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APÁ̄Ṃ NÁPĀT - Misc (Rigveda), A Vedic Reader for Students 
A Vedic Reader for Students, by Arthur Anthony MacDonnell. Containing Thirty Hymns of the Rigveda in the original Samhita and Pada Texts, with Transliteration, Translation, Explanatory Notes, Introduction, Vocabulary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917).
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This deity is celebrated in one entire hymn (ii. 35), is invoked in two stanzas of a hymn to the Waters, and is often mentioned incidentally elsewhere. Brilliant and youthful, he shines without fuel in the waters which surround and nourish him. Clothed in lightning, he is golden in form, appearance, and colour. Standing in the highest place, he always shines with undimmed splendour. Steeds, swift as thought, carry the Son of Waters. In the last stanza of his hymn he is invoked as Agni and must be identified with him; Agni, moreover, in some hymns addressed to him, is spoken of as Apāṃ napāt. But the two are also distinguished; for example, ‘Agni, accordant with the Son of Waters, confers victory over Vṛtra’. The epithet āśu-héman swiftly-speeding, applied three times to Apāṃ napāt, in its only other occurrence refers to Agni. Hence Apāṃ napāt appears to represent the lightning form of Agni which lurks in the cloud. For Agni, besides being directly called Apāṃ napāt, is also termed the embryo (gárbha) of the waters; and the third form of Agni is described as kindled in the waters.
This deity is not a creation of Indian mythology, but goes back to the Indo-Iranian period. For in the Avesta Apãm napāṭ is a spirit of the [ ] waters, who lives in their depths, who is surrounded by females, who is often invoked with them, who drives with swift steeds, and is said to have seized the brightness in the depth of the ocean.
ii. 35. Metre: Triṣṭubh.
See Page Number 68, Hymn Number 1 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Desirous of gain I have sent forth this eloquence (to him): may the son of streams gladly accept my songs. Will he, the Son of Waters, of swift impulse, perchance make (them) well-adorned? For he will enjoy (them).
asṛkṣí: 1. s Ā. s ao. of sṛj, which with úpa may take two acc., so that nādyám might be supplied. On īm see 180 (p. 220). dadhīta: 3. s. pr. op. Ā. of dhā, which with cánas takes the acc. or loc. nādyá, which occurs only here, is evidently synonymous with apá̄ṃ nápāt in c. āśuhémā, though a Bv., is accented on the second member: see p. 455 c α. karati: 3. s. sb. root ao. of kṛ: unaccented because kuvit necessarily accents the verb only if it is in the same Pāda. supéśasas well-adorned = well-rewarded; cp. ii. 34, 6: dhíyaṃ vá̄japeśasam a prayer adorned with gain; on the accent see p. 455 c α; on the Sandhi (-s k-) see 43, 2 a. jóṣiṣat: 3. s. sb. iṣ ao. of juṣ. hí explains why he is likely to accept them; it accents jóṣiṣat, which, however, as beginning a new sentence (p. 466, 19 a), would be accented without it.
See Page Number 68, Hymn Number 2 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
We would verily utter from our heart this well-fashioned hymn for him. Perchance he will take note of it. The Son of Waters, the lord, by the greatness of divine dominion, has created all beings.
hṛdá á̄: this expression occurs several times, e. g. iii. 39, 1: matír hṛdá á̄ vacyámānā a prayer welling from the heart. sútaṣṭam well-fashioned, like a car, to which the seers frequently compare their hymns; on the accent see p. 456, 1 a; cp. p. 462, 13 b. asmai and asya: unaccented, p. 452, 8 B c; dat. of prs. with vac: cp. 200, 1 c. védat: 3. s. pr. sb. of vid know, with gen., cp. 202 A c. asuryàsya: see p. 451, 6.
See Page Number 69, Hymn Number 3 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
While some flow together, others flow to (the sea): the streams fill the common receptacle; him the pure, the shining Son of Waters, the pure waters stand around.
yánti: accented because of the antithesis expressed by anyá̄ḥ—anyá̄ḥ, the first vb. then being treated as subordinate (see p. 468 β). ūrvám: = ocean. samānám: common, because all streams flow into it. nadyàs: cp. asuryàsya in 2 c. pṛṇanti: from pṝ fill. ū: u is often lengthened in the second syllable of a Pāda before a single consonant (see p. 220). dīdivá̄ṃsam: pf. pt. of dī shine, with lengthened red. vowel (139, 9) and shortened radical vowel; the sense is illustrated by 4 d. pári tasthur: = they tend him.
