Front Page Titles (by Subject) Contents of the Lost Books - The History of Rome, Vol. 6
The Online Library of Liberty
A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.
Search this Title:
Also in the Library:
Contents of the Lost Books - Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Vol. 6 [10 AD]
The History of Rome by Titus Livius. Translated from the Original with Notes and Illustrations by George Baker, A.M.. First American, from the Last London Edition, in Six Volumes (New York: Peter A. Mesier et al., 1823). Vol. 6.
About Liberty Fund:
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals.
The text is in the public domain.
Fair use statement:
This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.
Contents of the Lost Books
HERE ends all that has reached us of this history. Of ninety-five books more, which it originally consisted of, the contents only have been preserved; they are as follow:—
Y. R. 586. 166.—Eumenes comes to Rome. He had stood neuter in the Macedonian war; in order, however, that he might not be deemed an enemy, if excluded, or considered as absolved of all guilt, if admitted, a general law was made, that no king be received into the city. The consul, Claudius Marcellus, subdues the Alpine Gauls; and Caius Sulpicius Gallus the Ligurians. Y.R. 587. 165.—The ambassadors of King Prusias complain of Eumenes, for ravaging their borders; they accuse him of entering into a conspiracy, with Antiochus, against the Romans. A treaty of friendship made with the Rhodians, upon their solicitation. Y.R. 588. 164.—A census held; the number of the citizens found to be three hundred and twenty-seven thousand and twenty-two. Marcus Æmilius Lepidus chosen chief of the senate. Ptolemy, King of Egypt, dethroned by his younger brother, is restored by ambassadors sent from Rome. Y.R. 589. 163.—Ariarathes, King of Cappadocia, dies, and is succeeded by his son Ariarathes, who enters anew into a treaty of friendship with the Romans. Y.R. 590. 162.—Expeditions against the Ligurians, Corsicans, and Lusitanians, attended with various success. Commotions in Syria, on occasion of the death of Antiochus, who left a son, an infant; who, together with his guardian, Lesias, is murdered by Demetrius, who usurps the kingdom. Y.R. 591. 161.—Lucius Æmilius Paullus, the conqueror of Perseus: Such was the moderation and incorruptibility of this great commander, that notwithstanding the immense treasures he had brought from Spain and Macedonia, yet, upon the sale of his effects, there could scarcely be raised a sum sufficient to repay his wife’s fortune Y.R. 592. 160.—The Pomptine marshes drained, and converted into dry land, by the consul Cornelius Cethegus.
Y. R. 593. 159.—Cneius Tremellius, a plebeian tribune, fined, for contending, in an unjust cause, with Marcus Æmilius Lepidus, chief priest; which greatly enhanced the authority of the priesthood. A law made respecting the canvassing for offices. Y.R. 594. 158.—A census held; the number of Roman citizens found to be three hundred and twenty-eight thousand three hundred and fourteen. Marcus Æmilius Lepidus again chosen chief of the senate. A treaty concluded between the Ptolemys, brothers, that one should be king of Egypt, the other of Cyrenæ. Y.R. 595. 157.—Ariarathes, King of Cappadocia, deprived of his kingdom, by the intrigues and power of Demetrius, King of Syria; restored by the senate. Ambassadors sent by the senate to determine a territorial dispute between Masinissa and the Carthaginians Y.R. 596. 156.—Caius Marcius, consul, fights the Dalmatians, at first, unfortunately; but, afterwards, successfully. The cause of this war was, that they had made inroads upon the Illyrians, who were in alliance with the people of Rome. Y.R. 597. 155.—The Dalmatians completely subdued, by the consul, Cornelius Nasica. The consul, Quintus Opimius, defeats the Transalpine Ligurians, who had plundered Antipolis and Nicæa, two towns belonging to the Massileans. Y.R. 598. 154.—Various ill successes, under different commanders, in Spain. In the five hundred and ninety-eighth year from the foundation of the city, the consuls enter upon office, immediately after the conclusion of their election; which alteration was made, on account of a rebellion in Spain. Y.R. 599. 153.—The ambassadors, sent by the senate, to determine a dispute between Masinissa and the Carthaginians, return, and report that the Carthaginians had collected a vast quantity of materials for ship-building. Several prætors, accused of extortion, by different provinces, condemned and punished.
Y. R. 600. 152.—A census held; the number of citizens amounts to three hundred and twenty-four thousand. A third Punic war; causes of it. Marcus Porcius Cato urges a declaration of war against the Carthaginians, on account of their employing a vast body of Numidian troops under the command of Arcobarzanes, destined, they allege, to act against Masinissa, but he asserts, against the Romans. Publius Scipio Nasica being of a contrary opinion, it is resolved to send ambassadors to Carthage, to inquire into the truth of the affair. The Carthaginian senate being reproved for levying forces, and preparing materials for ship-building, contrary to treaty, declare themselves ready to make peace with Masinissa, upon condition of his giving up the lands in dispute. But Gisgo, son of Hamilcar, a man of a seditious disposition, at that time chief magistrate, notwithstanding the determination of the senate to abide by the decision of the ambassadors, urges the Carthaginians to war against the Romans, in such strong terms, that the ambassadors are obliged to save themselves by flight, from personal violence. On this being told at Rome, the senate becomes more highly incensed against them. Cato, being poor, celebrates the funeral of his son, who died in the office of prætor, at a very small expense. Andriscus, an impostor, pretending to be the son of Perseus, King of Macedonia, sent to Rome. Marcus Æmilius Lepidus, who had been six times declared chief of the senate, on his death-bed, gives strict orders to his sons that he shall be carried out to burial, on a couch, without the usual ornaments of purple and fine linen, and that there shall not be expended on his funeral more than ten pieces of brass: alleging that the funerals of the most distinguished men, used, formerly, to be decorated by trains of images, and not by sumptuous expense. An inquiry instituted concerning poisoning. Publicia and Licinia, women of high rank, accused of the murder of their husbands, tried before the prætor and executed. Y.R. 601. 151.—Gulussa, son of Masinissa, gives information that troops were levying, and a fleet fitting out at Carthage, and that there could be no doubt of their intending war. Cato urging a declaration of war, and Nasica dissuading it, entreating the senate to do nothing rashly; it is resolved to send ten ambassadors to inquire into the affair. The consuls, Lucius, Licinius Lucullus and Aulus Postumius Albinus, carrying on the levying of soldiers with inflexible severity, committed to prison by the tribunes of the people, for not, at their entreaty, sparing some of their friends. The ill success of the war in Spain, having so discouraged the citizens of Rome, that none could be found to undertake any military command, or office, Publius Cornelius Æmilianus comes forward, and offers to undertake any office whatever, which it should be thought proper to call him to: roused by his example, the whole body of the people make the like offer. It was thought that the consul, Claudius Marcellus, had reduced all the states of Celtiberia to a state of tranquillity; nevertheless, his successor, Lucius Lucullus, is engaged in war with the Vaccæans, Cantabrians, and other nations of Spaniards, hitherto unknown; all of which he subdues. In this war, Publius Cornelius Africanus Scipio Æmilianus, the son of Lucius Paullus, and nephew by adoption, of Africanus, a military tribune, slays a barbarian who had challenged him, and distinguishes himself highly at the siege of Intercatia, being the first who scaled the wall. The prætor, Servius Sulpicius Galba, fights the Lusitanians unsuccessfully. The ambassadors, returning from Africa, together with some Carthaginian deputies, and Galussa, report that they found an army and a fleet ready for service at Carthage. The matter taken into consideration by the senate. Cato, and other principal senators, urge, that an army should be immediately sent over into Africa; but Cornelius Nasica declaring that he, yet, saw no just cause for war, it was resolved that the same should not be declared, provided the Carthaginians would burn their fleet, and disband their troops; but if not, that then the next succeeding consuls should propose the question of war. A theatre which the censors had contracted for, being built, Cornelius Nasica moves, and carries the question, that it be pulled down, as being not only useless, but injurious to the morals of the people: the people, therefore, continue to behold the public shows standing. Masinissa, now ninety-two years old, vanquishes the Carthaginians, who had made war against him unjustly, and contrary to treaty. By this infraction of the treaty, they also involve themselves in a war with Rome.
Y. R. 602. 150.—The third Punic war; which was ended within five years after it began. Marcus Porcius Cato, deemed the wisest man in the state, and Scipio Nasica, adjudged by the senate to be the best, differ in opinion, and contend sharply: Cato urging the demolition of Carthage; Nasica arguing against it. It was, however, resolved, that war should be declared against the Carthaginians, for having fitted out a fleet contrary to treaty, and led forth an army beyond the boundaries of their state; for having committed hostilities against Masinissa, the friend and ally of the Romans; and refusing to admit Galussa, who accompanied the ambassadors into their city. Y.R. 603. 149.—Before any forces were embarked, ambassadors came from Utica, and surrendered their state and property to the Romans: a circumstance highly pleasing to the Roman senate, and at the same time, a grievous mortification to the Carthaginians, Games exhibited at Tarentum, in honour of Pluto, according to directions found in the Sibylline books. The Carthaginians send thirty ambassadors to Rome, to make a tender of submission; but the opinion of Cato, that the consuls should be ordered to proceed immediately to the war, prevails. These, passing over into Africa, receive three hundred hostages, and take possession of all the arms and warlike stores to be found in Carthage; they then, by authority of the senate, command them to build themselves a new city, at least ten miles from the sea. Roused by this indignant treatment, the Carthaginians resolve to have recourse to arms. Lucius Marcius and Marcus Manlius, consuls, lay siege to Carthage. During this siege, two military tribunes force their way in, with their troops, in a place which they observed to be negligently guarded, they are set upon and beaten by the townsmen, but rescued afterwards by Scipio Africanus, who also, with a few horsemen, relieves a Roman fort, attacked by the enemy, in the night. He also repulsed the Carthaginians, who sallied forth, in great force, to attack the camp. When, afterwards, one of the consuls (the other being gone to Rome, to hold the elections) observing, that the siege of Carthage was not going on prosperously, proposed to attack Hasdrubal, who had drawn up his forces in a narrow pass, he (Scipio) first advised him not to venture upon an engagement on ground so very disadvantageous: and then, his advice being over-ruled by those who were envious, both of his prudence and valour, he, himself, rushes into the pass; and when, as he foresaw the Romans were routed and put to flight, he returns with a very small body of horse, rescues his friends, and brings them off in safety. Which valiant action, Cato, although much more inclined to censure than to praise, extols in the senate in very magnificent terms: saying, that all the others, who were fighting in Africa, were but mere shadows; Scipio was life itself: and such was the favour he gained among his fellow citizens, that at the ensuing election, the greater number of the tribes voted for electing him consul, although he was under the legal age. Lucius Scribonius, tribune of the people, proposes a law, that the Lusitanians, who, notwithstanding they had surrendered upon the faith of the Roman people, had been sold in Gaul, by Servius Galba, should be restored to liberty; which Marcus Cato supports with great zeal, as may be seen by his oration, which is still extant, being published in his annals. Quintus Fulvius Nobilior, although Cato had before handled him with great severity, yet takes up the cause of Galba. Galba himself too, apprehensive of being condemned, taking up in his arms his own two infant children, and the son of Sulpicius Gallus, speaks in his own behalf, in such a piteous strain of supplication, that the question is carried in his favour. One Andriscus, a man of the meanest extraction, having given himself out to be the son of Perseus, and changed his name to Philip, flies from Rome, whither Demetrius had sent him, on account of this audacious forgery; many people believing his fabulous account of himself to be true, gather round him, and enable him to raise an army; at the head of which, partly by force, and partly by the willing submission of the people, he acquires the possession of all Macedonia. The story which he propagated was this: that he was the son of Perseus by a harlot; that he had been delivered to a certain Cretan woman, to be taken care of, and brought up; in order that whatever might be the event of the war, in which the king was, at that time, engaged with the Romans, some one, at least, of the royal progeny might remain. That, upon the death of Perseus, he was educated at Adramittium, until he was twelve years old; ignorant, all along, of his real parentage, and always supposing himself to be the son of the person who brought him up. That, at length, this person being ill, and like to die, discovered to him the secret of his birth; informing him, at the same time, of a certain writing, sealed with the royal signet of Perseus, which had been entrusted to his supposed mother, to keep and give to him, when he should attain to manhood: but with the strictest injunctions that the affair should be kept a profound secret, until the arrival of that period. That, when the time came, the writing was delivered to him; in which was indicated a very considerable treasure, left him by his father. That the woman, after informing him fully of the circumstance of his birth, earnestly besought him to quit that part of the country, before the affair should come to the knowledge of Eumenes, who, being the determined enemy of his father Perseus, would, most assuredly, procure him to be murdered. That, fearful of being assassinated, and in hopes also of receiving some assistance from Demetrius, he had gone into Syria; and had there first ventured openly to declare who he was.
