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BṚ́HASPÁTI - Misc (Rigveda), A Vedic Reader for Students 
A Vedic Reader for Students, by Arthur Anthony MacDonnell. Containing Thirty Hymns of the Rigveda in the original Samhita and Pada Texts, with Transliteration, Translation, Explanatory Notes, Introduction, Vocabulary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917).
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This god is addressed in eleven entire hymns, and in two others conjointly with Indra. He is also, but less frequently, called Bráhmaṇas páti, ‘Lord of prayer’, the doublets alternating in the same hymn. His physical features are few: he is sharp-horned and blue-backed; golden-coloured and ruddy. He is armed with bow and arrows, and wields a golden hatchet or an iron axe. He has a car, drawn by ruddy steeds, which slays the goblins, bursts open the cow-stalls, and wins the light. Called the father of the gods, he is also said to have blown forth their births like a blacksmith. Like Agni, he is both a domestic and a brahmán priest. He is the generator of all prayers, and without him sacrifice does not succeed. His song goes to heaven, and he is associated with singers. In several passages he is identified with Agni, from whom, however, he is much oftener distinguished. He is often invoked with Indra, some of whose epithets, such as maghávan bountiful and vajrín wielder of the bolt he shares. He has thus been drawn into the Indra myth of the release of the cows. Accompanied by his singing host he rends Vala with a roar, and drives out the cows. In so doing he dispels the darkness and finds the light. As regards his relation to his worshippers, he is said to help and protect the pious man, to prolong life, and to remove disease.
Bṛ́haspáti is a purely Indian deity. The double accent and the parallel name Bráhmaṇas páti indicate that the first member is the genitive of a noun bṛ́h, from the same root as bráhman, and that the name thus means ‘Lord of prayer’.
He seems originally to have represented an aspect of Agni, as a divine priest, presiding over devotion, an aspect which had already attained an independent character by the beginning of the Rigvedic period. As the divine brahmán priest he seems to have been the prototype of Brahmā, the chief of the later Hindu triad.
iv. 50. Indra is invoked with Bṛhaspati in 10 and 11.
Metre: Triṣṭubh; 10 Jagatī.
See Page Number 84, Hymn Number 1 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Bṛhaspati who occupying three seats with roar has propped asunder with might the ends of the earth, him, the charming-tongued, the ancient scers, the wise, pondering, placed at their head.
ví tastámbha: the prp. here follows the vb. and is separated from it by an intervening word: p. 468, 20. jmás: gen. of jmá̄ (97, 2). Pronounce jmṓ antá̄n (p. 437 α 4). Cosmic actions like that expressed in a are ascribed to various deities. Bṛ́haspátis: note that this cd. is not analysed in the Pada text, while its doublet Bráhmaṇas páti is treated as two separate words. triṣadhasthás: refers to the three sacrificial fires and is a term predominantly applied to Agni, cp. v. 11, 2: puróhitam Agníṃ náras triṣadhasthé sám īdhire men have kindled Agni as their domestic priest in his triple seat; on the accent see p. 455, 10 c α. ráveṇa: referring to the loud sound of the spells uttered; the word is especially used in connexion with the release of the cows from Vala; cp. 4 c and 5 b. puró dadhire: appointed their Purohita, a term frequently applied to Agni, who is also continually said to have been chosen priest by men.
See Page Number 85, Hymn Number 2 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Who with resounding gait, rejoicing, O Bṛhaspati, for us have attacked the conspicuous, variegated, extensive, uninjured herd: O Bṛhaspati, protect its dwelling.
This is a very obscure stanza, the allusions in which can only be conjectured. The subject of a-c is not improbably the ancient priests, mentioned in 1 c, who with the aid of Bṛhaspati recaptured the cows confined in the stronghold of Vala. mádantas: being exhilarated with Soma. tatasré: 3. pl. pf. Ā. of taṃs shake. pṛ́ṣantam: perhaps in allusion to the dappled cows contained in it. supraketám: easy to recognize, i.e. by their lowing, cp. i. 62, 3, Bṛhaspati found the cows; the heroes roared (vāvaśanta) with the ruddy kine. The fourth Pāda is a prayer to Bṛhaspati to protect the recovered kine. Pāda c is a Dvipadā hemistich: see p. 443 a. rákṣatāt: 2. s. ipv. of rakṣ: on the accent see p. 467 A c.