See Page Number 70, Hymn Number 4 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Him, the youth, the young maidens, the waters, not smiling, making him bright surround: he with clear flames shines bountifully on us, without fuel in the waters, having a garment of ghee.
ásmerās: it is somewhat uncertain what is the exact sense here implied; but judging by iv. 58, 8, where the drops of ghee are described as hastening ‘to Agni like beauteous maidens, smiling, to meeting-places’, it may mean that the waters attend seriously on this form of Agni, not as lovers. yúvānam: a term applied to Agni in several passages. marmṛjyámānās: the vb. mṛj is often used of making Agni bright, with ghee, &c. śíkvabhis: the precise sense is somewhat doubtful, but it must mean ‘flames’ or the like. Note that though in this word the ending bhis is separated in the Pada text, it is not so in śukrébhis because śúkre is not a stem. asmé: dat. Pragṛhya, 26 c. dīdá̄ya: 3. s. pf. of dī shine, with long red. vowel (139, 9). an-idhmás: accent, p. 455 c α; cp. x. 30, 4: yó anidhmó dīdayad apsú antár who shone without fuel in the waters. ghṛtánirṇik: an epithet otherwise applied only to Agni and (once) to the sacrifice (yajñá): note that the second member appears in the Pada text as nirnik, in accordance with the analysis niḥ-nik when the word occurs uncompounded.
See Page Number 71, Hymn Number 5 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
On him, the immovable god, three divine women desire to bestow food: for he has stretched forth as it were to the breasts(?) in the waters: he sucks the milk of them that first bring forth.
tisró deví̄ḥ: the waters in the three worlds are probably meant; in iii. 56, 5 Agni is spoken of as having three mothers (trimātá̄), and three maidens of the waters (yoṣánās tisró ápyāḥ) are there mentioned: they wish to feed him, while he desires to drink their milk. didhiṣanti: ds. of 1. dhā bestow: this is the usual form, while dhítsa is rare. kṛ́tās: the meaning of this word, which occurs here only, is quite uncertain. pra-sarsré: 3. s. pr. int. of sṛ. dhayati: 3. s. pr. of 2. dhā suck. pūṛvasú̄nām: i. e. Apāṃ napāt is their first offspring; cp. x. 121, 7: á̄po janáyantīr Agním the waters producing Agni.
See Page Number 71, Hymn Number 6 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
The birth of this steed is here and in heaven. Do thou protect the patrons from falling in with malice and injury. Him that is not to be forgotten, far away in unbaked citadels, hostilities shall not reach nor falsehoods.
Though every word is clear in this stanza the meaning of the whole is somewhat uncertain. It seems to be this: Apāṃ napāt is produced from both the terrestrial and the heavenly waters. He is invoked to protect sacrificers from injury. He himself dwells beyond the reach of foes. áśvasya: Agni is often spoken of as a steed. átra: here, i. e. in the waters of earth. svàr: this is the only passage in the RV. in which the word is not to be read as súar; it is here a loc. without the ending i (see 82 c). pāhi: the change from the 3. to the 2. prs. in the same stanza is common in the RV. with reference to deities. On this form depends the abl. inf. saṃpṛ́cas as well as the two preceding ablatives: lit. protect the patrons from malice and from injury, from falling in with them(cp. p. 337 a). āmá̄su: in the unbaked, i. e. natural (cloud) citadels. pūrṣú: loc. pl. of púr, 82. parás: note the difference of accent between this adv. and the N. s. adj. páras yonder, other. naśat: inj. pr. of 3. naś reach.