Y. R. 604. 148.—The aforesaid impostor, assuming the name of Philip, about to invade, and forcibly possess himself of Thessaly, is prevented by the Roman ambassadors, with the aid of the Achæans. Prusias, King of Bithinia, a man abandoned to the practice of every vice, murdered by his son Nicomedes, assisted by Attalus, King of Pergamus. He had another son, who in the place of teeth in his upper jaw, had one entire bone. The Romans send an embassy to negotiate peace between Nicomedes and Prusias; it happening that one of the ambassadors had his head deformed by scars, from many wounds; another was lame from gout, and the third was of weak understanding: Cato said, it was an embassy without head, feet, or heart. The King of Syria was of the royal race of Perseus; but being, like Prusias, addicted to every vicious pursuit, and passing his whole time in tippling-houses, brothels, and such like places of infamous resort, Ammonius rules in his stead; and puts to death all the King’s friends, together with his Queen Laodice, and Antigonus, the son of Demetrius. Masinissa, King of Numidia, a man of a character truly illustrious, dies, aged upwards of ninety years; he retained the vigour of youth even to his last years; and begot a son at the age of eighty-six. Publius Scipio Æmilianus, being authorised by his will so to do, divides his kingdom into three parts, and allots their respective portions of it, to his three sons, Micipsa, Gulussa and Manastabales. Scipio persuades Phamias, general of the Carthaginian cavalry, under Himilco, a man highly looked up to and relied upon by the Carthaginians, to revolt to the Romans, with the troops under his command. Claudius Marcellus, one of the three ambassadors sent to Masinissa, lost in a storm. Hasdrubal, nephew of Masinissa, put to death by the Carthaginians, who suspected him of treasonable views, on account of his affinity to Gulussa, now the friend of the Romans. Scipio Æmilianus, when a candidate for the ædileship, is, by the people, elected consul, though under age: a violent contest arises upon this, the people supporting, the nobles opposing, his election; which, at length, terminates in his favour. Marcus Manlius takes several citizens in the neighbourhood of Carthage. The impostor Philip, having slain the prætor Publius Juventius, and vanquished his army, is, himself, afterwards subdued and taken prisoner by Quintus Cæcilius, who recovers Macedonia.
Y. R. 605. 147.—Carthage comprehended in a circuit of twenty-three miles, besieged with immense exertion, and gradually taken; first, by Mancinus, acting as lieutenant-general; and afterwards by Scipio, consul, to whom Africa was voted as his province, without casting lots. The Carthaginians having constructed a new mole, (the old one being destroyed by Scipio,) and equipped, secretly, in an extraordinary short space of time, a considerable fleet, engage, unsuccessfully, in a sea fight. Hasdrubal, with his army, notwithstanding he had taken post in a place of extremely difficult approach, cut off by Scipio: who, at length, masters the city, in the seven hundredth year after its foundation. Y.R. 606. 146.—The greater part of the spoil returned to the Sicilians, from whom it had been taken. During the destruction of the city, when Hasdrubal had given himself up into Scipio’s hands, his wife, who, a few days before, had not been able to prevail upon him to surrender to the conqueror, casts herself, with her two children, from a tower, into the flames of the burning city. Scipio, following the example of his father, Æmilius Paullus, the conqueror of Macedonia, celebrates solemn games; during which, he exposes the deserters and fugitives to wild beasts. War declared against the Achæans, who had forcibly driven away the Roman ambassadors, sent to Corinth to separate the cities, under the dominion of Philip, from the Achæan council.
Quintus Cæcilius Metellus engages and conquers the Achæans, together with the Bœotians and Chalcidians. Critolaus, their unsuccessful general, poisons himself; in whose room, the Achæans choose Diæus, the chief promoter of the insurrection, general; he, also, is conquered, in an engagement near Isthmos, and all Achaia reduced; Corinth demolished, by order of the senate, because violence had been done there to the ambassadors. Thebes, also, and Chalcis, for having furnished aid to the Achæans, destroyed. Extraordinary moderation of Mummius, who, having all the vast wealth, and splendid ornaments, of the opulent city of Corinth, in his power, took none of it. Quintus Cæcilius Metellus triumphs, on account of his victory over Andriscus; likewise, Publius Cornelius Scipio, for the conquest of Carthage and Hasdrubal. Y.R. 607. 145.—Viriathus, in Spain, from a shepherd becomes a hunter, then leader of a band of robbers; afterwards, general of a powerful army, with which, he possesses himself of all Lusitania, having vanquished the prætor, Petillius, and put his army to flight. Caius Plautius, prætor, sent against him; is equally unsuccessful. So successful was his career, that, at length, it was deemed necessary to send a consul, at the head of a consular army, against him. Commotions in Syria, and wars between the kings in those parts. Alexander, a man utterly unknown, and of an unknown race, murders Demetrius, and usurps the crown in Syria: he is afterwards slain by Demetrius, (son of the before-mentioned Demetrius,) aided by Ptolemy, King of Egypt, whose daughter he had married. Ptolemy grievously wounded in the head; dies of the operations intended for the cure of his wounds; is succeeded by his younger brother, Ptolemy, King of Cyrene. Demetrius, by his cruelty towards his subjects, provokes an insurrection: vanquished by Diodotus, and flies to Seleucia. Diodotus claims the crown for Alexander, a child scarcely two years old. Splendid triumph of Lucius Mummius over the Achæans.
Y. R. 608. 144.—Appius Claudius, consul, subdues the Salacians, a nation of the Alps. Another impostor, assuming the name of Philip, makes his appearance in Macedonia; vanquished by the quæstor, Lucius Tremellius. Y.R. 609. 143.—Quintus Cæcilius Metellus, proconsul, defeats the Celtiberians. Y.R. 610. 142.—Quintus Fabius, proconsul, takes many cities of Lusitania, and recovers the greatest part of that country. Caius Julius, a senator, writes the Roman history, in the Greek language.
Y. R. 611. 141.—Quintus Pompeius, consul, subdues the Termestines, in Spain; makes peace with them, and also with the Numantians, The census held; the number of citizens amounts to three hundred and twenty-eight thousand three hundred and forty-two. Ambassadors from Macedonia complain that Decius Junius Silanus, the prætor, had extorted money from that province; the senate, at his desire, refer the inquiry into the matter to Titus Manlius Torquatus, father of Silanus; having finished the inquiry, in his own house, he pronounces his son guilty, and disclaims him; and would not, afterwards, attend his funeral, when he put an end to his life, by hanging himself; but continued to sit at home, and give audience to those who consulted him, as if nothing, which concerned him, had happened. Y.R. 612. 140.—Quintus Fabius, proconsul, having successfully terminated the war, stains the honour of his victories, by making peace with Viriathus, upon terms of equality. Y.R. 613. 139.—Servilius Cæpio procures the death of Viriathus, by traitors; he is much bewailed, and interred with distinguished funeral honours by his army. He was in truth, a great man, and a valiant general; and in the fourteen years during which he carried on war with the Romans, had very frequently vanquished their armies.
Y. R. 614. 138.—While Publius Cornelius Nasica (who was nicknamed Serapio, by the plebeian tribune Curiatius, a man of humour) and Decius Junius Brutus, the consuls were holding the levies, an act of public justice was done, in the sight of the whole body of the young men, then assembled, which afforded a very useful example: Caius Matienus was accused, before the tribunes, of deserting from the army in Spain: being found guilty, he was scourged under the gallows, and sold as a slave, for a very small piece of money.* The tribunes of the people claimed the privilege of exempting from service any ten soldiers, whom they thought proper; which being refused by the consuls, they commit them to prison. Junius Brutus, consul in Spain, allots lands, and a town, called Valentia, to the soldiers who had served under Viriathus. Marcus Popillius, having made peace with the Numantines, which the senate refused to ratify, is routed, and his whole army put to flight. Y.R. 615. 137.—While Caius Hostilius Mancinus, the consul, was sacrificing, the holy chickens escape from their coop, and fly away; afterwards, as he was getting on board his ship, to sail for Spain, a voice is heard, crying out, “Go not, Mancinus, go not.” The event afterwards proves these omens to have been inauspicious: for, being vanquished by the Numantines, and driven out of his camp, having no prospect of preserving his army, he made a disgraceful peace, which the senate likewise refused to ratify. Upon this occasion, thirty thousand Romans were beaten by only four thousand Numantines. Decius Junius Brutus subdues all Lusitania, as far as the western sea; his soldiers refusing to pass the river Oblivion, he snatches the standard and carries it over; whereupon, they follow him. The son of Alexander, King of Syria, traitorously murdered by his guardian Diodotus, surnamed Tryphon: his physicians were bribed to give out that he had a stone in his bladder; in pretending to cut him for which, they killed him
Y. R. 616. 136.—Decius Junius Brutus fights the Gallæcians, with success, in the Farther Spain: Marcus Æmilius Lepidus engages the Vaccæans, unsuccessfully, and is as unfortunate as Mancinus was against the Numantines. The Romans, to absolve themselves of the guilt of breach of treaty, order Mancinus, who made the peace with the Numantines, to be delivered up to that people; but they refuse to receive him. Y.R. 617 135.—The lustrum closed by the censors: the number of citizens, three hundred and twenty-three thousand. Fulvius Flaccus, consul, subdues the Vardeans in Illyria. Marcus Cosconius, prætor, fights the Scordiscians, in Thrace, and conquers them. The war in Numantia, owing to the ill conduct of the generals, still continuing, the senate and people voluntarily confer the consulship upon Scipio Africanus: on which occasion the law, which prohibits any man from being elected consul a second time, is dispensed with. Y.R. 618. 134.—An insurrection of the slaves in Sicily; which, the prætor not being able to quell it, is committed to the care of the consul Caius Fulvius. Eunus, a slave, a Syrian by birth, was the author of this war; by gathering a large body of the rustic slaves, and breaking open the prisons, he raised a considerable army: Cleon, also, another slave, having assembled seventy thousand slaves, joins him; and they, several times, engage the Roman forces in those parts.