See Page Number 86, Hymn Number 3 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
O Bṛhaspati, that which is the farthest distance, from thence (coming) those that cherish the rite have seated themselves for thee. For thee springs that have been dug, pressed out with stones, drip superabundance of mead on all sides.
áta á̄ ní ṣedur: cp. ii. 35, 10 c. ṛtaspṛ́śas: perhaps the gods; or the ancient seers mentioned in 1 c and perhaps in 2: they have come from the farthest distance and have seated themselves at the Soma libation offered to thee. khātá̄s . . . ádridugdhās: two figures alluding to the streams of Soma, which flows in channels and is pounded with stones. mádhvas: on this form of the gen. see p. 81, f. n. 12.
See Page Number 86, Hymn Number 4 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Bṛhaspati when first being born from the great light in the highestheaven, seven-mouthed, high-born, with his roar, seven-rayed, blew asunder the darkness.
mahás: abl. of máh, agreeing with jyótiṣas (cp. 201 A 1). The Sun is probably meant; cp. ii. 35, 10 c. saptá̄syas in iv. 51, 4 is an epithet of Áṅgira (in iv. 40, 1 Bṛhaspati is Āṅgirasá); it is parallel to saptáraśmi, an epithet applied also once to Agni and once to Indra. ráveṇa: cp. 1 b and 5 b. ví adhamat: ipf. of dham. Agni and Sūrya are also said to dispel the darkness.
See Page Number 87, Hymn Number 5 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
He with the well-praising, jubilant throng burst open with roar the enclosing cave: Bṛhaspati bellowing drove out the lowing ruddy kine that sweeten the oblation.
gaṇéna: the Aṅgirases, who in i. 62, 3 are associated with Indra and Bṛhaspati in the finding of the cows: Bṛ́haspátir bhinád ádriṃ, vidád gá̄ḥ: sám usríyābhir vāvaśanta náraḥ Bṛhaspati cleft the mountain, he found the cows; the heroes (= the Aṅgirases) roared with the ruddy kine. phaligám: the exact meaning of this word does not clearly appear from its four occurrences; but it must have a sense closely allied to receptacle: e. g. viii. 32, 25, yá udnáḥ phaligáṃ bhinán, nyàk síndhūṁ̆r avá̄sṛjat who (Indra) cleft the receptacle of water (and) discharged the streams downwards; in three passages it is spoken of as being rent or pierced, and twice is associated with Vala; and in the Naighaṇṭuka it is given as a synonym of megha cloud. ráveṇa: with reference both to Bṛhaspati and the kine (cp. 5 d). havya-sú̄das: that is, with milk. kánikradat: intv. pr. pt. of krand; cp. 173, 3; 174 b. vá̄vaśatīs: intv. pr. pt. of vāś (cp. 174).
See Page Number 88, Hymn Number 6 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Then to the father that belongs to all the gods, the bull, we would offer worship with sacrifices, obeisance, and oblations. O Bṛhaspati, with good offspring and heroes we would be lords of wealth.
evá̄: with final vowel metrically lengthened. The sense of the pcl. here is: such being the case (cp. 180). pitré: Bṛhaspati. The term is applied to Agni, Indra, and other gods. vīrávantas: that is, possessing warrior sons, cp. i. 1, 3 c. vayám: this line occurs several times as the final Pāda of a hymn; cp. viii. 48, 13.
See Page Number 88, Hymn Number 7 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
That king with his impulse and his heroism overcomes all hostile forces, who keeps Bṛhaspati well-nourished, honours him, and praises him as receiving the first (portion of the offering).
abhí: the prp., as often, here follows the vb. súbhṛtaṃ bibhárti: lit. cherishes him as well-cherished (predicative). All three verbs depend on yás, though the last two, as beginning a Pāda and a sentence, would even otherwise be accented. valgūyáti: note that this denominative is treated as a cd. in the Pada text (cp. 175 A 1). pūrvabhá̄jam: predicative.
