Front Page Titles (by Subject) §83 - The Divine Feudal Law: Or, Covenants with Mankind, Represented
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§83 - Samuel von Pufendorf, The Divine Feudal Law: Or, Covenants with Mankind, Represented 
The Divine Feudal Law: Or, Covenants with Mankind, Represented, trans. Theophilus Dorrington, ed. with an Introduction by Simone Zurbruchen (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002).
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The sixth and seventh Arguments of Jurieu.In the sixth place Jurieu thus Argues: God, (says he) before-hand knew that very many of Mankind would perish for not having perform’d the due Obedience to the Law of Nature written in the Hearts of the Gentiles; and that very many would not obey the Gospel. The appointment of a Redeemer would have been unprofitable to both these sorts. There are but three Ends only for which God hath sent the Redeemer. (1.) That he might declare his Good-will to Man. (2.) That he might save them that believe. (3.) That he might render the rest unexcusable, who despise this Salvation. With respect to the first end, an Universal Redemption would be altogether unprofitable, because the Good-will of God to Men is sufficiently declar’d by the Salvation of those Men that are Elected. For they are the best and the most valued part of Mankind, and in them is sufficiently fulfill’d whatsoever is promised to all Mankind.64 But whether or no God has sufficiently declar’d his Good-will to Mankind, cannot, and ought not to be judg’d from that which Jurieu thinks sufficient in the Case, but from that which the Holy Scripture hath reveal’d to us; from whence alone we must be directed to judge in this Matter. But that does not say God so lov’d the Elect, but God so lov’d the World. And it has seem’d worthy of the Goodness of God, That there should be an universal Redemption, that he might testifie the abundant Power of his Grace. Which is not to be accounted unprofitable, because many perish, any more than the Rain may be said to be so, which falls upon places that are not capable of bearing any thing, or the Sun who plentifully sheds his Light upon all parts. Also it is not necessary to our Purpose to examine, whether or no the Good-will of God to Men be a necessary Affection. For it is enough for us to know that God hath declar’d himself a Lover of Mankind, and indeed that he has declar’d that Affection with more glorious Proofs of it towards Men, then towards the Angels, in that the Saviour took not on him the Nature of Angels, but of the Seed of Abraham, Heb. 2:16. Which Philanthropy, however, because it has Justice join’d with it, is able to set a Measure to its own Effects, where it is arrogantly rejected, because God will not snatch Men to Heaven, whether they will or no, but will bring them to it in a moral manner. Jurieu adds, That, An universal Redemption is altogether of no use for the Manifestation of the Philanthropy in God; for it is no Mercy to offer Salvation to him who cannot receive it. But God offers to all so much Grace as suffices to Conversion, and he really gives it, if they do not of their own accord refuse it. Yet Jurieu confesses, That Impotence to receive it not to be natural; such as is, for Instance, that of Stones, Trees, and Brute-beasts, but Moral, yet nevertheless insuperable, and which cannot be overcome but by the Divine Grace.65 Which things in a good Sense may be admitted. The Impotence of Men to the Converting of themselves, is indeed insuperable, that is by the Powers which remain in the Corrupted Nature of Man: But which may be overcome by the Grace of God which is offer’d to all, unless they wickedly neglect or reject it, but which yet leaves the Morality of the Action. And it is distinctly observ’d by some, that as there is in Man a double Corruption: The one born with him, which follows from the common Pollution, and the other contracted by every Man; so the Grace of God which always accompanies his Call, is sufficient to overcome the former, but the Corruption of Manners contracted by particular Men, is not always overcome by the first Impulse of Divine Grace, but it may, and ought to be mended by, and overcome by the Endeavour of Man. Whence we also see the Gospel Preached to several Men at the same time with different Effects, according as they are possess’d with Evil Habits which they have contracted. See Acts 17:21, 32, 34. They who were wont to spend their Time and please themselves with hearing some new thing call’d Paula Babler: Those who were less Corrupted stagger’d at his Discourse: They who brought to the hearing him, no hindrance which they had contracted were converted. So Acts 24:25, 26. The Speech of Paul with Felix profited nothing, because he regarded nothing but the getting of Money. So Acts 26:25, 26. Festus was altogether possess’d with the Prejudice of the Roman Superstition: Agrippa was nearer touch’d by the Grace of God, had not Honour hindred him, and that external Magnificence which seem’d to him not consistent with the Discourse of Paul. Also I know not from whence it appears to Jurieu, that God Wills not to bestow his Grace upon the Tartars and Chinese. In truth there are whole Nations of the Tartars which profess the Christian Faith, and are Subject to the Empire of the Muscovites. Nor do all the Chineses abhor the Christian Religion; unless we will have it that all the Relations of the Jesuites about that Matter are meer Lies. The second End which Jurieu Establishes of sending the Redeemer, the Salvation of the Godly is true, but not adequate. As for the third End which Jurieu mentions, that of rendring the Wicked unexcusable, It is to be observ’d, that it is only spoken of Natural Knowledge, Rom. 1:20, 21. But ’tis no where said that the Saviour Redeem’d all, that the Wicked might be unexcusable, that is, that they might become the worse, and the more miserable. It is moreover wrong said that the end of sending the Saviour, was that the Reprobate might be unexcusable. For to do a thing with such an End belongs to him who wishes Evil to others, and lays Snares for them. But the unexcusableness it self, as I may say, follows the Contempt and Neglect of offer’d Benefits. But it may be rightly said, that if there be an universal Redemption, God hath omitted nothing on his part for the Conversion of Men: So that these cannot possibly lay on him the Cause why they are not converted and sav’d, when the Revelation of a Salvation to be obtain’d by the Redeemer, has been once and again made to Mankind. Which Knowledge when the Posterity of those to whom it was given do suffer to perish from among them, this is not by any Fault of God. But wicked Men to whom the Doctrine of Salvation is declar’d, would justly be excusable, if from the Absolute and Eternal Appointment of God, no Remedy were provided for them against the Native Hardness of their Hearts.