Y. R. 619. 133.—Scipio Africanus lays siege to Numantia. Reduces to strict discipline the army, now exceedingly licentious, being corrupted by luxurious indulgence: this he effects by cutting off every kind of pleasurable gratification; driving away the prostitutes who followed the camp, to the number of two thousand; keeping the soldiers to hard labour, and compelling every man to bear on his shoulders provisions for thirty days, besides seven stakes, for their fortifications; whenever he observed any of them sinking under the burden, he used to cry out, “When you are able to defend yourself with your sword, then shall you be eased from your load of timber.” He made them carry shields of immense size and weight; and not unfrequently ridiculed them, for being more expert in managing their shields, for the defence of their own bodies, than their swords for the annoyance of those of the enemy. When he found any man absent from his post, he ordered him to be flogged, with vine twigs, if a Roman; if a foreigner, with rods. He sold all the beasts of burden, that the soldiers might be forced to carry their own baggage. He engaged in frequent skirmishes with the enemy, with good success. The Vaccæans, being reduced to extremity, first, put their wives and children to death, and then slew themselves. Antiochus, King of Syria, having sent him some very magnificent presents, Scipio, contrary to the practice of other commanders, who used to conceal these royal gifts, received them openly, and ordered the quæstor to place the whole to the public account; and promised, out of them, to reward those who should most distinguish themselves by their valour. When Numantia was closely invested on all sides, he gave orders, that those who came out, in search of victuals, should not be killed: saying, that the more numerous the inhabitants were, the sooner would their provisions be consumed.
Titus Sempronius Gracchus, plebeian tribune, having proposed an Agrarian law, (contrary to the sense of the senate, and the equestrian order,) that no person should hold more than five hundred acres of the public lands, wrought himself up to such a degree of passion, that he deprived his colleague, Marcus Octavius, of his authority, and appointed himself, together with his brother Caius, and his father in-law, Appius Claudius, commissioners for dividing the lands. He also proposed another Agrarian law; that the same commissioners should be authorised to determine, which was public, and which private, land; and to settle the extent of each. When, afterwards, it appeared that there was not land sufficient, to be divided, according to his scheme, and that he had excited the hopes of the people, by the expectations held out to them, he declared that he would propose a law, that all those, who, by the law of Sempronius, were entitled to such grant, should be paid in money, out of the bequest of Attalus, King of Pergamus. The senate was roused to indignation, at such repeated ill-treatment; and chiefly, Publius Mucius the consul, who, having delivered a severe invective against Gracchus, in the senate, was seized by him, dragged before the people, and accused; nevertheless, he continued to inveigh against him from the rostrum. Gracchus endeavouring to procure his re-election, as tribune, slain, in the Capitol, by the chief nobles, by the advice of Publius Cornelius Nasica: is thrown, without the rites of scpulture, into the river, together with some others, who fell in the tumult. Various engagements, with various success, against the slaves in Sicily.
The Numantines, reduced to the extremity of distress, by famine, put themselves to death. Scipio, having taken the city, destroys it, and triumphs, in the fourteenth year after the destruction of Carthage. Y.R. 620. 132.—The consul, Publius Rupilius, puts an end to the war with the slaves in Sicily, Aristonicus, the son of King Eumenes, invades and seizes Asia; which having been bequeathed to the Roman people, by Attalus, ought to be free. The consul, Publius Licinius Crassus, who was also chief priest, marches against him, out of Italy, (which never before was done,) engages him in battle, is beaten and slain. Marcus Peperna, consul, subdues Aristonicus. Quintus Metellus and Quintus Pomponius, the first plebeians, who were ever, both at one time, elected censors, close the lustrum: the number of citizens amount to three hundred and thirteen thousand eight hundred and twenty-three, besides orphans and widows. Y.R. 621. 131.—Quintus Metellus gives his opinion, that every man should be compelled to marry, in order to increase the population of the state. His speech, upon the occasion, is still extant, and so exactly does it apply to the present times, that Augustus Cæsar read it, in the senate, upon occasion of his proposing to remove from marriage all restraints, on account of difference of rank. Caius Atinius Labeo, tribune of the people, orders the censor Quintus Metellus, to be thrown from the Tarpeian rock, for striking him out of the list of the senate; but the other tribunes interfere and protect him. Y.R. 622. 130.—Quintus Carbo, plebeian tribune, proposes a law, that the people might have the power of re-electing the same tribune as often as they please: Publius Africanus, argues against the proposition, in a speech of great energy, in which he asserts that Tiberius Gracchus was justly put to death. Caius Gracchus supports the proposed law: but Scipio prevails. War between Antiochus King of Syria, and Phraates King of Parthia. Commotions in Egypt. Ptolemy, surnamed Evergetes, detested by his subjects for his cruelty, they set his palace on fire: he escapes to Cyprus. The people confer the kingdom upon his sister Cleopatra, who had been his wife, but he had divorced her, having first ravished, and then married her daughter. Incensed at his dethronement, he murders the son he had by her, and sends to her his head and limbs. Y.R. 623. 129.—Seditions excited by Fulvius Flaccus, Caius Gracchus, and Caius Carbo, commissioners for carrying into execution the Agrarian law: these are opposed by Publius Scipio Africanus, who going home at night, in perfect health, is found dead in his chamber the next morning. His wife Sempronia, sister of the Gracchuses, with whom Scipio was at enmity, is strongly suspected of having given him poison: no inquiry, however, is made into the matter. Upon his death, the popular seditions blaze out with great fury. Caius Sempronius, the consul, fights the Iapidæ, at first, unsuccessfully; but soon repairs all his losses, by a signal victory, gained, chiefly by Junius Brutus, the conqueror of Lusitania.
Y. R. 624. 128.—A rebellion in Sardinia; quelled by the consul, Lucius Aurelius. Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, who, first, subdued the Transalpine Ligurians, sent to assist the Massilians, against the Salvian Gauls, who were ravaging their country. Lucius Opimius, prætor, subdues the revolted Fregellans, and destroys their town, Fregellæ. Y.R. 625. 127.—An extraordinary multitude of locusts, in Africa, killed and lying dead on the ground, produce a pestilence. Y.R. 626. 126.—The censors close the lustrum: the number of the citizens, three hundred and ninety thousand seven hundred and thirty-six. Y.R. 627. 125.—Caius Gracchus, plebeian tribune, the brother of Tiberius, yet professing more eloquence than him, carries some very dangerous laws; among others, one, respecting corn, that the people shall be supplied with the article in the market, at the rate of half and a third of an as: also an Agrarian law, the same as his brothers: and a third, intended to corrupt the equestrian order, who, at that time, were subservient, in all their opinions, to the senate: it was, that six hundred of them should be admitted of their house. At that time the senate consisted of only three hundred members: the operation of the law was to throw all the power into the hands of this order, by making them double in number to the ancient senators. His office being continued to him another year, he causes several colonies to be led out into various parts of Italy; and one, which he conducted himself, to be established on the soil where Carthage, now demolished, formerly stood. Y.R. 628. 124.—Successful expedition of the consul Quintus Metellus, against the Balearians, called by the Greeks, Gymnesians, because they go naked all the summer. They are called Balearians, from their skill in throwing weapons: or, as some will have it, from Baleus, the companion of Hercules, who left him there behind him, when he sailed to Geryon. Y.R. 629. 123.—Commotions in Syria, in which Cleopatra murders her husband Demetrius; and also his son Seleucus, for assuming the crown, without her consent, upon his father’s death.
Y. R. 630. 122.—Caius Sextius, proconsul, having subdued the nation of the Salyans, founds a colony, which he names Aquæ Sextiæ, after his own name, and on account of the plenty of water, which he found there, flowing both from hot and cold springs. Y.R. 631. 121.—Cneius Domitius, proconsul, fights the Allobrogians, with success, at the town of Vindalium. The cause of this war was, their receiving, and furnishing with all the aid in their power, Teutomalius, the King of the Salyans, who had fled to them; and ravaging the lands of the Æduans, who were in alliance with the people of Rome. Y.R. 632. 120.—Caius Gracchus, upon the expiration of his seditious tribunate, seizes upon the Aventine mount, with a considerable number of armed followers; Lucius Opimius, by a decree of the senate, arms the people, drives him from thence, and puts him to death; together with Fulvius Flaccus, a man of consular rank, associated with him. Quintus Fabius Maximus, the consul, nephew of Paullus, gains a battle against the Allobrogians, and Bituitus King of the Arvernians; in which one thousand one hundred and twenty of the army of Bituitus, are slain. Y.R. 633. 119.—The king comes to Rome to make satisfaction to the senate, and is sent prisoner to Alba, there to be kept in custody, it not being deemed safe to send him back to Gaul. A decree, also, passes, that his son Congentiatus should be taken, and sent to Rome. Submission of the Allobrogians. Lucius Opimius brought to trial, before the people, for committing to prison some citizens who had not been condemned; acquitted.
Y. R. 634. 118.—The consul Quintus Marcius subdues the Stonians, an Alpine nation. Micipsa, King of Numidia, dying, bequeaths his kingdom to his three sons, Atherbal, Hiempsal, and Jugurtha, his nephew, whom he had adopted. Y.R. 635. 117.—Metellus subdues the Dalmatians. Jugurtha goes to war with his brother Hiempsal; vanquishes and puts him to death: drives Atherbal from his kingdom; who is restored by the senate. Y.R. 636. 116.—Lucius Cæcilius Metellus, and Cneius Domitius Ahenobarbus, censors, expel thirty-two senators. Y.R. 637. 115.—Disturbances in Syria.
Y. R. 638. 114.—Caius Porcius, the consul, combats the Scordiscians, in Thrace, unsuccessfully. The lustrum closed by the censors: the number of the citizens amounts to three hundred and ninety-four thousand three hundred and thirty-six. Æmilia, Licinia, and Marcio, vestals, found guilty of incest. Y.R. 639. 113.—The Cimbrians, a wandering people, come into Illyria, where they fight with, and defeat, the army of the consul Papirius Carbo. Y.R. 640. 112.—The consul Livius Drusus, makes war upon the Scordiscians, a people descended from the Gauls: vanquishes them, and gains great honour.
Jugurtha attacks Atherbal, besieges him in Cirtha, and puts him to death, contrary to the express commands of the senate. Y.R. 641. 111.—War is declared against him, which being committed to the conduct of the consul, Calpurnius Bestia, he makes peace with Jugurtha, without authority from the senate and people. Y.R. 642. 110.—Jugurtha, called upon to declare who were his advisers, comes to Rome upon the faith of a safe-conduct; he is supposed to have bribed many of the principal senators. He murders Massiva, who sought, through the hatred which he saw the Romans bore to Jugurtha, to procure his kingdom for himself. Being ordered to stand his trial, he escapes; and is reported to have said, on going away, “O venal city! doomed to quick perdition, could but a purchaser be found!” Aulus Postumius, having unsuccessfully fought Jugurtha, adds to his disgrace, by making an ignominious peace with him; which the senate refuses to ratify.
