Front Page Titles (by Subject) A TREATISE OF IRELAND, 1687. THE ELEMENTS OF IRELAND; AND OF ITS Religion, Trade & Policy. By Sir WILLIAM PETTY , Fellow of the Royal Society. - The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol. 2
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A TREATISE OF IRELAND, 1687. THE ELEMENTS OF IRELAND; AND OF ITS Religion, Trade & Policy. By Sir WILLIAM PETTY , Fellow of the Royal Society. - Sir William Petty, The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol. 2 
The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, together with The Observations upon Bills of Mortality, more probably by Captain John Graunt, ed. Charles Henry Hull (Cambridge University Press, 1899), 2 vols.
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A TREATISE OF
|then the Value of Lands is scarce||12 Millions.|
|The Value of Stock as aforesaid||6 Millions.|
|In all||20 Millions.|
And we say that upon that Settlement and Union of People by this new-inexpensive Government and Simplicity of Trade, the Lands of Ireland will be worth 20 Year's purchase, as well as in England and Scotland: And consequently 24 Millions, and the Stock liable before to Distress and other Disturbances, Law-Suits, and Thefts, will rise at least from 6 to 7
|In all to 31 Millions.|
And out of 31 Millions deducting one Million for the Charge of Transplanting a Million of Heads; the Remainder will be 30 Millions, which now is but 20.
That the King's Revenue in England and in Ireland, supposed to be 2070 Thousand Pounds, will be increased to above ⅕ Part more (vizt) to1 above 414 Thousand Pounds; and even to 450 Thousand Pounds: So as to be in all 2520 Thousand Pounds.
FOr if in England the Duties of Excise, Customs, and Hearths be above 1400 Pounds; then by the Addition of one Million of People to the 7 which are already, the said 1400 Thousand Pounds, must be above 1600 Thousand Pounds, or 200 Thousand Pounds more than at present.
Moreover if the Produce of 1500 Thousand Milch-Cows, at 24 Shillings each, be 1800 Thousand Pounds, and of the 1200 Thousand Slaughter'd Beeves, be 1800 Thousand Pounds more, in all 3600 Thousand Pounds, Out of which 2 Millions of Pounds are to be pay'd as Wages to the 300 Thousand Servants, and 80 Thousand Pounds to the Land-Forces and Civil Government of Ireland, and 20 Thousand Pounds to the Clergy; in all 2100 Thousand Pounds, then the Remainder sent into England will be 1500 Thousand Pounds: Which added to the 3½ Millions arising from the Improvement of the Land in England (as aforesaid) will make the whole to be 5 Millions; the Part thereof is 250 Thousand Pounds: Which, with the 200 Thousand Pounds Increase from the Customs, Excise, and Hearths, makes up the 450 Thousand Pounds above-mentioned. I here add that if, by the like Transplantation out of the High-Lands in Scotland, into the Low-Lands of the same, or into England, the 130 Thousand present Revenue of Scotland should increase ⅕ Part, and become 156 Thousand Pounds2 : So the Revenue of the 3 Kingdoms would be 2676 Thousand Pounds.
Now if the Charge of England could be defray'd for 1300 Thousand Pounds per Ann. in Times of Peace, and that of Ireland with 200 Thousand Pounds, and that of Scotland with 68 Thousand Pounds (the ⅓ of Ireland) in all with 1568 Thousand Pounds per Ann. the Overplus would be 1108 Thousand Pounds. Now for as much as in England there has not been found, for these many years, more than one Year of Warr to 3 of Peace, the said Overplus of 1108 Thousand Pounds for three Years of Peace would be 3324 Thousand Pounds: Which added to the Yearly Revenue of 2676 Thousand Pounds will make a Stock of 6 Millions for the Year of Warr: Which is thrice as much as has been spent in any late Year of Warr, and consequently sufficient for all Uses in View. We further say that because the King's Revenue in Ireland is at present 270 Thousand Pounds neat; and because but 80 Thousand Pounds thereof is by this New Model to be spent in Ireland; It follows that 190 Thousand Pounds more must be paid him in England out of the 1500 Thousand Pounds above-mentioned to be sent thither.
And moreover because the Church-Benefices of Ireland are 120 Thousand Pounds per Ann. whereof onely 20 Thousand Pounds, by this new Model, is to be spent by the Clergy in Ireland; It follows that the remaining 100 Thousand Pounds be transferred to Church Uses in England: And consequently when 290 Thousand Pounds of 1500 Thousand Pounds shall be paid to the King and Church, there will remain 1210 Thousand Pounds payable to the Owners of Irish Lands and Stock, who live in England.
