: ipf. of sthā stand.
See Page Number 196, Hymn Number 2 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Puruṣa is this all, that has been and that will be. And he is the lord of immortality, which he grows beyond through food.
Puruṣa is coextensive with the whole world including the gods. bhávyam: a late and irregular cadence. amṛtatvásya: of the immortals, the gods. yád: there is some doubt as to the construction of d; the parallelism of áty atiṣṭhat in 1 d and of áty aricyata in 5 c indicates that Puruṣa is the subject and yád (the gods) the object, and that the former exceeds the latter ánnena, that is, by means of sacrificial food. The words have also been interpreted to mean: who (the gods) grow up by (sacrificial) food; or, and of that which grows by food, that is, creatures other than the gods. In these interpretations the meaning of áti does not seem to be sufficiently brought out.
See Page Number 196, Hymn Number 3 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Such is his greatness, and more than that is Puruṣa. A fourth ofhim is all beings, three-fourths of him are what is immortal in heaven.
etá̄vān asya: irr. Sandhi for etá̄vāṁ̆ asya (occurring also in x. 85, 45: putrá̄n á̄), is a sign of lateness, this being the regular post Vedic Sandhi (39). átas: equivalent to an ab. after the cpv. (201, 3). jyá̄yāṃś ca: on the Sandhi, see 40 a. Pú̄ruṣas: a metrical lengthening for Púruṣas (cp. the Pada text) to avoid a sequence of four short syllables, cp. 5 b. amṛ́tam: equivalent to amṛtatvá.
See Page Number 197, Hymn Number 4 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
With three quarters Puruṣa rose upward; one quarter of him here came into being again. Thence he spread asunder in all directions to what eats and does not eat.
úd ait (3. s. ipf. of i go, p. 130): to the world of immortals. ihá: in this world. púnar: that is, from his original form. tátas: from the earthly quarter. ví akrāmat abhí: distributed himself to, developed into. sāśana-anaśané: animate creatures and inanimate things; this cd. represents the latest stage of Dvandvas in the RV. (186 A 1, end).
See Page Number 197, Hymn Number 5 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
From him Virāj was born, from Virāj Puruṣa. When born he reached beyond the earth behind and also before.
tásmād: from the undeveloped quarter of Puruṣa. Virá̄ḷ: as intermediate between the primaeval Puruṣa and the evolved Puruṣa; cp. x. 72, 4: Áditer Dákṣo ajāyata, Dákṣād u Áditiḥ pári from Aditi Dakṣa was born, and from Dakṣa Aditi. On the Sandhi, see p. 3, n. 2. With c d cp. 1 c d. átho: 24.
See Page Number 198, Hymn Number 6 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
When the gods performed a sacrifice with Puruṣa as an oblation, the spring was its melted butter, the summer its fuel, the autumn its oblation.
Here the gods are represented as offering with the evolved Puruṣa an ideal human sacrifice to the primaeval Puruṣa. átanvata: 3. pl. ipf. Ā. of tan stretch; this vb. is often used figuratively in the sense of to extend the web of sacrifice = to carry out, perform. dhavís: 54.
See Page Number 198, Hymn Number 7 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
That Puruṣa, born in the beginning, they besprinkled as a sacrificeon the strew: with him the gods, the Sādhyas, and the seers sacrificed.
jātám agratás: the evolved Puruṣa, born from Virāj (5 b), the same as in 6 a. prá-aukṣan: 3. pl. ipf. of 1. ukṣ sprinkle. ayajanta: = yajñám átanvata in 6 b. Sādhyá̄s: an old class of divine beings (here probably in apposition to devá̄s), cp. 16 d. ṛ́ṣayaś ca yé: and those who were seers, a frequent periphrastic use of the rel. = simply ṛ́ṣayas.
See Page Number 199, Hymn Number 8 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
From that sacrifice completely offered was collected the clotted butter: he made that the beasts of the air, of the forest, and those of the village.
tásmād: ab. of the source (201 A 1). sáṃbhṛtam: as finite vb. pṛṣad-ājyám: accent, p. 455, 10 d 1. paśú̄n: Sandhi, 40, 2. tá̄ṃś: attracted to paśú̄n for tát (pṛṣadājyám); Sandhi, 40, 1 a. vāyavyà̄n: one of the rare cases where the independent Svarita remains in pronunciation (p. 448, 1); à̄n here remains unaffected by Sandhi because it is at the end of a Pāda (p. 31, f. n. 3); this is one of several indications that the internal Pādas (those within a hemistich) as well as the external Pādas were originally independent (cp. p. 465, f. n. 4). āraṇyá̄n: that is, wild. grāmyá̄ś ca yé = grāmyá̄n, that is, tame; cp. ṛ́ṣayaś ca yé in 7 d.