Y. R. 643. 109.—Quintus Cæcilius Metellus, consul, defeats Jugurtha, in two battles, and ravages all Numidia. Marcus Junius Silanus, consul, combats the Cimbrians, unsuccessfully. The Cimbrian ambassadors petition the senate for a settlement and lands; are refused. Y.R. 644. 108.—Marcus Minucius, consul, vanquishes the Thracians. Cassius, the consul, with his army, cut off by the Tigurine Gauls, in the country of the Helvetians. The soldiers, who survived that unfortunate action, condition for their lives, by giving hostages, and agreeing to deliver up half their property.
Y. R. 645. 107.—Jugurtha, driven out of Numidia by Caius Marius, receives aid from Bocchus, King of the Moors. Y.R. 646. 106.—Bocchus, having lost a battle, and being unwilling to carry on the war any longer, delivers up Jugurtha, in chains, to Marius. In this action, Lucius Cornelius Sylla, quæstor under Marius, most highly distinguishes himself.
Y. R. 647. 105.—Marcus Aurelius Scaurus, lieutenant-general under the consul, taken prisoner by the Cimbrians, his army being routed: slain by Boiorix, for saying, in their council, when they talked of invading Italy, that the Romans were not to be conquered. Cneius Mallius, consul, and Quintus Servilius Cæpio, proconsul, taken prisoners, by the same enemy who defeated their armies and drove them from both their camps, with the loss of eighty thousand men, and forty thousand sutlers, and other followers of the camp. The goods of Cæpio, whose rashness was the cause of this misfortune, sold by auction, by order of the people; being the first person whose effects were confiscated, since the dethroning of King Tarquin. Y.R. 648. 104.—Jugurtha, and his two sons, led in triumph, before the chariot of Caius Marius; put to death in prison. Marius enters the senate, in his triumphal habit; the first person that ever did so: on account of the apprehensions entertained of a Cimbrian war, he is continued in the consulship for several years, being elected a second, and a third time, in his absence: dissembling his views, he attains the consulship a fourth time. The Cimbrians, having ravaged all the country between the Rhine and the Pyrenees, pass into Spain; where having committed the like depredations, they are at length put to flight by the Celtiberians: returning into Gaul, they join the Teutons, a warlike people.
Y. R. 649. 103.—Marcus Antonius, prætor, attacks the pirates, and chaces them into Cilicia. The consul Caius Marius, attacked by the Teutons and Ambrogians, with their utmost force, defends himself; and afterwards in two battles, in the neighbourhood of Aquæ Sextia, utterly defeats them, with the loss, it is said, of two hundred thousand killed, and ninety thousand taken prisoners. Marius elected consul, in his absence, a fifth time. A triumph offered to him which he defers, until he shall have subdued the Cimbrians also. Y.R. 650. 102.—The Cimbrians drive Quintus Catulus, the proconsul, from the Alps, where he had possessed himself of the narrow passes, and erected a castle to command the river Athesis, which he abandons. They pass into Italy. Catulus and Marius, having effected a junction of their forces, fight and vanquish them: in this battle, we are told, that there fell, one hundred and forty thousand of the enemy, and that sixty thousand were taken. Marius, on his return to Rome, is received with the highest honours, by the whole body of the citizens; two triumphs offered him, but he contents himself with one. The principal men in the state, who were, for some time, extremely envious that such distinctions should be conferred upon a new man, now acknowledge him to have saved the commonwealth. Y.R. 651. 101.—Publicius Malleolus executed for the murder of his mother; being the first that ever was sown up in a sack and cast into the sea. The sacred shields are said to have shaken, with considerable noise, previous to the conclusion of the Cimbrian war. Wars between the kings of Syria.
Lucius Apuleius Saturninus, aided by Marius,—the soldiers having killed his competitor, Aulus Nonius,—forcibly elected prætor; exercises his office, with a violence equal to that by which he obtained it. Having procured an Agrarian law, he summons Metellus Numidicus to stand his trial before the people, for refusing to swear to the observance of it. Metellus, notwithstanding he enjoyed the protection of all the best men in the state, yet, being unwilling to furnish matter of dispute, retires into voluntary exile, to Rhodes: there he passed his time, entirely in study, and in receiving the visits of men of eminent character. Y.R. 652. 100.—On his departure, Caius Marius, who was, in fact, the chief promoter of the sedition, and who had now purchased a fourth consulship, by openly distributing money among the tribes, pronounced sentence of banishment upon him. The same Saturninus murders Caius Memmius, who was a candidate for the consulship, fearing lest he might have, in him, a strenuous opposer of his evil actions. The senate were at length roused by such repeated acts of enormity, and Marius (a man of a very versatile character, and always desirous of being on the strong side, if he could any way discover it) joined them. In consequence of this, Saturninus, together with Glaucias, the prætor, and some others of his mad associates, is attacked by force of arms, and slain by one Rabirius. Y.R. 653. 99.—Quintus Cæcilius Metellus, honourably recalled from banishment. Marcus Aquilius, proconsul, puts an end to the war of the slaves in Sylly.
Y. R. 654. 98.—Marcus Aquillius, accused of extortion, refuses to implore the favour of the judges appointed to try him; whereupon Marcus Antonius, his advocate, cuts open his vest, and show the scars of his honourable wounds, received in front; upon sight of which he is immediately acquitted. This fact is related upon the authority of Cicero, only. Y.R. 655. 97.—Successful expedition of Didius, the proconsul, against the Celtiberians. Y.R. 656. 96.—Ptolemy, King of Cyrene, dies; bequeaths his kingdom to the Roman people: the senate decrees that the cities shall be free. Y.R. 657. 95.—Ariobarzanes restored to his kingdom of Cappadocia, by Lucius Sylla. Ambassadors from Arsaces, King of Parthia, come to Sylla, to solicit the friendship of the Roman people. Y.R. 658. 94.—Publius Rutilius, a man of the strictest integrity, having exerted himself, when lieutenant-general under Quintus Mucius, proconsul, to protect the people of Asia from the oppression of the revenue farmers, becomes odious, on that account, to the equestrian order, who had the cognisance of affairs of that nature; is brought to trial, and condemned to exile. Y.R. 659. 93.—Caius Geminius, prætor, unfortunate in an expedition against the Thracians. Y.R. 660. 92.—The senate, disgusted by the many abuses committed by the equestrian order in the exercise of their jurisdiction, endeavour to bring that jurisdiction into their own hands; they are supported by Marcus Livius Drusus, plebeian tribune; who, in order to gain the people, holds out to them the pernicious hope of a pecuniary gratification. Commotions in Syria.
Y. R. 661. 91.—Marcus Livius Drusus, plebeian tribune, in order the more effectually to support the senate in their pretensions, engages the concurrence of the allies, and the Italian states, by promising them the freedom of the city. Aided by them, besides the Agrarian and corn laws, he carries that, also, relative to criminal jurisdiction;—that in capital prosecutions the senate should have equal authority with the equestrian order. It is afterwards found that the freedom which he had promised, cannot be conferred upon them; which incenses and incites them to revolt. An account of their assembling; their combinations and speeches made at their meetings, by the chief men among them. Drusus becomes obnoxious to the senate, on account of his conduct in this affair; is considered as the cause of the social war; is slain in his own house by an unknown hand.
The Italian states, the Picentians, Vestinians, Marcians, Pelignians, Marrucinians, Samnites, and Lucanians, revolt. The war begins with the Picentians. Quintus Servilius, proconsul, murdered, in the town of Asculum, and all the Roman citizens in the place. The whole body of the Roman people assume the military dress. Servius Galba, taken by the Lucanians, escapes, by the assistance of a woman with whom he lodged. Y.R. 662. 90.—Æsernia and Alba, besieged by the Italians. Aid sent to the Romans, by the Latines, and other foreign nations. Military operations, expeditions, and sieges, on both sides.
The consul, Lucius Julius Cæsar, engages the Samnites unsuccessfully. The colony of Nola falls into the hands of the Samnites, together with Lucius Postumius, the prætor, whom they kill. Many different states go over to the enemy. Publius Rutilius slain in an engagement with the Marcians; Caius Marius, his lieutenant-general, fights them with better success. Servius Sulpicius defeats the Pelignians, in a pitched battle. Quintus Cæpio, Rutilius’s lieutenant-general, makes a successful sally against the enemy besieging him: on account of which success, he is made equal in command to Marius; becomes adventurous and rash; is surprised in an ambuscade, his army routed, and himself slain. Successes of the consul Lucius Cæsar against the Samnites; on account of his conquests, the inhabitants of Rome lay aside the military habit. The war carried on with various success. Æsernia, with Marcellus, falls into the hands of the Samnites; Caius Marius vanquishes the Marcians, and kills Herius Asinius, the prætor of the Marrucinians. Caius Cæcilius subdues the rebellious Salvians in Transalpine Gaul.
Cneius Pompeius defeats the Picentians, and lays siege to their town; on account of this victory, the inhabitants of Rome resume their purple robes, other usual ornaments of dress, and distinguishing marks of magistracy. Caius Marius fights an undecided battle with the Marcians. Freedmen’s sons now, for the first time, received into the army. Y.R. 663. 89.—Aulus Plotius subdues the Umbrians, and Lucius Porcius the Marcians, both of whom had revolted. Nicomedes restored to the kingdom of Bithynia, and Ariobarzanes, to that of Cappadocia. Cneius Pompeius, consul, overthrows the Marcians in a pitched battle. The citizens being deeply involved in debt, Aulus Sempronius Asellio, prætor, is murdered in the Forum, by the usurers, in consequence of some judgments given by him in favour of debtors. Incursion of the Thracians, and devastations committed by them against the Macedonians.
Aulus Postumius Albinus, commander of a fleet, upon a suspicion of treachery, murdered by the forces under his command. Lucius Cornelius Sylla, lieutenant-general, defeats the Samnites, and takes two of their camps. The Vestinians surrender to Cneius Pompeius. Lucius Porcius, consul, having been successful in frequent engagements with the Marcians, slain in an attack upon their camp, which circumstance decides the victory in favour of the enemy. Cosconius and Lucius overthrow the Samnites in a battle, slay Marius Egnatius, the most distinguished of their generals, and receive the surrender of many of their towns. Lucius Sylla subdues the Hirpinians, defeats the Samnites in many battles, and receives the submission of several states; in consequence of having performed so many distinguished services, he repairs to Rome to solicit the consulship.
Aulus Gabinius defeats the Lucanians, and takes several of their towns, is slain in an attack on their camp. Sulpicius, a heutenant-general, commits military execution on the Marrucinians, and reduces their whole country. Cneius Pompeius, proconsul, forces the Vestinians and Pelignians to submission. Also the Marcians, defeated in several battles, by Lucius Murena and Cæcilius Pius, sue for peace. Y.R. 664. 88.—Asculum taken by Cneius Pompeius, and the Italians, there, put to death by Mamercus Æmilius. Silo Pompædius, the author of the revolt, killed in an action. Ariobarzanes, King of Cappadocia, and Nicomedes, King of Bithynia, driven out of their kingdoms by Mithridates, King of Pontus. Predatory incursions of the Thracians into Macedonia.