IF the Charge of the Clergy in Ireland be now 120 Thousand Pounds per Ann. and after the Transplantation no more than 20 Thousand Pounds, then there will be 100 Thousand Pounds per Ann. overplus; which will afford 100l. per Ann. to 1000 Divines dissenting from the Authoriz'd Religion, whose Business may be, to keep Peace among their Flocks, and dispose them to Obedience towards their Sovereign.
Lastly, if the Lands of all England increase from 49 to 64, or from 3 to 4, those of the Church will do the same also.
How to take away all the Evils arising from Differences of Births, Extractions, Languages, Manners, Customs, Religion, and Laws, and Pretence whatsoever.
1. THere is no Person or Party in Ireland, of what religion soever, who denies the King of England to be King of Ireland also.
2. Whereas there are Disputes concerning the Superiority of Parliament; now there will need no Parliament in Ireland to make Laws among the Cow-Herds and Dairy-Women: Nor indeed will there be any Peers, or Free-holders, at all in Ireland, whereof to make a Parliament.
3. There will be little Pomp or Expence in the Chief Governor &c. the onely Business being to regulate the simple Cattle Trade to the best common Advantage.
4. The Courts of Judicature may be much abated, for that there will be little or no Variety of Cases or Actions.
5. The Officers of Ports will need onely to keep an Account of Exportation, where there are no Importations, or very little or simple.
6. The Work of the Clergy will require little intricate Learning or School-Divinity.
7. The 267 Thousand Catholicks may be such as can all speak English, and who will take English Names.
8. The Lands upon the down-Survey, may also have English Names put upon them.
9. The Transplanters into England may do the same.
10. The 300 Thousand left in Ireland are all Servants to those who live in England, having no Property of their own, in Land or Stock.
11. Money need be but little and that Local.
12. Cloths may be uniform, and withal equal, and also most commodious for the People's Employments.
13. The Catholic Priests may be English-men.
14. The 15000 militia1 Men being of the whole Number of Men, may serve by Turns as Soldiers every tenth Year.
15. The 4000 Men at Sea in 40 small Ships are enough to begirt Ireland, or to keep a Guard between the North of Ireland and Scotland: as also between Scilly and Kingsale, as the beginning of a real Mare Clausum2 .
16. The Lands may be valu'd according to the annual Increase of Flesh produceable from the same, restraining and reducing all other Respects to that one.
17. Controversies concerning Estates in Ireland, may be determined in England, where the Pretenders are now to Live.
18. Whereas it may be offensive to make Estimates of the Number of Men slain in Ireland3 for the last 516 Years; and of the Value of the Money and Provisions, sent out of England thither; Of the Charge of the last Warr begun Anno 1641; The Value of the Wasting and Dispeopling the Countrey, Charges at Law for the last 30 Years &c. We say that the same may be all spared, Since all may be probably remedied and forgotten by the Means and Methods above-mentioned.
How the Names, Bounds, Titles, and Values, of Lands may be settled and ascertained; with Remedy of the Miscarriages, which have happened in the 35 Years last past in the Disposures of them.
1. LEt the down-Survey be finished according to the Clause in the 73d. Page of the Explanatory Act, and a certain Number of Denominations be pitched upon to be onely used in Public Instruments and Conveyances; and let the Spellings of each be also ascertained and published, and withal to every Surround upon the Plotts and down-Survey be added an English Name.
2. Let all controverted Bounds, be perambulated by the Persons concern'd, and the Determination of them be described by the Chain and Needle.
3. Let all remaining Wrangles about the title be determined in England by indifferent Persons, without respect to Nation and Religion, and then well and clearly registred.
4. Let the Value of each Denomination be expressed by the Increase of Flesh producible from the same at a Medium of 7 Years, reducing all other Qualities into that onely.
5. Let the Number of Years Purchase be determined by the common Voice of both Nations, to be renewed every 7 Years.
6. And let there be a Registry of all these Matters and of all Alienations from Hand to Hand.
Memorandum. That it may, as an Objection, be asked, Why a Million of People might not rather be sent out of England into Ireland, to raise the Number in Ireland from 4 to 7, and reduce that of England from 7 to 6. I answer, No.
For the Value of Lands in England being 220 Millions, the Taking away one Million of it's 7 Millions of Inhabitants would lessen it's Value from 49 to 36, or from 4 to 3 to the Loss of 55 Millions. And the Value of the Lands of Ireland being but 12 Millions, the Increase of its Inhabitants would but raise it's Value from 16 to 49 or from 1 to 3, and make it rise from 12 to 36 Millions, to the Gain of 24 Millions for Ireland, & ye Loss of 55 from England.