In the seventh Place, (p. 95.) Jurieu produces what is said, John 10:11, 15. The good shepherd giveth his Life for the Sheep, I lay down my life for my sheep. John 17:9, 20. I pray thee for those whom thou hast given me; not for the world, but for those who shall believe on me through their preaching. Concerning which, and the like Expressions in general it is to be observ’d: That from one or two Expressions all things cannot be deduced; and that one ought not to be oppos’d to all the rest, but all things are to be digested into an Agreement one with the other. And the Expressions urg’d do not contain the whole Method of our Salvation, but only a particular part of it. And in the former Expression Christ shows himself a much more faithful Pastour then they were, who in that time pretended themselves to be such, to whom he opposes that saying. Such are describ’d, Jer. 23:1, 2, &c. Ezek. 34:2, &c. Mat. 23:2, &c. Nor does there appear any Exclusive in this Place; nor is it denied, but that there was a Ransom paid by the Saviour for them who perish by their own Fault. So in the other Saying, Christ only denies that He in that Valedictory Speech Pray’d for the World; but he does not deny that he was about to give himself a Sacrifice for the whole World. So from this that Christ Prays for his Disciples, and those who should be converted by them, that God would preserve them in the Truth, that they might be one among themselves, it does not follow that his Death does not belong to others. As it does not follow, A Master bestows his Blessing at parting to his tractable Disciples, therefore he did not bestow sufficient Pains upon those who are untractable. And if indeed in that place Christ did not pray for the Wicked, yet he did this on the Cross, Luke 23:34. Isa. 53. ult. But neither is the Prayer of Christ appointed by God to be the Expiation of the Sins of the World, but his Passion and Death. Nor does it follow Christ then did not Pray for the Reprobate, therefore he has not Will’d that they might be sav’d, in a certain Establish’d Order. But by what Authority will Jurieu prove what he has deliver’d: The words signifying Universality, must not be urg’d in opposition; The word [All] prefixed to the Preaching of the Gospel, must create no Prejudice against the particular Grace of God. But why not? Or as if these Sayings were less express, and without Ambiguity, and Equivocation, then those in which he places the Strength of his Cause: Where however there is no mention so much as in a word of that which is in question. Lastly, Jurieu endeavours to destroy our Opinion, even from the Hypothesis of our Men. (p. 96.) He says, It is common with us to say, That Christ died for all, and every Man, but not absolutely, but under the Condition of Faith. But I on the contrary, say, That this Position never came into the Mind of any of our Men, and has either no, or a very absurd Meaning. For what is it that we say? That Christ died for all not absolutely, but under the Condition of Faith? No, but this is our Opinion, Christ died for all, but only they who believe do really receive the Fruit of his Death. Yet perhaps Jurieu had before his Eyes that Position of our Men, God hath Elected Men to Salvation, not by an Absolute Will, but under the Condition of foreseen Faith. Which differs as widely as can be from that Position which He would fasten upon us. Also God hath no where said I give my Son for all under the Condition of Faith. For we think it not Repugnant to the Divine Perfection, seriously to Will the Salvation of all; but for the attaining of which a certain Order is fixed; and that this should be purchas’d by a Price that is of value sufficient for all: And yet that he foreknows that all will not attain it, and who these are that will not; because God in the Holy Scriptures, from whence all these things are learn’d, has in express words thus declar’d himself. Also we believe it very well agreeing with the Goodness of God, that he should not leave any Man without a Remedy, and Mean of obtaining Salvation: But also that it agrees with his Wisdom not to proceed in this Matter with an Absolute Power, but that he should leave so much of Power in Man, that there may be a Morality remaining in this Affair, and that so Men may be judg’d to have, as it were a Negative Vote about their Salvation.
[64.]Ibid., p. 92.
[65.]Ibid., p. 94.