See Page Number 72, Hymn Number 7 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
He, in whose own house is a cow yielding good milk, nourishes his vital force, he eats the excellent food; he, the Son of Waters, gathering strength within the waters, shines forth for the granting of wealth to the advantage of the worshipper.
svá á̄ dáme: that is, within the waters; in i. 1, 8 své dáme refers to the sacrificial altar on which Agni grows, that is, flames up. The first three Pādas merely vary the sense of 5. The food that he eats is the milk that he receives, and that strengthens him. svadhá̄m: this word is not analysed in the Padapāṭha of the RV. and AV. (as if derived from a root svadh), but it is separated in that of the TS. as sva-dhá̄. pīpāya: 3. s. pf. of pi swell, with lengthened red. vowel (139, 9). só apá̄m must be read as sò ’pá̄m since a must here be metrically elided (21 a; p. 465, 17, 3). On apsv àntár see p. 450, 2 b [where a̱psvi̱antaḥ should be corrected to a̱psvai̱ntaḥ]. vidhaté: dat. of advantage (p. 314, B 1); on the accent see p. 458, 11, 3. vasudhéyāya: dat. of purpose, ibid., B 2. ví bhāti: here Apāṃ napāt is thought of as the terrestrial Agni appearing on the sacrificial altar.
See Page Number 73, Hymn Number 8 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Who in the waters, with bright divinity, holy, eternal, widely shines forth: as offshoots of him other beings and plants propagate themselves with progeny.
śúcinā dáivyena: = divine brightness. ṛtá̄vā: note that in the Padapāṭha the original short a is restored (cp. i. 160, 1). vayá̄s: other beings are his offshoots because he produced them; cp. 2 d: víśvāni bhúvanā jajāna. prajá̄bhis: cp. ii. 33, 1, prá jāyemahi prajá̄bhiḥ.
See Page Number 73, Hymn Number 9 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
The Son of Waters has occupied the lap of the prone (waters), (himself) upright, clothing himself in lightning. Bearing his highest greatness, golden-hued, the swift streams flow around (him).
The lightning Agni is again described in this stanza. jihmá̄nām ūrdhváḥ: these words are in contrast; cp. i. 95, 5 of Agni: vardhate . . . āsu jihmá̄nām ūrdhváḥ . . . upásthe he grows in them, upright in the lap of the prone. tásya mahimá̄nam his greatness = him the great one. híraṇyavarṇās: because he is clothed in lightning. pári yanti: cp. 3 a and 4 b. yahví̄s: the meaning of the word yahvá, though it occurs often, is somewhat uncertain: it may be great (Naighaṇṭuka, Sāyaṇa), or swift (Roth), or young (Geldner).
See Page Number 74, Hymn Number 10 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
He is of golden form, of golden aspect; this Son of Waters is of golden hue; to him (coming) from a golden womb, after he has sat down, the givers of gold give food.
In this stanza the terrestrial Agni is described. He is spoken of as ‘golden’ because of the colour of his flames. séd: 48 a. pári as a prp. here governs the abl. (176, 1 a). The golden source of Agni may be the sun, as Durga thinks; thus the solar deity Savitṛ is spoken of as distinctively golden (cp. i. 35); but hiraṇyáya yóni may = hiraṇyagarbhá (x. 121, 1) at the creation, when Agni was produced from the waters (x. 121, 7). Sāyaṇa wishes to supply rājate after niṣádya = having sat down shines. This is quite unnecessary; it is more natural to take c and d as one sentence, niṣádya referring to asmai: to him, after he has sat down, they give(cp. 210). Note that the Pada text shortens the final vowel of niṣádyā (cp. 164, 1). hiraṇyadá̄s: that is, those who give gold as a sacrificial fee, the patrons of the sacrifice. In a hymn in praise of the dakṣiṇá̄ the sacrificial fee(x. 107, 2) it is said hiraṇyadá̄ amṛtatváṃ bhajante the givers of gold partake of immortality. dadati: 3. pl. pr. act. of dā give(p. 125, f. n. 4). ánnam: the oblation (cp. 11 d).
See Page Number 75, Hymn Number 11 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
That face of his and the dear secret name of the Son of Waters grow. Of him, whom, golden-coloured, the maidens kindle thus, ghee is the food.