Publius Sulpicius, tribune of the people, (having, with the aid of Caius Marius, carried certain laws: that those who had been banished, should be recalled; that the newly-created citizens, and the sons of freedmen, should be distributed among the tribes, and that Caius Marius should be appointed general against Mithridates,) commits violence against Quintus Pompeius and Lucius Sylla, the consuls, who had opposed these proceedings; kills Quintus, the son of Pompeius, who was married to Sylla’s daughter. Lucius Sylla comes into the town with an army, and fights the faction of Sulpicius and Marius, in the city; he gets the better of them, and drives them out. Twelve of them, among whom are Caius Marius the father, and his son, condemned by the senate. Publius Sulpicius, having concealed himself in a farm house, in the neighbourhood, is discovered by one of his slaves, apprehended, and put to death. The slave being entitled to the reward promised to the discoverer, is made free; and is then thrown from the Tarpeian rock, for having traitorously betrayed his master. Caius Marius, the son, passes over into Africa. Caius Marius, the father, having concealed himself in the marshes of Minturna, is seized by the towns-people: a Gallic slave, sent to despatch him, terrified at his majestic appearance, retires, unable to accomplish the deed; he is sent off to Africa. Lucius Sylla makes a considerable reform in the state; sends forth several colonies. Cneius Pompeius, proconsul, procures the murder of Quintus Pompeius, the consul, who was to have succeeded him in the command of the army. Mithridates, King of Pontus, seizes Bithynia and Cappadocia, having driven thence the Roman general, Aquillius; at the head of a great army enters Phrygia, a province belonging to the Roman people.
Mithridates possesses himself of Asia; throwsinto chains Quintus Oppius, the proconsul, and Aquillius, the general; orders all the Romans in Asia, to be massacred on the same day; attacks the city of Rhodes, the only one which had retained its fidelity to the Roman state. Being overcome in several actions at sea, he retreats. Y.R. 665. 87.—Archelaus, one of the King’s governors, invades Greece; takes Athens. Commotions in several states and islands, some endeavouring to draw over their people to the side of the Romans, others to that of Mithridates.
Lucius Cornelius Sylla, having by force of arms, procured the enacting of several injurious laws, is driven out of the city by his colleague, Cneius Octavius, together with six plebeian tribunes. Thus deposed from his authority, he procures the command of the army under Appius Claudius, by bribery, and makes war upon the city, having called to his assistance, Caius Marius, and other exiles, from Africa. In this war, two brothers, (one of Pompeius’s army, the other of Cinna’s,) encounter each other, without knowing it; the conqueror, upon stripping the other, whom he had slain, discovers who he is, whereupon, in the agony of grief, he kills himself. Having erected a funeral-pile for his brother, is, himself, consumed in the same flames. This war might easily have been suppressed, in the beginning, but is kept up by the artifices of Pompeius, who underhand encouraged both parties, and kept himself aloof, till much of the best blood in the state was spilt: the consul, also, was singularly languid and negligent. Cinna and Marius, with four armies, two of which were commanded by Sertorius and Carbo, lay siege to the city. Marius takes Ostia, which he plunders in the most cruel manner.
The freedom of the city of Rome granted to the Italian states. The Samnites, the only people who continue in arms, join Cinna and Marius, and overthrow Plautius’s army, killing the general. Cinna and Marius seize the Janiculum; repelled by the consul Octavius. Marius plunders Antium, Aricia, and Lanuvium. The principal men in the state, having now no hope of resisting, on account of the cowardice and treachery of their troops and of the commanders, (most of whom had been gained by bribes,) receive Cinna and Marius into the city. As if it were a captured place, they murder great numbers of the inhabitants, and plunder others in the most cruel manner. They put to death the consul Cneius Octavius, and all the chiefs of the opposite party; among others, Marcus Antonius, a man highly distinguished for his eloquence, with Lucius and Caius Cæsar, whose heads they stick up on the rostrum. The younger Crassus slain by a party of horsemen at Fimbria; his father, to escape suffering indignity, kills himself. Cinna and Marius, without even the formality of an election, declare themselves consuls. The first day of their entering upon office, Marius, after having committed very many atrocious acts, dies, on the ides of January; a man, whom, if we compare his vices with his virtues, it will be difficult to pronounce whether he were greater in war, or more wicked in peace. Having preserved his country by his valour, he ruined it afterwards, by every species of artifice and fraud; and finally, destroyed it by open force.
Y. R. 666. 86.—Lucius Sylla besieges Athens, held by Archelaus, under Mithridates, and takes it, after an obstinate resistance: the city, and such of the inhabitants as remained alive, restored to liberty. Magnesia, the only city in Asia, which continued faithful, defended against Mithridates, with great valour. The Thracians invade Macedonia.
Sylla defeats Mithridates in Thessaly, killing one hundred thousand men, and taking their camp. The war being renewed, he entirely routs and destroys the King’s army. Archelaus, with the royal fleet, surrenders to Sylla. Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Cinna’s colleague in the consulship, appointed to succeed Sylla, in the command of his army, becomes so odious to his men, on account of his avarice, that he is slain by Caius Fimbria, his lieutenant-general, a man of consummate audacity, who, thereupon, assumes the command. Several cities in Asia taken by Mithridates, who treats them with extreme cruelty. Invasion of Macedonia by the Thracians.
Y. R. 667. 85.—Caius Fimbrias having defeated several of Mithridates’s generals in Asia, takes the city of Pergamus, and is very near making the King captive. He takes and destroys the city of Ilion, which adhered to Sylla, and recovers a great part of Asia. Sylla overcomes the Thracians in several battles. Lucius Cinna and Cneius Papirius Carbo, having declared themselves consuls, make preparations for war against Sylla; Lucius Valerius Flaceus moves the senate, and, assisted by those who were desirous of peace, prevails, that a deputation should be sent to Sylla, to treat of terms. Cinna, attempting to force his men to embark and go against Sylla, is slain by them. Y.R. 668. 84.—Carbo sole consul. Sylla makes peace, in Asia, with Mithridates, upon condition that the King shall evacuate Asia, Bithynia, and Cappadocia. Fimbria, deserted by his army, which went over to Sylla, puts himself to death.
Sylla answers the deputies, that he would yield to the authority of the senate, upon condition that those who, being banished by Cinna, had fled to him, should be restored: which proposition appears reasonable to the senate, but is opposed and rejected by Carbo, and his faction, who conceive that they may derive more advantage from a continuance of the war. Carbo, requiring hostages from all the towns and colonies of Italy, to bind them more firmly in union against Sylla, is over-ruled by the senate. The right of voting given to the new citizens, by a decree of the senate. Quintus Metellus Pius, who had taken part with the chief men of the state, prepares for war in Africa; is crushed by Caius Fabius, the prætor. Y.R. 669. 83.—Carbo’s faction and the Marian party procure a decree of the senate, that the armies shall every where be disbanded. The sons of freedmen distributed among the thirty-five tribes. Preparations for war against Sylla.
Sylla enters Italy, at the head of an army; his ambassadors ill treated by Norbanus, the consul, whom he afterwards defeats in battle. Having, ineffectually, tried every means with Lucius Scipio, the other consul, to bring about a peace, he prepares to attack his camp, when the consul’s whole army, seduced by some of his soldiers, who had insinuated themselves among them, desert to him in a body. Having Scipio in his power, he sets him free, when he might have killed him. Cneius Pompeius, the son of Pompeius who took Asculum, raises an army of volunteers, and goes over to Sylla, with three legions: also, the whole body of the nobility quit the city, and join his camp. Sundry actions in different parts of Italy.
Y. R. 670. 82.—Caius Marius, son of Caius Marius, made consul, by force, before he was twenty years old. Caius Fabius burned alive in his tent, in Africa, for his avarice and extortion. Lucius Philippus, Sylla’s lieutenant-general, having overthrown and killed the prætor Quintus Antonius, takes Sardinia. Sylla, in order to conciliate the different Italian states, makes a league with them, contracting, not to deprive them of the city, and the right of voting lately conferred upon them. So confident is he of the victory, that he publishes an order, that all suitors, bound by sureties, should make their appearance at Rome, although the city was yet in the possession of the opposite party. Lucius Damasippus, the prætor, having called together the senate, at the desire of Marius, murders what remains of the nobility in the city; among them, Quintus Mucius Scævola, the high priest, endeavouring to make his escape, is killed in the vestibule of the temple of Vesta. The war in Asia, against Mithridates, renewed by Lucius Muræna.
Sylla, having subdued and destroyed Caius Marius’s army, at Sacriportus, lays siege to Præneste, where Marius had taken refuge; recovers Rome, out of the hands of his enemies. Marius attempting to break forth from Præneste, is repelled. Successes of the different commanders under him, every where.
Sylla, having routed and cut off the army of Carbo, at Clusium, Faventia, and Fidentia, drives him entirely out of Italy; fights and overthrows the Samnites, the only nation in Italy which still continued in arms. Having restored the affairs of the commonwealth, he stains his glorious victory with the most atrocious cruelties ever committed; he murders eight thousand men, in the Villa Publica, who had submitted and laid down their arms, and publishes a list of persons proscribed: he fills with blood the city of Rome, and all Italy. All the Prænestines, without exception, although they had laid down their arms, he orders to be murdered: he kills Marius, a senator, by breaking his legs and arms, cutting off his ears, and scooping out his eyes. Caius Marius, besieged at Præneste, by Lucretius Asella, and other partisans of Sylla, endeavours to escape through a mine; failing in which attempt he kills himself.
Lucius Brutus sent, in a fishing-boat, from Cossura, by Cneius Papirius Carbo, to Lilybæum, to discover if Pompeius were there, is surrounded by some of Pompeius’s vessels, whereupon he destroys himself. Cneius Pompeius, sent by the senate to Sicily, with full powers, takes Carbo prisoner, and puts him to death, who dies weeping with womanly weakness. Sylla made dictator; assumes a state never before seen, walking, preceded by twenty-four lictors. He establishes many new regulations in the state; abridges the authority of the plebeian tribunes; takes from them entirely the power of proposing laws; increases the college of priests and augurs to fifteen; fills up the senate from the equestrian order; takes from the descendants of the proscribed persons all power of reclaiming the property of their ancestors, and sells such of their effects as had not been already confiscated, to the amount of one hundred and fifty millions of sesterces. He orders Lucretius Ofella to be put to death in the Forum, for having declared himself a candidate for the consulship, without having previously obtained his permission; at which the people of Rome being offended, he calls a meeting, and tells them, that Ofella was slain by his orders. Y.R. 671. 81.—Cneius Pompeius vanquishes and kills Cneius Domitius, one of the proscribed persons, in Africa; also Hiarbas, King of Numidia, who was making preparations for war. He triumphs over Africa, although not more than twenty-four years of age, and only of equestrian rank, which never happened to any man before. Caius Norbonus, of consular rank, being proscribed, seeks safety at Rhodes, where, being discovered, he kills himself. Mutilus, one of the proscribed, coming privately and in disguise, to the back door of his wife Bastia’s house, she refuses to admit him, telling him that he was a forbidden man, whereupon he stabs himself, and sprinkles the door of his wife’s house with his blood. Sylla takes Nola, a city of the Samnites. Y.R. 672. 80.—He leads forth forty-seven legions, into the conquered lands, and divides them among them. Y.R. 673. 79.—He besieges and takes the town of Volaterra; he demolishes likewise Mitylene, the only town in Asia which continued to adhere to Mithridates.
