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Summary of Principles illustrated in this Volume. - Harriet Martineau, Illustrations of Political Economy, vol. 1 (Life in the Wilds, Hill and the Valley, Brooke and Brooke Farm) 
Illustrations of Political Economy (3rd ed) in 9 vols. (London: Charles Fox, 1832). Vol. 1.
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Summary of Principles illustrated in this Volume.
We have not advanced to any new principles of the science of Political Economy in the present volume. We have only exemplified some of the principles laid down in our last volume by illustrations of certain truths respecting a few particular modes of accumulating and applying Capital. These truths may be arranged as follows:
Production being the great end in the employment of Labour and Capital, that application of both which secures the largest production is the best.
Large capitals well managed, produce in a larger proportion than small.
In its application to land, for instance, a large capital employs new powers of production, —as in the cultivation of wastes;
.... enables its owner to wait for ample but distant returns,—as in planting;
.... facilitates the division of labour;
............the succession of crops, or division of time;
............reproduction, by economizing the investment of fixed capital;
............the economy of convertible husbandry;
............the improvement of soils by manuring, irrigation, &c.;
............the improvement of implements of husbandry;
............the improvement of breeds of live stock.
Large capitals also provide
for the prevention of famine, by furnishing a variety of food; and for the regular supply of the market, by enabling capitalists to wait for their returns.
Large capitals are therefore preferable to an equal aggregate amount of small capitals, for two reasons; viz.
they occasion a large production in proportion; and they promote, by means peculiar to themselves, the general safety and convenience.
Capitals may, however, be too large. They are so when they become disproportioned to the managing power.
The interest of capitalists best determines the extent of capital; and any interference of the law is therefore unnecessary.
The interference of the law is injurious; as may be seen by the tendency of the law of Succession in France to divide properties too far, and of the law of Primogeniture in England to consolidate them too extensively.
The increase of agricultural capital provides a fund for the employment of manufacturing and commercial, as well as agricultural, labour.
The interests of the manufacturing and agricultural classes are therefore not opposed to each other, but closely allied.