ánīkam: the flaming aspect of Agni seen at the sacrifice. apīcyàm: secret; cp. gúhyaṃ cá̄ru ná̄ma the dear secret name of Soma (ix. 96, 16); the secret name of the Son of Waters grows means that the sacrificial Agni, under his secret name of Son of Waters, grows in the waters, cherished by them; another way of expressing what is said in 4 and 7. The cadence of b is irregular, the last syllable but one being short instead of long (cp. p. 440). yuvatáyas: the waters (cp. 4 a). sám: the prp. after the vb. (p. 468, 20). ghṛtám ánnam asya: cp. ghṛtánirṇik in 4 d and subhv ánnam atti in 7 b. The general meaning of the stanza is: Agni, who in the hidden form of Apāṃ Napāt is nourished in the waters, is at the sacrifice fed with ghee.
See Page Number 76, Hymn Number 12 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
To him the nearest friend of many we offer worship with sacrifices, homage, oblations: I rub bright (his) back; I support (him) with shavings; I supply (him) with food; I extol (him) with stanzas.
avamá̄ya: lit. the lowest, that is, the nearest; bahūná̄m (accent, p. 458, 2 α): of many (gods). In iv. 1, 5 Agni is invoked as avamá and nédiṣṭha nearest; and in AB. i. 1, 1 Agni is called the lowest (avamá) of the gods (while Viṣṇu is the highest paramá), because he is always with men as the terrestrial fire. sáṃ má̄rjmi: cp. marmṛjyámānās in 4 b; on the accent cp. i. 35, 9 c. The prp. sám may be supplied with the other two following verbs. dídhiṣāmi: pr. ds. of dhā put; accented as first word of a new sentence. bílmais: with shavings, to make the newly kindled fire flame up. ánnais: with oblations. dádhāmi: pr. of dhā put.
See Page Number 76, Hymn Number 13 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
He, the bull, generated in them that germ; he, as a child, sucks them; they kiss him; he, the Son of Waters, of unfaded colour, works here with the body of another.
In a and b Apāṃ napāt reproduces himself in the waters; in c and d he appears as the sacrificial fire on earth. īm anticipates gárbham; him, that is, a son. tá̄su: in the waters, as his wives. īm in b = them, the waters, who here are both the wives and mothers of Apāṃ napāt. dhayati: cp. 5 d. rihanti: lit. lick, as a cow the calf. só apá̄m: here the a, though written must be dropped after o, as in 7 c. ánabhimlāta-varṇas: he is as bright here as in the waters; cp. híraṇyavarṇas in 10 b; on the Sandhi, cp. note on i. 1, 9 b. anyásya iva: of one who seems to be another, but is essentially the same. ihá: on earth, in the form of the sacrificial Agni.
See Page Number 77, Hymn Number 14 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
Him stationed in this highest place, shining for ever with undimmed (rays), the Waters, bringing ghee as food to (their) son, swift, themselves fly around with their robes.
padé paramé: in the abode of the aerial waters. adhvasmábhis: a substantive has to be supplied: flames or rays; cp. 4 c, śukrébhiḥ śíkvabhir dīdá̄ya. náptre: apá̄m is omitted because á̄pas immediately precedes. átkais: the meaning of this word is not quite certain, but it most probably means garment; the commentators give several senses. The expression perhaps implies that the waters cover him up for protection or concealment. pári dīyanti (dī fly); cp. pári yanti in 4 b and 9 d, and pári tasthur in 3 d.
See Page Number 78, Hymn Number 15 in PDF for Sanskrit Version
I have bestowed, O Agni, safe dwelling on the people; I have also bestowed a song of praise on the patrons: auspicious is all that the gods favour. We would, with strong sons, speak aloud at divine worship.
áyāṃsam: 1. s. s ao. of yam. Agne: the sacrificial Agni is here addressed. jánāya: on (our) people, by means of this hymn. suvṛktím: a hymn that will produce the fulfilment of their wishes. bhadrám: if a hymn finds favour with the gods, it will produce blessings. vadema: the poet desires this also as a reward for his hymn. The final hemistich also occurs at the end of ii. 23; and the last Pāda is the refrain of twenty-three of the forty-three hymns of the second Maṇḍala.
[P. 69, line 2,]for ṭáṃ read ṭaṃ.
[Pp. 68, 70, 71, 75,]head-lines, for APAṂ read APĀṂ.