Whereas the Transplantation of a Million into England gains 100 Millions in Common to England and Ireland, and 10 Millions in special to Ireland, besides many other Benefits to both Nations, which do not fall under the Computation of Numbers. From hence may be drawn a General Rule to compute the Profits or Loss of Sending People, out of England or Ireland, to the American Colonies, and indeed from any City or Countrey to another, whose Value and People are known.
A Repetition and Enlargement of what has been here said.
1. THat the Present Number of Roman Catholicks in England may be increased from 25 Thousand to 915 Thousand, or from one to above 36, without forcing any Man's Conscience.
2. That the People of England and Ireland may gain 3½ Millions per Ann. out of the Earth and Sea, and from Foreign Nations; and that England may get from Ireland 1½ Million more: In all 5 Millions per Ann. by this Atchievment.
3. That the King's Revenue in England and Ireland may be advanced from 2070 Thousand Pounds to 2520 Thousand Pounds: And by Addition of 156 Thousand Pounds per Ann. from Scotland to 2676 Thousand Pounds in all.
4. That the Charge of the Whole Government in Time of Peace may be possibly defrayed for 1568 Thousand Pounds, Leaving an Overplus of 1108 Thousand Pounds per Ann.
5. That there being 3 Years of Peace in these Nations for one of Warr, the said 3 Years Overplus will be 3324 Thousand Pounds; which, added to 2676 Thousand Pounds, will make a Bank of 6 Millions Pounds for the one Year of War.
6. That the said 2676 Thousand Pounds per Ann. will not be the Part of the Expence of the Nation; and therefore so far from being intolerable, that it will scarce be a sensible Burthen.
7. That what was said of Bringing a Million of People into England out of Ireland, and Leaving 300 Thousand Heardsmen &c. behind; may be apply'd to Scotland, by bringing 300 Thousand People out of the High-Lands into the Low-Lands or England, and leaving 100 Thousand Herdsmen behind in the High-Lands, or Northermost Third Part of that Countrey.
8. Upon this Transplantation, join'd with the former, the People inhabiting in England and Wales, and the Low-Lands of Scotland, will be 9300 Thousand; And their Expence, at 6l. 13s. 4d. per Head will be 62 Millions per Ann. the Part whereof is above 3 Millions per Ann. and much above the 2676 Thousand Pounds above-mentioned for the Public Revenue.
9. When the whole People shall be 9300 Thousand, as above-said, the English, Scotch, and Irish, Catholicks, living among them, will be near 920 Thousand, or near of the whole, whilst in the High-Lands of Scotland there may be no Catholicks at all, keeping 267 Thousand in Ireland.
10. The above-mentioned Provision of 6 Millions for a Year of Warr will maintain triple the greatest Land-Army and Sea-Fleet, that have (at any Time) been seen in or about England, with all the Civil Charges beside.
11. There will be, in this new Kingdom of 9300 Thousand Inhabitants about 2300 Thousand Males naturally able to bear Arms, of which the Part, or 230 Thousand may be spared and supported for the Purpose, being enough for the greatest Extremity in view.
12. The Church-Lands and Tyths in England will by this Transplantation improve, as all other Lands, from 49 to 64, or from 3 to 4: Besides the Addition of 100 Thousand Pounds per Ann. to be transferred from the Church of Ireland to that of England for extraordinary Uses.
13. Of the 200 Thousand Pounds per Ann. allotted for the Guard of Ireland 120 Thousand Pounds is intended for 4000 Seamen in 40 small Ships sufficient to begirt Ireland; and to guard 2 Lines: The one between the North of Ireland and Scotland, the other between Kingsale and Silly, Which, with two Lines more, the one from Ushent in France to Silly, and the other from the North of Scotland to Norway, will make a real Mare Clausum never yet described.
14. It follows from the Premisses, That it is not the Interest of England to seek more Territory, nor to send Auxiliary Men to their Allies, worth (being all able bodied Men) about 100l. per Head: Few such having been observ'd to come back when once sent out.
15. Consequently England may still think of being Sovereign within a Mare Clausum, the Profit and Loss whereof is handled elsewhere1 .
16. The Lands of Ireland, by ascertaining their Names, Bounds, Titles, and Values, and by the Simplicity of Trade here propounded, will be made a better Material for Money than Gold and Silver, as far less subject to Abuses; as also Usury will be thereby lessened.
17. The Manners, Habits, Language, and Customs of the Irish (without Prejudice to Religion) will be transmuted into English, within less than an Age, and all Old Animosities forgotten.