Y. R. 674. 78.—Death of Sylla; he is buried in the Campus Martius, by a decree of the senate. Marcus Æmilius Lepidus, by attempting to rescind the acts of Sylla, raises new commotions; is driven out of Italy, by his colleague, Quintus Catulus; endeavouring to excite a war in Sardinia, he loses his life. Y.R. 675. 77.—Marcus Brutus, who held possession of Cisalpine Gaul, slain by Cneius Pompeius. Quintus Sertorius, one of the proscribed, raises a formidable war in the Farther Spain. Lucius Manilius, proconsul, and Marcus Domitius, overthrown in a battle by the quæstor Herculeius. Expedition of the proconsul, Publius Servilius, against the Cilicians.
Cneius Pompeius, while yet only of equestrian rank, sent against Sertorius with consular authority. Sertorius takes several cities, and reduces many others to submission. The proconsul, Appius Claudius, conquers the Thracians in several battles. Y.R. 676. 76.—Quintus Metellus, proconsul, cuts off Herculeius, with his whole army.
Cneius Pompeius fights an undecided battle with Sertorius, the wings on each side being reciprocally beaten. Quintus Metellus conquers Sertorius and Peperna, with both their armies; Pompeius, desirous of having a share in this victory, engages in the action, but without success. Sertorius, besieged in Clunia, makes frequent sallies, to the great loss of the besiegers. Y.R. 677. 75.—Successful expedition of Curio, the proconsul, against the Dardanians. Cruelties of Sertorius, against his own partisans, many of whom he puts to death, upon pretended suspicion of treachery.
Publius Servilius, proconsul in Cilicia, subdues the Isaurians, and takes several cities belonging to the pirates. Nicomedes King of Bithynia, dying, bequeaths his dominions to the Roman people, who reduce them into the form of a province. Y.R. 678. 74.—Mithridates establishes a league with Sertorius, and declares war against Rome; makes vast preparations, both of land and sea forces, and seizes Bithynia. Marcus Aurelius Cotta overcome in an action by the King at Chalcedon. Pompeius and Metellus conduct the war against Sertorius, who proves fully equal to them in the military arts. Sertorius raises the siege of Calgurius, and compels them to retreat into different countries. Metellus into the Farther Spain, Pompeius into Gaul.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus, consul, defeats Mithridates, in an action between their cavalry, and makes several successful expeditions; a mutiny among his soldiers, arising from an eager desire of fighting, repressed. Deiotarus, tetrarch of Gallogræcia, kills certain officers of Mithridates, who were stirring up war in Phrygia. Successes of Pompeius, against Sertorius. in Spain.
Y. R. 679. 73.—Caius Curio, proconsul, subdues the Dardanians, in Thrace. Seventy-four gladiators, belonging to Lentulus, make their escape from Capua; having collected a great number of slaves and hired servants, and putting themselves under the command of Crixus and Spartacus, they attack and defeat Claudius Pulcher, a lieutenant-general, and Publius Varenus, prætor. Lucius Lucullus, proconsul, destroys the army of Mithridates, by the sword and famine, at Cyzicus; that King, driven from Bithynia, having suffered much, in several engagements and shipwrecks, is, at length, obliged to fly to Pontus.
Y. R. 680. 72.—Quintus Arrius, the prætor, defeats and kills Crixus, the commander of the fugitive gladiators. Cneius Lentulus, the consul, engages Spartacus unsuccessfully, who also defeats Lucius Gellius, the consul, and Quintus Arrius, the prætor. Sertorius slain, at a feast, in the eighth year of his command, by Manius Antonius, Marcus Peperna, and other conspirators: he was a great general, and being opposed to two commanders, Pompeius and Metellus, was often equal, and sometimes even superior, to both of them; at last, being deserted and betrayed, the command of his force devolved upon Peperna, whom Pompeius took prisoner and slew, and recovered Spain, towards the close of the tenth year of that war. Spartacus gains another victory over Caius Cassius, the proconsul, and Cneius Manlius, the prætor; the charge of that war committed to the prætor, Marcus Crassus.
Y. R. 681. 71.—Marcus Crassus, the prætor, engages with and defeats an army of the fugitives, consisting of Gauls and Germans, killing thirty-five thousand of them, together with their general, Granicus; afterwards, he fights Spartacus, whom he conquers, killing him and forty thousand men. The war against the Cretans, unfortunately undertaken, finishes with the death of the prætor, Marcus Antonius. Marcus Lucullus, proconsul, subdues the Thracians. Lucius Lucullus gives battle to Mithridates, in Pontus; overcomes him, killing sixty thousand men. Y.R. 682. 70.—Marcus Crassus and Cneius Pompeius, elected consuls; the latter being only of the equestrian order, not having yet served the office of quæstor; they restore the tribunitian power. The right of trial transferred to the Roman knights, by the prætor, Lucius Aurelius Cotta. The affairs of Mithridates being reduced to a state of desperation, he flies for refuge to Tigranes, King of Armenia.
A treaty of friendship made by Machares, son of Mithridates, King of Bosphorus, with Lucius Lucullus. Cneius Lentulus and Caius Galius, censors, exercise their office with extreme rigour; they expel sixty-four senators. The lustrum closed: the number of citizens amounts to four hundred and fifty thousand. Y.R. 683. 69.—Lucius Metellus, prætor, is successful against the pirates in Sicily. The temple of Jupiter in the Capitol, having been consumed by fire, rebuilt, and dedicated by Quintus Catulus. Y.R. 684. 68.—Lucius Lucullus defeats Mithridates and Tigranes, with their vast armies, in Armenia, in several battles. The war against the Cretans being committed to the charge of the proconsul, Quintus Metellus, he lays siege to the city of Cydonia. Y.R. 685. 67.—Lucius Triarius, a lieutenant-general of Lucullus, defeated in a battle against Mithridates. Lucullus prevented, by a sedition in his army, from pursuing Mithridates and Tigranes, and completing his victory; the principal authors of the sedition were the Valerian legions, who refused to follow Lucullus, alleging that they had served out their time.
The proconsul, Quintus Metellus, takes Gnossus, Lyctum, Cydonia, and many other cities. Lucius Roscius, plebeian tribune, carries a law, that the fourteen lower seats in the theatre shall be allotted to the Roman knights. Cneius Pompeius, being ordered by a law, which had the sanction of the people, to proceed against the pirates, who had interrupted the commerce of corn, in forty days drives them wholly from the sea; and having finished the war against them in Cilicia, reduces them to submission, and assigns them lands and towns. Successes of Metellus against the Cretans. Letters between Metellus and Pompeius. Metellus complains, that Pompeius had treated him injuriously, in sending a deputy of his own to receive the submission of the Cretans: Pompeius alleges, that he had a right to do so.
Y. R. 686. 66.—Caius Manilius, tribune of the people, to the great dissatisfaction of the nobility, proposes, that the Mithridatic war should be committed to the conduct of Pompeius. His excellent speech upon that occasion. Quintus Metellus, having subdued Crete, imposes laws upon that hitherto free island. Cneius Pompeius, setting out for the war against Mithridates, renews the treaty of friendship with Phraates, King of Parthia; overcomes Mithridates in an engagement between their cavalry. War between Phraates, King of Parthia, and Tigranes, King of Armenia; afterwards, between the father and son Tigranes.
Cneius Pompeius vanquishes Mithridates, in a battle fought in the night, and compels him to fly to Bosphorus; reduces Tigranes to submission, taking from him, Syria, Phœnicia, and Cilicia; restores to him his own kingdom of Armenia. A conspiracy to murder the consuls suppressed; the authors of it were certain persons, who had been convicted of unlawful practices, when candidates for the consulship. Y.R. 687. 65.—Pompeius pursues Mithridates into remote, and even unknown, regions; he fights and conquers the Iberians and Albanians, who had refused him a passage through their territories. Mithridates flies to the Colchians and Heniochians; his transactions at Bosphorus.
Pompeius reduces Pontus to the form of a Roman province. Pharnaces, son of Mithridates, makes war upon his father. Mithridates, besieged in his palace, takes poison, which not producing the desired effect, he procures himself to be slain by a Gaul, named Bituitus. Pompeius conquers the Jews, and takes their temple, hitherto unviolated. Y.R. 688. 64.—Catiline, having twice failed in his pursuit of the consulship, forms a conspiracy, with Lentulus, Cethegus, and others, to destroy the consuls and the senate, to burn the city, and seize the commonwealth; he raises an army in Etruria: Y.R. 689. 63.—the conspiracy is discovered and frustrated by the exertions of Marcus Tullius Cicero the consul. Catiline is driven out of Rome; the other conspirators punished with death.
Y. R. 690. 62.—Catiline’s army vanquished, and himself slain, by the proconsul, Caius Antonius. Publius Clodius accused of having entered a chapel, disguised in woman’s apparel, which it was not lawful for a man to enter; and of having defiled the wife of the high-priest; acquitted. Caius Pontinius, prætor, subdues the Allobrogians, who had rebelled. Publius Clodius joins the party of the people. Y.R. 691. 61.—Caius Cæsar subdues the Lusitanians: being a candidate for the consulship, and determined to seize the power of the commonwealth into his own hands, he forms a party with two of the principal men of the state, Marcus Antonius and Marcus Crassus. Y.R. 692. 60.—Cæsar, now consul, procures the passing of some Agrarian laws, contrary to the will of the senate, and notwithstanding the opposition of his colleague, Marcus Bibulus. Y.R. 693. 59.—Caius Antonius, proconsul, defeated in Thrace. Y.R. 694. 58.—Marcus Cicero banished, in consequence of a law procured by Publius Clodius, for having put to death Roman citizens uncondemned. Cæsar goes into the province of Gaul, where he subdues the Helvetians, a wandering tribe, who, seeking a place of settlement, attempted to pass through Narbo, a part of his province. Description and situation of Gaul. Pompeius triumphs over the children of Mithridates and Tigranes, the father and son; the surname of the Great conferred upon him by a full assembly of the people.
Situation of Germany; description of that country, and of the people. Caius Cæsar, at the request of the Æduans and Sequanians, leads his army against the Germans, who had invaded Gaul, under the command of Ariovistus; he rouses the courage of his soldiers, who were alarmed at the unusual appearance of these new enemies; he then defeats the Germans in an engagement, and drives them out of Gaul. Y.R. 695. BC. 57.—Marcus Tullius Cicero, to the great joy of the senate, and of all Italy, recalled from banishment, chiefly by the persuasion of Pompeius, aided by Titus Annius Milo, plebeian tribune, who also argued in his favour. The charge of providing corn for the city committed to Cneius Pompeius, for five years. Cæsar overcomes in battle the Ambians, Suessians, Veromanduans, and Atrebatians, a people of the Belgians, whose numbers were immense, and reduces them all to subjection. He afterwards, at great risk, engages the Nervians, a people belonging to one of the above states, and entirely cuts them off: this war they continued, with such obstinacy, that their army was reduced from sixty thousand men to three hundred, and, of four hundred senators, only three remained alive. A law made to reduce Cyprus to the form of a province, and to confiscate the royal treasure; the management of that business committed to Marcus Cato. Y.R. 696. 56.—Ptolemy, ill-treated by his subjects, and dethroned, comes to Rome. Caius Cæsar defeats the Venetians, a people living on the borders of the sea, in a sea-fight. Successful expeditions of his lieutenants-general.