See Page Number 89, Hymn Number 8 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
That king dwells well-established in his own abode, to him the consecrated food always yields abundance; to him his subjects bow down of their own accord, with whom the priest has precedence.
kṣeti: from 1. kṣi possess or dwell. sú-dhita: this form of the pp. of dhā is still preserved as the last member of cds. (otherwise hitá); the word is explained as su-hita in the AB. ókasi své: cp. své dáme in i. 1, 8 c. íḷā: explained as food (annam) in AB. viii. 26, 7, and as earth (bhūmi) by Sāyaṇa. yásmin rá̄jani: the loc. here = in the presence of whom, in whose case; the antecedent is here put in the relative clause, while in 7 a it accompanies the corr. (sá id rá̄jā). pú̄rva éti: with reference to this line the AB. viii. 26, 9 remarks, purohitam evaitad āha thus one calls him a Purohita; cp. also AB. viii. 1, 5: brahma khalu vai kṣatrāt pūrvam the Brāhmaṇa certainly precedes the Kṣatriya.
See Page Number 89, Hymn Number 9 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Unresisted he wins wealth both belonging to his adversaries and to his own people. The king who for the priest desiring (his) help procures prosperity, him the gods help.
After the statement in 7 that the king who honours Bṛhaspati prospers, it is added in 8 and 9 that the king who honours the Brahman, the counterpart among men of Bṛhaspati, also prospers.
jayati sám: prp. after the vb. (p. 285 f). dhánāni: he wins wealth both abroad and at home. avasyáve—avanti: both words from the same root av: the gods help the king who helps the Brahman.
See Page Number 90, Hymn Number 10 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
O Indra and Bṛhaspati, drink the Soma, rejoicing at this sacrifice, O ye of mighty wealth; let the invigorating drops enter you two; bestow on us riches accompanied altogether with sons.
Índraś ca: nom. for voc. (196 c α; cp. ca, p. 228, 1 and 1 a). pibatam: 2. du. ipv. of pā drink. mandasāná̄: ao. pt. of mand = mad. vṛ́ṣaṇ-vasū: here vṛṣan = mighty, great; Sāyaṇa explains the word as if it were a governing cd. (189 A), the normal form of which would, however, be varṣáṇ-vasu (189 A 2; cp. p. 455 b). Note that in the Pada text the cd. is first marked as Pragṛhya with íti and then analysed; also that in the analysis the first member here appears not in its pause form vṛṣan (65) but in its Sandhi form with ṇ as not final. rayíṃ sárvavīram: that is, wealth with offspring consisting of sons only: a frequent prayer (cp. i. 1, 3 c). yachatam: 2. ipv. pr. of yam. Here we have the intrusion of a Jagatī stanza in a Triṣṭubh hymn (cp. p. 445, f. n. 7). In this and the following stanza Indra is associated with Bṛhaspati, as in the whole of the preceding hymn, iv. 49.
See Page Number 91, Hymn Number 11 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
O Bṛhaspati and Indra, cause us to prosper; let that benevolence of yours be with us. Favour (our) prayers; arouse rewards; weaken the hostilities of foe and rivals.
Bṛ́haspata Indra: contrary to the general rule the second voc. is here unaccented (p. 465, 18 a); this is doubtless because the two are here treated as a dual divinity, as in the preceding hymn (iv. 49), in every stanza of which they are invoked as Indrā-Bṛhaspatī. Indra must be pronounced trisyllabically (cp. p. 15 d). vām: gen. (109 a). bhūtu: 3. s. ipv. root ao. of bhū. asmé: loc. with sácā (177, 5) and (as in 10 d) Pragṛhya (26 c). aviṣṭám: 2. s. du. ipv. of the iṣ ao. of av favour (145, 5). jigṛtám: 2. du. red. ao. of gṛ waken; accented because beginning a new sentence (p. 467 b). dhíyas . . . púraṃdhīs: these words often appear side by side and in contrast: the former then meaning prayers for gifts, the latter the bestowal (dhi from dhā bestow) of plenty (púram an acc.; cp. the Padapāṭha). púraṃdhīs here is also opposed to árātīs (lit. lack of liberality) in d. jajastám: 2. du. ipv. pf. of jas. aryás: gen. of arí (99, 3); cp. note on ii. 12, 4. The genitives aryás and vanúṣām are co-ordinate and dependent on árātīs; this appears from various parallel passages, as aryó árātīḥ hostitities of the foe (vi. 16, 27); aghá̄ny aryó, vanúṣām árātayaḥ evil deeds of the foe, hostilities of rivals (vii. 83, 5); abhì̄tim aryó, vanúṣāṃ śávāṃsi the onset of the foe, the might of rivals (vii. 21, 9 d). 11 a = vii. 97, 9 d.