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SÚ̄RYA - Misc (Rigveda), A Vedic Reader for Students 
A Vedic Reader for Students, by Arthur Anthony MacDonnell. Containing Thirty Hymns of the Rigveda in the original Samhita and Pada Texts, with Transliteration, Translation, Explanatory Notes, Introduction, Vocabulary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917).
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Some ten hymns are addressed to Sūrya. Since the name designates the orb of the sun as well as the god, Sūrya is the most concrete of the solar deities, his connexion with the luminary always being present to the mind of the seers. The eye of Sūrya is several times mentioned; but Sūrya himself is also often called the eye of Mitra and Varuṇa, as well as of Agni and of the gods. He is far-seeing, all-seeing, the spy of the whole world; he beholds all beings, and the good and bad deeds of mortals. He arouses men to perform their activities. He is the soul or guardian of all that moves or is stationary. His car is drawn by one steed called etaśá, or by seven swift mares called hárit bays.
The Dawn or Dawns reveal or produce Sūrya; he shines from the lap of the Dawns; but Dawn is also sometimes Sūrya’s wife. He also bears the metronymic Āditya or Āditeya, son of the goddess Aditi. His father is Dyaus or Heaven. The gods raised him who had been hidden in the ocean, and they placed him in the sky; various individual gods, too, are said to have produced Sūrya or raised him to heaven.
Sūrya is in various passages conceived as a bird traversing space; he is a ruddy bird that flies; or he is a flying eagle. He is also called a mottled bull, or a white and brilliant steed brought by Dawn. Occasionally he is described as an inanimate object: he is a gem of the sky, or a variegated stone set in the midst of heaven. He is a brilliant weapon (á̄yudha) which Mitra-Varuṇa conceal with cloud and rain, or their felly (paví), or a brilliant car placed by them in heaven. Sūrya is also sometimes spoken of as a wheel (cakrá), though otherwise the wheel of Sūrya is mentioned. Sūrya shines for all the world, for men and gods. He dispels the darkness, which he rolls up like a skin, or which his rays throw off like a skin into the waters. He measures the days and prolongs life. He drives away sickness, disease, and evil dreams. All creatures depend on him, and the epithet ‘all-creating’ (víśvá-karman) is once applied to him. By his greatness he is the divine priest (asuryà puróhita) of the gods. At his rising he is besought to declare men sinless to Mitra-Varuṇa and to other gods.
The name Sú̄rya is a derivative of svàr light, and cognate with the Avestic hvare sun, which has swift horses and is the eye of Ahura Mazda.
vii. 63. Metre: Triṣṭubh.
See Page Number 125, Hymn Number 1 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Up rises the genial all-seeing Sun, common to all men, the eye of Mitra and Varuṇa, the god who rolled up the darkness like a skin.
víśvácakṣās: cp. urucákṣās in 4 a; on the accentuation of these two words cp. p. 454, 10 and p. 455, 10 c α. cákṣus: cp. vii. 61, 1. sam-ávivyak: 3. s. ipf. of vyac extend. cárma iva: cp. iv. 13, 4. raśmáyaḥ Sú̄riasya cármevá̄vādhus támo apsú antáḥ the rays of the sun have deposited the darkness like a skin within the waters.
See Page Number 125, Hymn Number 2 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Up rises the rouser of the people, the great waving banner of the Sun, desiring to revolve hither the uniform wheel, which Etaśa, yoked to the pole, draws.
prasavītā: with metrically lengthened i (cp. p. 440, 4) for prasavitá̄ as restored by the Padapāṭha; cp. 4 c, jánāḥ Sú̄ryeṇa prásūtāḥ. samānám: uniform, with reference to the regularity of the sun’s course. cakrám: a single wheel of the sun, doubtless with reference to the shape of the luminary, is regularly spoken of. paryāvívṛtsan: ds. of vṛt turn; cp. p. 462, 13 a. Etaśás: as the name of the sun’s steed, is several times mentioned; but Sūrya is also often said to be drawn by seven steeds; cp. i. 164, 2, saptá yuñjanti rátham ékacakram, ékǒ áśvo vahati saptánāmā seven yoke the one-wheeled car, one steed with seven names draws it. dhūrṣú: the loc. pl. as well as the s. of this word is used in this way.
See Page Number 126, Hymn Number 3 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Shining forth he rises from the lap of the dawns, greeted with gladness by singers. He has seemed to me god Savitṛ who infringes not the uniform law.
cachanda: here the more concrete god Sūrya is approximated to Savitṛ (i. 35), who is in several passages spoken of as observing fixed laws. In this hymn Sūrya is also referred to with terms (prasavitá̄, prásūtās) specially applicable to Savitṛ. ná praminá̄ti: cp. what is said of Dawn in i. 123, 9, ṛtásya ná mināti dhá̄ma she infringes not the law of Order.
See Page Number 126, Hymn Number 4 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
The golden gem of the sky, farseeing rises, whose goal is distant, speeding onward, shining. Now may men, aroused by the Sun, attain their goals and perform their labours.
divó rukmáḥ: cp. vi. 51, 1, rukmó ná divá úditā vy àdyaut like a golden gem of the sky he has shone forth at sunrise; and v. 47, 3, mádhye divó níhitaḥ pṛ́śnir áśmā the variegated stone set in the middle of the sky. dūréarthas: Sūrya has far to travel before he reaches sunset. áyan: 3. pl. pr. sb. of i go. árthāni: note that this word is always n. in the RV. except in two hymns of the tenth book, in which it is m. kṛṇávan: 3. pl. pr. sb. of kṛ do; accented because beginning a new sentence (p. 465, 18 a).
See Page Number 127, Hymn Number 5 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Where the immortals have made a way for him, like a flying eagle he follows his path. To you two, when the sun has risen, we would pay worship with adorations, O Mitra-Varuṇa, and with offerings.
yátrā: the final vowel metrically lengthened. amṛ́tās: various gods, as Varuṇa, Mitra, and Aryaman (vii. 60, 4), are said to have made paths for the sun. práti to be taken with vidhema. sú̄ra údite: loc. abs. (205 b).
See Page Number 127, Hymn Number 6 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Now may Mitra, Varuṇa, and Aryaman grant wide space to us ourselves and to our offspring. Let all our paths be fair and easy to traverse. Do ye protect us evermore with blessings.
nú̄: to be pronounced with a slur as equivalent to two syllables (ᴗ–, cp. p. 437 a 8); only nú̄ occurs as the first word of a sentence, never nú (p. 238); the Pada text always has nú. tmáne: this word (cp. 90, 2, p. 69) is often used in the sense of self, while ātmán is only just beginning to be thus used in the RV. (115 b α) and later supplants tanú̄ body altogether. dadhantu: 3. pl. pr. according to the a conj. (p. 144, B 3 β) instead of dadhatu. sugá̄: lit. may all (paths) be easy to travel and easy to traverse. This final stanza is a repetition of the final stanza of the preceding hymn (vii. 62). On d see note on vii. 61, 6.
[P. 125, line 12,]for viśvácakṣās read viśvácakṣās.
[P. 128, line 3,]for nũ̄ read nú̃̄.