Caius Cato, tribune of the people, persists in preventing the holding of the elections; on which the senate goes into mourning. Y.R. 697. 55.—Marcus Cato, a candidate for the prætorship, loses the election, Vatinius carrying it against him. The same Cato committed to prison, by the tribune, Trebonius, for resisting the law allotting the provinces, for five years: to Cæsar, Gaul and Germany; to Pompeius, Spain; and to Crassus, Syria, and the Parthian war. Aulus Gabinius, proconsul, restores Ptolemy to his kingdom of Egypt, dethroning Archelaus, whom the people had elected king. Y.R. 698. 54.—Cæsar, having vanquished the Germans, who had invaded Gaul, passes the Rhine, and subdues them also in those parts: he then crosses the sea, and, having suffered much from tempests, invades Britain; where, having killed a considerable number of the inhabitants, he reduces a part of the island to subjection.
Julia, Cæsar’s daughter, and wife of Pompeius, dies; by a vote of the people, she is honoured with burial in the Campus Martius. Certain tribes of the Gauls revolt, and put themselves under the command of Ambiorix; they ensnare, and cut off, Cotta and Titurius, lieutenants-general under Cæsar, with the armies under their command: having attacked other legions, who with difficulty defended their camps, and, among the rest, Quintus Cicero, they are at length defeated by Cæsar himself. Y.R. 699. 53.—Marcus Crassus crosses the Euphrates, to make war upon the Parthians, and is overthrown in a battle, in which his son is killed; having collected the remains of his army upon a rising ground, a conference, to treat of peace, is proposed; at which he is seized by a party under the command of Surenas; to avoid suffering any indignity, he makes such resistance as obliges them to put him to death.
Caius Cæsar, having subdued the Trevirian Gauls, passes over a second time into Germany; finding no enemy there, he returns to Gaul, and reduces to obedience the Eburones, and other cities, which had revolted. Titus Annius Milo, a candidate for the consulship, kills Publius Clodius, on the Appian road, near Bovilla, whose body the people burn in the curia. Y.R. 700. 52.—The candidates for the consulship, Hypsæus, Scipio, and Milo, carry on their contention with so much rancour, as to come to open violence, which excites a seditious tumult. To repress these enormities, Cneius Pompeius is, a third time, elected consul, in his absence, and without a colleague,—a circumstance which never occurred before. Milo tried for the murder of Clodius, and condemned to banishment. A law made, notwithstanding the strenuous opposition of Marcus Cato, to empower Cæsar to stand for the consulship, though absent. Cæsar’s operations against the Gauls, who had, almost all, revolted, and put themselves under the command of Vercingetorix; he takes many towns; amongst others, Avaricum, Biturium, and Gergovia.
Cæsar overthrows the Gauls at Alesia, and reduces all the revolted cities to subjection. Caius Cassius, Marcus Crassus’s quæstor, defeats the Parthians who had passed over into Syria. Y.R. 701. 51.—M. Cato fails in his pursuit of the consulship; the successful candidates being Servius Sulpicius and Marcus Marcellus. Cæsar subdues the Bellovacians, and other Gallic tribes. Disputes between the consuls, concerning the sending out a person to succeed Cæsar; Marcellus contends that Cæsar should come home to sue for the consulship, being, by a law made expressly for that purpose, enabled to hold his province until that period. Exploits of Marcus Bibulus in Syria.
Y. R. 702. 50.—Causes and beginning of the civil war: disputes about sending a successor to Cæsar, who refuses to disband his army, unless Pompeius shall also do the same. Y.R. 703. 49.—Caius Curio, plebeian tribune, takes an active part; first, against Cæsar, afterwards, in his favour. A decree of the senate being passed, that a successor to Cæsar should be appointed, Marcus Antonius and Quintus Cassius are driven out of the city, for protesting against that measure. Orders sent by the senate to the consuls, and to Cneius Pompeius, to take care that the commonwealth should sustain no injury. Cæsar, determined to make war upon his enemies, arrives in Italy with his army: he takes Corsinium, and in it Lucius Domitius and Lucius Lentulus, whom he discharges: drives Cneius Pompeius, and his adherents, out of Italy.
Cæsar besieges Massilia, the gates of which had been shut against him; leaving his lieutenants-general, Caius Trebonius and Decius Brutus, to carry on the siege, he sets out for Spain, where Lucius Afranius and Caius Petreius, Pompeius’s lieutenants-general, with seven legions, surrender to him at Ilerda: he dismisses them all in safety. He also reduces to submission Varro, another lieutenant-general of Pompeius, with the army under his command. He grants the privileges of Roman citizens to the Gaditanians. The Massilians defeated in two engagements at sea; after having sustained a long siege, they yield to Cæsar. Caius Antonius, a lieutenant-general of Cæsar, makes an unsuccessful attack upon Pompeius’s forces in Illyria, and is taken prisoner. In the course of this war, the inhabitants of Opitergium, a district beyond the Po, in alliance with Cæsar, seeing their bridge blocked up by the enemy’s ships, rather than fall into their hands, kill one another. Caius Curio, one of Cæsar’s lieutenants-general in Africa, after a successful engagement of Varus, a general of the Pompeian party, attacked and cut off, together with his army, by Juba, King of Mauritania. Caius Cæsar passes over into Greece.
Y. R. 704. 48.—Marcus Cælius Rufus, prætor, having excited a sedition in the city, by holding out hopes to the people, that their debts should be annulled, turned out of his office, and driven from the city; he joins Milo, who, being in exile, was raising an army of fugitives: they are both slain. Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, dethroned by her brother Ptolemy. The Cordubians, in Spain harassed by the extortion and oppression of the prætor Quintus Cassius, desert Cæsar’s party, together with two legions. Cneius Pompeius besieged by Cæsar at Dyrrachium; beating him out of his lines, the siege is raised. The seat of war removed to Thessaly: Cæsar overcomes Pompeius in a battle at Pharsalia. Cicero remains in the camp,—a man without any kind of talent for war. Cæsar grants a free pardon to all who submit themselves to his power.
Consternation and flight of the vanquished party, in all parts of the world. Pompeius, endeavouring to escape into Ægypt, is slain, before he could get on shore, by order of Ptolemy, the King, a minor, upon the persuasion of Theodotus, his governor. Cornelia, his wife, and Sextus, his son, fly to Cyprus. Cæsar follows him, three days after his victory; upon being presented with the ring of Pompey by Theodotus, he is highly offended with him for putting him to death, and laments his fate with tears. Y.R. 705. 47.—Cæsar enters Alexandria in safety, notwithstanding that city was in a state of tumult. Cæsar created dictator; restores Cleopatra to her throne; and defeats Ptolemy with great slaughter, who had made war upon him by the advice of those who had caused him to put Pompeius to death. Ptolemy, in his flight, driven on shore, in his vessel, in the Nile. Laborious march of Marcus Cato, with his legions, through vast tracts of desart country. Unsuccessful war of Domitius against Pharnaces.
The Pompeian party having collected their forces in Africa, the command in chief is given to Publius Scipio,—Marcus Cato, who had been joined with him in the command, giving up. When it was deliberated, in council, whether the city of Utica should not be demolished, on account of its attachment to Cæsar, Cato opposes that measure, which was strongly recommended by Juba. Cato’s opinion prevailing, he is appointed governor of the city. Cneius Pompeius, the son of Pompeius the Great, having collected some forces in Spain, which neither Afranius nor Petreius would take the command of, puts himself at the head of them, and renews the war there. Pharnaces, King of Pontus, son of Mithridates, after supporting the war but a very short time, is subdued. A sedition excited in Rome by Publius Dolabella, a plebeian tribune, who moved for a law to extinguish the debts of the people. Marcus Antonius, master of the horse, brings troops into the town, and kills eight hundred of the people. Cæsar discharges the veteran soldiers, who were grown mutinous: crosses over into Africa, and engages the forces of King Juba, in a very hazardous combat.
Y. R. 706. 406.—Cæcilius Bassus, a Roman knight of the Pompeian party, stirs up war in Syria: the legion left there, under the command of Sextus Cæsar, having slain their commander, and revolted to Bassus. Cæsar defeats the prætor Scipio, Afranius, and Juba, at Thapsus, and takes their camps. Cato, hearing of this disaster, stabs himself at Utica; his son coming in, forces him to consent to have his wound dressed; but he, afterwards, tears away the dressing, and expires, in the forty-ninth year of his age. Petreius also puts Juba and himself to death. Publius Scipio also, his ship being overpowered, slays himself, having said to those who inquired after the General, “The General is well.” Faustus and Afranius slain. Cato’s son is pardoned. Brutus, Cæsar’s lieutenant-general, gives battle to the rebellious Bellovacians, and overcomes them.
Cæsar triumphs four times: over Gaul, Egypt, Pontus, and Africa. He gives a feast, and exhibits shows of every description. To Marcus Marcellus, a man of consular rank, he grants leave to return; but he is murdered at Athens, by Magius Cilo, one of his dependants. Cæsar holds a census: the number of citizens amounts to one hundred and fifty thousand. Y.R. 707. 45.—Cæsar goes to Spain against Cneius Pompey; where, after many attacks on both sides, he at length gains a signal victory, after a most desperate engagement, at Munda. Pompeius flies.
Cæsar triumphs, a fifth time, over Spain. Very many and high honours decreed him by the senate; among others, that he should be styled Father of his Country, and Sacred, and also that he should be perpetual dictator. Y.R. 708. 44.—He gives much ground of offence by his haughtiness and pride: for when the senate, waiting upon him to signify the honours they had decreed him, find him sitting before the temple of Venus Genetrix, he rises not to receive them: when also Marcus Antonius, his colleague in the consulship, running among the Lupercalians, came up to him, and placed a diadem upon his head, he took it off, and laid it by him upon a chair: he turned out of their office, Epidius Marullus, and Cæsetius Flavus, plebeian tribunes, for asserting that he had assumed the office of King. Having, by these measures, incurred the public hatred, a conspiracy was at length formed against him; the chiefs of which were, Marcus Brutus and Caius Cassius; with two of his own partisans, Decius Brutus and Caius Trebonius. These kill him in the court of Pompeius, giving him three-and-twenty wounds; they then seize the Capitol. The senate passes a decree of oblivion; then the conspirators, having first received the children of Antonius and Lepidus as hostages, come down from the Capitol. Octavius, Cæsar’s nephew, is, by his will, made heir of half his acquisitions. Cæsar’s body burnt by the people, in the Campus Martius, opposite the rostrum. The office of dictator abolished for ever. Caius Amatius, one of the lowest of the people, giving himself out for the son of Caius Marius, excites some seditious movements among the credulous vulgar; slain.
Caius Octavius comes to Rome from Epirus, whither Cæsar had sent him to conduct the war in Macedonia: is received with the most auspicious omens: assumes the name of Cæsar. In the confusion and bustle of affairs. Lepidus contrives to procure his election to the office of chief priest. Marcus Antonius, consul, governs with much haughtiness, and forcibly causes a law to be passed respecting the change of provinces. Cæsar, requesting him to join in punishing the murderers of his uncle, is harshly treated by him. Cæsar, to strengthen himself, and the commonwealth against Antonius, applies to the veteran soldiers, who had been settled in the colonies. The fourth legion also, and the Martian, declare for Cæsar against Antonius. Antonius having put many to death, on mere suspicion, causes the revolt of very considerable numbers to Cæsar. Decius Brutus, in order to stop Antonius on his way into Cisalpine Gaul, seizes Mutina with his army. Attempts of both parties to get possession of the provinces: preparations for war.