See Page Number 199, Hymn Number 9 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
From that sacrifice completely offered were born the hymns and the chants; the metres were born from it; the sacrificial formula was born from it.
ṛ́cas: the Rigveda. sá̄māni: the Sāmaveda. jajñire: 3. pl. pf. Ā. of jan beget. yájus: the Yajurveda. This is the first (implicit) mention of the three Vedas. The AV. was not recognized as the fourth Veda till much later.
See Page Number 200, Hymn Number 10 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
From that arose horses and all such as have two rows of teeth. Cattle were born from that; from that were born goats and sheep.
yé ké ca: whatever animals besides the horse, such as asses and mules, have incisors above and below. ajāváyas: a pl. Dv. (186 A 2); Dvandvas are not analysed in the Pada text.
See Page Number 200, Hymn Number 11 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
When they divided Puruṣa, into how many parts did they dispose him? What (did) his mouth (become)? What are his two arms, his two thighs, his two feet called?
vi-ádadhur: when the gods cut up Puruṣa as the victim; here the Padapāṭha again (see note on viii. 48, 2 a, 10 c) accents the prp. in a subordinate clause (p. 469, 20 B). káu: the dual ending au for the normal ā before consonants (cp. note on x. 14, 10 a); ká̄ and pá̄dā before ū̆: 22. ucyete: 3. du. pr. ps. of vac speak: Pragṛhya, 26 b.
See Page Number 201, Hymn Number 12 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
His mouth was the Brāhman, his two arms were made the warrior, his two thighs the Vaiśya; from his two feet the Śūdra was born.
In this stanza occurs the only mention of the four castes in the RV. brāhmaṇò ’sya: Sandhi accent, p. 465, 17, 3. rājanyàs: predicative nom. after a ps. (196 b). kṛtás attracted in number to rājanyàḥ, for kṛtáu (cp. 194, 3). yád váiśyas: the periphrastic use of the rel. (cp. 7 d and 8 d), lit. his two thighs became that which was the Vaiśya. padbhyá̄m: abl. of source (77, 3 a, p. 458, 1).
See Page Number 201, Hymn Number 13 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
The moon was born from his mind; from his eye the sun was born; from his mouth Indra and Agni, from his breath Vāyu was born.
Note that candrá-mās is not analysed in the Pada text. cákṣos: ab. of cákṣu used only in this passage = the usual cákṣus; in the Funeral Hymn (x. 16, 3) sú̄ryas and cákṣus, vá̄tas and ātmá̄ are also referred to as cognate in nature.
See Page Number 202, Hymn Number 14 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
From his navel was produced the air; from his head the sky was evolved; from his two feet the earth, from his ear the quarters: thus they fashioned the worlds.
ná̄bhyās: ab. of ná̄bhi inflected according to the ī dec. (p. 82 a). śīrṣṇás: ab. of śīrṣán (90, 1 a; p. 458, 2). sám avartata: this vb. is to be supplied in c; cp. ádhi sám avartata in x. 129, 4. akalpayan: ipf. cs. of kḷp; they (the gods) fashioned.
See Page Number 202, Hymn Number 15 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Seven were his enclosing sticks; thrice seven were the faggots made, when the gods performing the sacrifice bound Puruṣa as the victim.
paridháyas: the green sticks put round the sacrificial fire to fence it in, generally three in number. saptá: as a sacred number. tanvāná̄s: cp. 8 h. ábadhnan: 3. pl. ipf. of bandh; cp. púruṣeṇa havíṣā in 6 a and táṃ yajñáṃ Púruṣam in 7 a b. paśúm: as appositional acc. (198).
See Page Number 203, Hymn Number 16 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
With the sacrifice the gods sacrificed to the sacrifice: these were the first ordinances. These powers reached the firmament where are the ancient Sādhyas, the gods.
ayajanta: this vb. ordinarily takes the acc. of the person worshipped and the inst. of that with which he is worshipped (308, 1 f); the meaning here is: they sacrificed to Puruṣa (here appearing as a sacrifice, like Viṣṇu in the Brāhmaṇas) with the sacrifice in which he was the victim. té mahimá̄naḥ: probably the powers residing in the sacrifice. This stanza is identical with i. 164, 50.