18. The insnaring Questions, between England and Ireland, about the Supremacy of Parliament; the Multitude of Law-Suits; the Vexations about Levying the King's Revenue; the Irregularities of Coins, and the Want of the same for Trade, will all, or the most part, cease and be abolished.
19. Where 5 Millions of Profit rises (as is here propounded) from the Earth and Sea, the consequent or concomitant Profit arising from the Labors of the People is (Generally speaking) Triple to the same, and should in this case be 15 Millions more.
But where Land is cheap, the Rent is scarce ⅕ and the Labor is above ⅗. Wherefore we say in Ireland the Expence of the People is 6500 Thousand Pounds, the Rent of Land almost ⅕ of the same, or 1200 Thousand Pounds: The Labor of the People to the said Rent as 7 to 2, or 4200 Thousand Pounds. And the rest, being 1100 Thousand Pounds, for the Interest of the Stock of all sorts.
And in England the Expence of the People is 47 Millions, the Rent of the Land 11 Millions; the Labor of the People to the said Lands as 5 to 2, or 27½ Millions of the whole: And the remaining 8½ Millions, is for the Interest of the Stock or Personal Estates. So as when England shall gain Part of 11 Millions by the Rent of Land, it shall gain of the same Summ by the Labor of the People, vizt. about 3 Millions and 920 Thousand Pounds per Annum.1
An Appendix of Objections to this Essay, with Answers to the Same.
First that the Transplantation of a Million of People is Impracticable and Utopian.
1st. It has been already said that the Charges thereof needs not to exceed 20 Shillings per head at a Medium between Poor and Rich, Great and Small; and from the Middle of Ireland to the Middle of England supposed to be 120 Miles of Land in2 Distance.
2. Forty small Vessels of about Sixty Tuns each (which are easily had) will perform this whole Work in Five Year's Time.
3. The Freight per head need not exceed Two Shillings, and the Travelling Charges by Land at one Penny per Mile needs not be above Ten Shillings, Leaving Eight Shillings for Extraordinaries.
4. There will be found Undertakers enough, to regulate this Matter, and bring the Charges thereof to a Certainty, which may amount to 200 Thousand Pounds per Ann. to be advanced for Five Years out of the Public Revenue, and reimbursed, as shall elsewhere be shewn.
The second Objection, That the Cattle-Trade above-propounded is also impracticable.
1. The Lands and Cattle are the same as now, wanting onely a new Application to each other.
2. A Council of Fitting Persons must make this Application, by Pitching the Number of each Species of Cattle, for every Sort of Land within the whole1 Territory of Ireland.
3. The same may pitch the Number of Cow-Herds, Shepherds, Dairy-Women, Slaughter Men and others, which are fit and sufficient to manage the Trade of exported Cattle dead or alive, of Hydes, Tallow, Butter and Cheese, Wool and Sea-Fish &c.
4. To appoint the Foreign Markets and Ports where each Commodity is to be shipped and sold, to provide Shipping and to keep Account of the Exportation above-mentioned, and of the imported Salt, Tobacco, with a few other Necessarys.
5. When the whole Number, to be left in Ireland, is adjusted, then to pitch how many of them shall be English, or such as can speak English, and how many Irish, how many Catholiques2 and how many others, without any other respect, than the Management of this Trade, for the common Good of all the Owners of these Lands, and it's Stock indifferently.
6. Forasmuch as it is intended to allow each Servant to this Trade 20 Nobles per Ann. out of the Grand Commodities aforenamed, It is also intended to allow them Land for Corn and Gardenage with River-Fishing, Wild-Fowl and Hunting.
7. To keep up Part of the neglected Houses, till England be fully Peopled with 12 Millions (vizt) at 3 Acres per head.
8. To appoint the Foot-Militia and Horse-Guards.
9. To carry away the Young Children and superannuated Persons.
The 3d Objection, That Men will not conform to this Change, tho’ tending to the General, and their own Particular, Good, out of a mere Caprice and Perverseness.
[1.] If the Owners of Ireland may hereby raise their Concernments from 2 to 3 in Value, If the Landlords of England may hereby increase the Worth of their Lands from 3 to 4, And if the King may advance his Revenue from 4 to 5; and that the Church may receive a Supplyment out of Ireland of 100 Thousand Pounds per Ann. I suppose that particular Men will not long persist in their Perverseness and Humor; Or (if they do) that a Parliament of England, may cure this Evil, in both Kingdoms, as kind Parents may correct the Children whom they Love.