Marcus Brutus, in Greece, under the pretext of supporting the commonwealth, and the war against Antonius, manages to get the command of Vatinius’s army and province. Y.R. 709. 43.—To Cæsar, who first took arms in the defence of the commonwealth, is given the command, in quality of proprætor, with the consular ornaments; he is also made a senator. Marcus Antonius besieges Brutus at Mutina; he sends deputies to Rome, to treat of peace, but without effect. The people of Rome assume the military habit. Marcus Brutus reduces Antonius and his army to submission, in Epirus.
Publius Dolabella circumvents Caius Trebonius in Asia, and kills him; for which crime, the senate votes Dolabella to be a public enemy. Pansa, the consul, being engaged in an action with Antonius, and in danger of being worsted, Aulus Hirtius, his colleague, arrives, routs Antonius’s forces, and restores the fortune of the day. Antonius, conquered by Hirtius and Cæsar, joins Lepidus; is declared a public enemy, by the senate, together with all his associates. Aulus Hirtius, who, after his victory, was slain in the enemy’s camp, and Lucius Pansa, who died of a wound received in the action, are buried in the Campus Martius. To Cæsar, the only surviving general of the three, the senate showed but little gratitude; for a tuiumph was voted to Decius Brutus, who was relieved from the siege of Mutina, by Cæsar, while they made but slight mention of Cæsar and his army: on which account he becomes reconciled to Antonius, by the intervention of Lepidus, and arrives in Rome at the head of his army; whereupon those, who before treated him with indifference, struck with fear, now elect him consul, although only in his twentieth year.
Cæsar, consul, procures a law to be passed for an inquiry into his father’s death; in consequence of which Marcus Brutus, Caius Cassius, and Decius Brutus, are condemned, though absent. Asinius Pollio and Munatius Plancus, having joined their forces to those of Antonius, Decius Brutus, to whom the senate had given orders to pursue Antonius, being deserted by the legions under his command, flies; is killed by Capenus Sequanus, by order of Antonius, into whose hands he fell. Cæsar becomes reconciled to Antonius and Lepidus, and, in conjunction with them, assumes the entire direction of the public affairs for five years: it is agreed among them, that each shall have the power of proscribing their own particular enemies. In this proscription are included very many of the equestrian order, and one hundred and thirty senators; among whom were Lucius Paulus, the brother of Lepidus, Lucius Cæsar, Antonius’s uncle, and Marcus Tullius Cicero. This last slain by Popilius, a legionary soldier, and his head and right hand stuck up on the rostrum, in the sixty-third year of his age Transactions of Brutus in Greece.
Caius Cassius, having received orders from the senate to pursue Dolabella, pronounced a public enemy, by virtue of this authority takes the command in Syria, and putting himself at the head of the three armies, which were in that province, besieges Dolabella, in Laodicea, and puts him to death. Caius Antonius taken and slain, by order of Marcus Brutus.
Marcus Brutus unsuccessful in an engagement with the Thracians. Afterwards, all the provinces beyond sea, together with the armies in them, are brought into obedience to him and Cassius; they meet at Smyrna to hold a council relative to the conduct of the war they are about to engage in. Y.R. 710. 42.—They subdue Publicola, the brother of Marcus Messala, and agree in granting a pardon.
Sextus, son of Pompey the Great, having assembled a considerable number of the proscribed Romans, and other fugitives, in Epirus, wanders about, for a long time, subsisting chiefly by piracy; at length, they seize, first, Messana in Sicily, and, afterwards, the whole province. Then, having killed Aulus Pompeius Bithynicus, the prætor, they defeat Quintus Salvidienus, a general of Cæsar’s, in a sea-fight. Cæsar and Antonius, with their armies, pass over into Greece, to make war against Brutus and Cassius. Quintus Cornificius overcomes Titus Sestius, in a battle in Africa.
Cæsar and Antonius fight an indicisive battle with Brutus, at Philippi; in which the right wing of each army is victorious; and, on both sides, the camps are taken: the death of Cassius at length decides the victory; for, being at the head of that wing which is beaten, he supposes his whole army routed, and kills himself. Afterwards, in another battle, Brutus, being overcome, puts an end to his life.
Y. R. 711. 41.—Cæsar, leaving Antonius to take care of the provinces beyond sea, returns to Italy, and makes a distribution of lands among the veterans. He represses, with great risk, a mutiny among his soldiers, who, being bribed by Fulvia, the wife of Marcus Antonius, conspire against their general. Lucius Antonius, consul, influenced by Fulvia, makes war upon Cæsar, having taken to his assistance those whose lands Cæsar had distributed among his veteran soldiers: having overthrown Lepidus, who, with an army, had charge of the defence of the city, he enters it in a hostile manner.
Y. R. 712. 40.—Cæsar, now twenty-three years of age, besieges Antonius in Perusia; who, after several attempts to escape, is at length forced by famine to surrender. Cæsar grants a pardon to him, and all his followers. And having reduced all the various armies, in different parts, puts an end to the war without effusion of blood.
The Parthians, who had joined the Pompeian party, under the command of Labienus, invade Syria, and having beaten Decidius Saxa, a lieutenant-general under Antonius, seize that whole province. Marcus Antonius, being urged by his wife Fulvia to make war against Cæsar, repudiates her, and to strengthen his alliance with him, marries his sister Octavia. He discovers the guilt of Quintus Salvidienus, who was endeavouring to promote a conspiracy against Cæsar: Quintus being condemned, puts himself to death. Y.R. 713. 39.—Publius Ventidius overcomes the Parthians in a battle, in which their general Labienus is killed, and drives them out of Syria. Sextus Pompeius, keeping possession of Sicily, greatly obstructs the importation of corn; he demands peace, which is granted, and he is made governor of that island. Commotions and war in Africa.
Y. R. 714. 38.—Sextus Pompeius breaks the treaty which he had solicited, and infests the seas by his piracies; Cæsar, obliged to make war upon him, fights him in two indecisive sea-engagements. Y.R. 715. 37.—Publius Ventidius overthrows the Syrians in battle, and kills their King. Y.R. 716. 36.—Antonius’s generals vanquish the Jews. Preparations for the war in Sicily.
Several battles at sea, with Sextus Pompeius, with various success; of Cæsar’s two fleets, one under the command of Agrippa gains a victory: the other, led by Cæsar himself, was cut off; and his soldiers, being sent on shore, are exposed to great dangers. Pompeius is afterwards defeated, and flies into Sicily. Marcus Lepidus comes from Africa, under the pretext of joining Cæsar in the war against Sextus Pompeius, but, in reality, to fight against Cæsar; is deserted by his army, and deprived of the honour of the triumvirate, but his life is granted him. Cæsar confers a naval crown upon Agrippa, an honour never before bestowed on any commander.
Marcus Antonius, having spent much time in luxurious indulgence with Cleopatra, arrives late in Media; with eighteen legions and sixteen thousand horse, he makes war upon the Parthians. Having lost two of his legions, and nothing prospering with him, he retreats to Armenia; being pursued by the Parthians, he flies three hundred miles in twenty-one days About eight thousand men lost by tempests; he was himself the cause of all these misfortunes, as well of the losses by the tempests, as in the unfortunate Parthian war; for he would not winter in Armenia, being in haste to revisit Cleopatra.
Y. R. 717. 35.—Sextus Pompeius, notwithstanding his engagements to Marcus Antonius, endeavours to raise a war against him in Asia; slain by one of Antonius’s generals. Y.R. 718. 34.—Cæsar represses a mutiny of the veterans, which threatened much mischief; he subdues the Japidæ, the Dalmatians, and Pannonians. Y.R. 719. 33.—Antonius, having, by promises of safety and protection, induced Artavardes, King of Armenia, to come to him, commands him to be thrown into chains, and gives the kingdom of Armenia to his own son, whom he had by Cleopatra, and whom he now treats as his wife, having been long enamoured of her.
Y. R. 720. 32.—Cæsar conquers the Dalmatians in Illyria; Y.R. 721. 31.—he passes over to Epirus, at the head of an army, against Antonius, who, fascinated by the love of Cleopatra, by whom he had two sons, Alexander and Philadelphus, would neither come to Rome, nor, the time of his triumvirate being expired, would he resign that office; but meditated war, and was preparing a great force, both for sea and land. He had also divorced Octavia, Cæsar’s sister. Sea-fights, and battles on land between the cavalry, in which Cæsar is victorious.
Antonius’s fleet vanquished by Cæsar at Actium. Antonius flies to Alexandria, where, his affairs being reduced to extremity, and being agitated by a false report of Cleopatra’s death, he kills himself. Cæsar having reduced Alexandria, Cleopatra, to avoid falling into his hands, puts herself to death. Y.R. 722. 30.—Cæsar, on his return to Rome, triumphs three times; first, over Illyria; secondly, on account of the victory at Actium; and thirdly, over Cleopatra. Thus ends the civil war, after it had lasted one-and-twenty years. Y.R. 723. 29.—Marcus Lepidus, the son of Lepidus who was of the triumvirate, forms a conspiracy against Cæsar; taken and killed.
Y. R. 724. 28.—Cæsar, having settled the affairs of the state, and reduced all the provinces to exact order, receives the surname of Augustus; the month Sextilis is named, in honour of him, August. Y.R. 725. 27.—Cæsar calls a meeting of the states at Narbo, and holds an inquiry into the state of the three Gauls, which were conquered by his father. War against the Bastarnians, Mœsians, and other nations, under the conduct of Marcus Crassus.
War carried on by Marcus Crassus against the Thracians; and by Cæsar against the Spaniards. Y.R. 729. 23.—The Salassians, a people of the Alps, subdued.
Rhætia subdued by Tiberius Nero, and Drusus. Agrippa, Cæsar’s son-in-law, dies. The census held by Drusus.
Drusus besieges and takes several cities in Germany, on both sides of the Rhine. Insurrections in Gaul, on account of the taxes levied upon that nation, suppressed. Y.R. 740. 12.—An altar erected to the Deified Cæsar, at the confluence of the Arar and the Rhone; dedicated by Caius Julius Vercundaridubius, an Æduan, appointed priest for that purpose.
Y. R. 741. 11.—The Thracians subdued by Lucius Piso; also the Cheruscans, Tenchtherans, Cattians, and other nations beyond the Rhine, by Drusus. Octavia, Augustus’s sister, dies; having before lost her son Marcellus; a theatre and portico, as his monument, dedicated in his name.
Y. R. 742. 10.—War, against the nations beyond the Rhine, conducted by Drusus: the chief opponents in this war were Senectius and Anectius, tribunes of the Nervians. Peace made with Parthia: the standards taken from their king, under Crassus, and afterwards under Anthonius being restored to them.
Y. R. 743. 9.—War, against the German nations beyond the Rhine, conducted by Drusus, who breaks his leg, by a fall from his horse, and dies, on the thirteenth day after the accident. His brother Nero, on receiving an account of his illness, hastens to him; carries his body to Rome, where it is buried in the tomb of Caius Julius. Augustus Cæsar, his uncle, pronounces his funeral oration, and the highest honours are paid him.
[*]Worth less than 4d.