Front Page Titles (by Subject) VÍŚVE DEVÁ̄Ḥ - A Vedic Reader for Students
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VÍŚVE DEVÁ̄Ḥ - Misc (Rigveda), A Vedic Reader for Students 
A Vedic Reader for Students, by Arthur Anthony MacDonnell. Containing Thirty Hymns of the Rigveda in the original Samhita and Pada Texts, with Transliteration, Translation, Explanatory Notes, Introduction, Vocabulary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917).
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The comprehensive group called Víśve devá̄ḥ or All-Gods occupies an important position, for at least forty entire hymns are addressed to them. It is an artificial sacrificial group intended to include all the gods in order that none should be left out in laudations meant for the whole pantheon. The following hymn though traditionally regarded as meant for the Viśve devāḥ is a collection of riddles, in which each stanza describes a deity by his characteristic marks, leaving his name to be guessed. The deities meant in the successive stanzas are: 1. Soma, 2. Agni, 3. Tvaṣṭṛ, 4. Indra, 5. Rudra, 6. Pūṣan, 7. Viṣṇu, 8. Aśvins, 9. Mitra-Varuṇa, 10. Aṅgirases.
viii. 29. Metre: Distichs of a Jagatī + Gāyatrī (p. 445, α.).
See Page Number 148, Hymn Number 1 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
One is brown, varied in form, bountiful, young. He adorns himself with golden ornament.
babhrús: this epithet is distinctive of Soma, to whom it is applied eight times, while it otherwise refers to Agni only once, and to Rudra in one hymn only (ii. 33). It alludes to the colour of the juice, otherwise described as aruṇá ruddy, but most often as hári tawny. víṣuṇas: probably referring to the difference between the plant and the juice, and the mixtures of the latter with milk and honey. yúvā: here and in a few other passages Soma, like Agni, is called a youth, as produced anew every day. añjí: cognate acc. (p. 300, 4). aṅkte: 3. s. Ā. of añj anoint, with middle sense anoints himself. hiraṇyáyam: cp. ix. 86, 43, mádhunā abhí añjate . . hiraṇyapāvá̄ āsu gṛbhṇate they anoint him (Soma) with mead; purifying with gold, they seize him in them (the waters), in allusion to fingers with golden rings.
See Page Number 148, Hymn Number 2 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
One has, shining, occupied his receptacle, the wise among the gods.
yónim: the sacrificial fireplace; cp. iii. 29, 10, ayáṃ te yónir ṛtvíyo, yáto jātó árocathāḥ: táṃ jānánn, Agna, á̄ sīda this is thy regular receptacle, born from which thou didst shine: knowing it, Agni,occupy it. dyótanas: the brightness of Agni is constantly dwelt on. médhiras: the wisdom of Agni is very frequently mentioned; in i. 142, 11 he is called devó devéṣu médhiraḥ the wise god among the gods.
See Page Number 149, Hymn Number 3 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
One bears in his hand an iron axe, strenuous among the gods.
vá̄śīm: this weapon is connected elsewhere only with Agni, the Ṛbhus, and the Maruts. But Agni cannot be meant because he has already been described in 2; while the Ṛbhus and the Maruts would only be referred to in the plural (cp. 10). But x. 53, 9 indicates sufficiently what god is here meant: Tváṣṭā . . apásām apástamaḥ . . śíśīte nūnáṃ paraśúṃ suāyasám Tvaṣṭṛ, most active of workers, now sharpens his axe made of good iron. nídhruvis: strenuous as the artificer of the gods, a sense supported by apástamas in the above quotation.
See Page Number 149, Hymn Number 4 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
One bears a bolt placed in his hand: with it he slays his foes.
á̄-hitam: pp. of dhā place; accent, p. 462, 13 b. jighnate: 3. s. pr. Ā. of han slay, see p. 432. vájram: this, as his distinctive weapon, shows that Indra is meant.
See Page Number 149, Hymn Number 5 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
One, bright, fierce, with cooling remedies, bears in his hand a sharp weapon.
á̄yudham: bow and arrows are usually the weapons of Rudra; in vii. 46, 1 he is described by the epithets sthirádhanvan having a strong bow, kṣipréṣu swift-arrowed, tigmá̄yudha having a sharp weapon, and in vii. 46, 3 his lightning shaft, didyút, is mentioned. ugrás: this epithet is several times applied to Rudra (cp. ii. 33). jálāṣabheṣajas: this epithet is applied to Rudra in i. 43, 4; Rudra is also called jálāṣa, and his hand is described as jálāṣa (as well as bheṣajá) in ii. 33, 7; these terms are applied to no other deity. b has the irregularity of two redundant syllables (p. 438, 2 α).
See Page Number 150, Hymn Number 6 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
One makes the paths prosperous; like a thief he knows of treasures.
pathás: it is characteristic of Pūṣan (vi. 54) to be a knower and guardian of paths. pīpāya: pf., with lengthened red. vowel, from pi (= pyā) make full or abundant; cp. vi. 53, 4: ví pathó vá̄jasātaye cinuhí clear the paths for the gain of wealth (addressed to Pūṣan); and x. 59, 7: dadātu púnaḥ Pūṣá̄ pathíāṃ yá̄ suastíḥ let Pūṣan give us back the path that is propitious. táskaras: to be taken with b; like a thief he knows where hidden treasure is to be found; cp. vi. 48, 15 (addressed to Pūṣan): āvír gūḷhá̄ vásū karat, suvédā no vásū karat may he make hidden wealth manifest, may he make wealth easy for us to find; he also finds lost cattle; cp. vi. 54, 5-10. yathāṁ̆: unaccented (p. 453, 8 B d); nasalized to avoid hiatus (p. 23, f. n. 1). veda: with gen. (202 A c). nidhīná̃̄m: accent (p. 458, 2 a); the final syllable to be pronounced dissyllabically.
See Page Number 150, Hymn Number 7 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
One, wide-pacing, makes three strides to where the gods are exhilarated.
trí̄ṇi: cognate acc. (p. 300, 4) supply vikrámaṇāni (cp. yásya urúṣu triṣú vikrámaṇeṣu, i. 154, 2). The three strides are characteristic of Viṣṇu (see i. 154). urugāyá: an epithet distinctive of Viṣṇu (cp. i. 154, 1. 3. 5). yátra: to the place (the highest step) where(p. 240) the gods drink Soma (cp. i. 154, 5). b has the trochaic variety of the Gāyatrī cadence (see p. 439, 3 a, α).
See Page Number 151, Hymn Number 8 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
With birds two fare, together with one woman: like two travellers they go on journeys.
víbhis: cp. i. 118, 5, pári vām áśvāḥ pataṃgá̄, váyo vahantu aruṣá̄ḥ let the flying steeds, the ruddy birds, drive you (Aśvins) round. dvá̄ . . ékayā sahá: the two Aśvins with their one companion, Sūryā; cp. l. c.; á̄ vāṃ ráthaṃ yuvatís tiṣṭhad . ., duhitá̄ Sú̄ryasya the maiden, the daughter of the Sun, mounted your car; also v. 73, 5: á̄ yád vāṃ Sūryá̄ ráthaṃ tíṣṭhat when Sūryā mounted your car. prá vasatas: they go on a journey in traversing the sky in their car. pravāsá̄: this word occurs here only, apparently in the sense of one who is abroad on travels (like the post-Vedic pravāsin); in the Sūtras and in classical Sanskrit it means sojourn abroad. Some scholars regard pravāséva as irr. contraction for pravāsám iva: they travel as it were on a journey.
See Page Number 151, Hymn Number 9 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Two, as highest, have made for themselves a seat in heaven: two sovereign kings who receive melted butter as their draught.
samrá̄jā, as N. du., is applied to Mitra-Varuṇa exclusively. cakrāte: 3. du. pf. Ā. of kṛ with middle sense, make for oneself. upamá̄: N. du. in apposition to dvá̄, further explained by samrá̄jā.
See Page Number 152, Hymn Number 10 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Singing, some thought of a great chant: by it they caused the sun to shine.
árcantas: singing is characteristic of the Aṅgirases; e. g. i. 62, 2, sá̄ma yénā . . árcanta Áṅgiraso gá̄ ávindan the chant by which the Aṅgirases, singing, found the cows; the Maruts are described in x. 78, 5 as viśvárūpā Áṅgiraso ná sá̄mabhiḥ manifold with chants like the Aṅgirases. The Aṅgirases again are those yá ṛténa sú̄ryam á̄rohayan diví who by their rite caused the sun to mount to heaven(x. 62, 3). Sāyaṇa and some other interpreters think that the Atris are meant. But nothing is ever said of the singing or the chants of the Atris. Again, though in one hymn (v. 40) it is said in the last stanza that the Atris found the sun: yáṃ vái sú̄ryaṃ Svàrbhānus támasā á̄vidhyad, Átrayas tám ánv avindan the Atris found the sun which Svarbhānu had assailed with darkness (9), this is only a repetition of what is attributed to Atri in the sing.: gūḷháṃ sú̄ryaṃ támasā . . bráhmaṇā avindad Átriḥ Atri by prayer found the sun hidden by darkness (6) and Átriḥ sú̄ryasya diví cákṣur á̄dhāt Atris placed the eye of the sun in heaven (8); and in the AV. and the ŚB., it is Atri (not the Atris) who performed a similar act. Thus even this deed is not characteristic of the Atris (plural), but at most of Atri (singular). The Aṅgirases must therefore undoubtedly be meant here, éke: the pl. is here used to express an indefinite group beside ékas and dvá̄ in the rest of the hymn (cp. 105). manvata: 3. pl. ipf. Ā. (without augment) of man think. arocayan: ipf. cs. of ruc shine.