2. And when such a Law is made, it is possible within Six Months to give a List of all the Terr-Tenants in Ireland, who are to be removed, and of the lands they hold; with the Yearly Value thereof. And within Six Months more, to make a Particular of the Lands in England, by the Names, Quantity, Situations, and Values, correspondent to the said Tenures and Occupancies in Ireland, if men shall humorously refuse to agree otherwise.
3. It hath been already said, that besides the Advantages abovementioned, the Inhabitants of England shall receive one Million and a half per Ann. out of Ireland, above what hitherto they have done: Which is more than England gains by Foreign Trade from all the rest of the World.
4. I further add that the Million of Transplantees out of Ireland, will after their having been Seven Years in England, become worth above 30l. per head more than at present, in all 30 Millions.
Memorandum, That this Proposal inferrs no Forcing any Irish1 Proprietors to sell their Estate in Ireland, but encourages the King to buy of them, who are voluntarily pleased to sell at the present Market-Rate.
It is also to be noted, That as the Method here propounded shall make the Value of Ireland to rise from 2 to 3 above what the same was worth Anno 1684. So the late Changes, which we hope are repairable2 , have made the same fall from 3 to 2, and consequently the Difference between the present Proposal and the present Practice, will be as 9 to 4.
The fourth Objection, that this Transplantation and Change of Trade amounts to an Abolishment of the Irish Nation: Which will be Odious to them, and not compensable by all the Benefits abovementioned.
1. That this Proposal was intended for an Union of the two Nations, which is a real Blessing to both, according to that of Faciam eos in Gentem Unam3 : Whereas the Curse of a Civil Warr is, to divide one intire Nation into two Nations: As the Irish Commotions Anno 1641 actually did. Now if the two Nations be brought into one, the Name of the lesser Nation must needs be abolished, whilst the Thing and Substance is exalted. For
1. In this Case the Irish Names of Lands and Men are lay'd down, and English taken up in their Rooms.
2. The Cabineers of Ireland, which are Ten to One of all the others, will be removed out of their wretched Beastlike habitations; unfit for making Merchantable Butter and Cheese, and the Manufacture of Wool and Linnen out of the best Materials.
3. They will be set upon more pleasant and profitable Imployments in England.
4. They will be entertained there with greater Variety of agreeable Objects and Exercises.
5. They will be nearer the King, who hath a Kindness for them, with full Liberty of Conscience.
6. They will be safe from any Re-Conquest, which may be fatal to them.
7. They will be ingrafted and incorporated into a Nation more Rich, Populous, Splendid, and Renowned than themselves, for Letters, Arms, and other Atchievements.
8. This Transplantation will make the People of Ireland to be a real Addition (whereas they had been hitherto a Diminution and Counterpoize) to the Power of England, and for above 500 Years a vast Expence of it's Blood and Treasure.
The 5th Objection, That Changing the present Proportions between Catholicks and others in England (now 280 for one) to that of Nine for One, will be very formidable to the Protestants of England, and apt to create dangerous Fears and Jealousies in them.
1. Altho’ I never intended to complicate Religion with the Matters of this Essay, yet I may intimate that, by the late Changes in Ireland, of the Government, Army, Judicatures, Sherriffs, Jurys, and by bringing together and concentrating all the Catholick Powers; and by Publishing a Design of making the Catholicks there as considerable in their Wealths, as in their Numbers1 ; which has caused the Price of Lands and houses and Cattle so to fall, and the English Artizans and Money so to diminish, As that the whole of Ireland, in this Year 1687, is fallen from 3 to 2 of what the same was worth Anno 1683, and will probably cause a Fall in his Majesty's Revenue from about 7 to 6. I say, I might intimate from the Premisses that some Remedy is necessary.
2. Moreover the imagined Benefit of making Ireland an Asylum1 , by the present Method, for all the King's Catholic Subjects, in case of an angry-Heterodox Successor to the Crown, is not comparable to the Danger of Ireland's Revolt and Reconquest.
Lastly, Whether the present united State of Catholicks in Ireland will make more Catholicks in his Majesty's whole Dominions, than the Transplantation here propounded, I know not, seeing no manifest cogent Reasons for either Opinion. Onely it is certain it will make Six and Thirty Times more Catholicks in England, than now there are, but not one more in the whole.
Wherefore if what concerns Religion be doubtful, let the same be left to God, whose peculiar Work it is; and let what is Obvious and Certain concerning the Wealth, Strength, Splendor, and Honor, of both Nations be consider'd according to Sense and Reason, to which God has left these Matters.
Memorandum, That what was said in the above-Essay concerning Transplantation in Scotland2 , ought to have been thus (vizt.).
Suppose Scotland to contain as many Acres and People as Ireland; we may suppose that in the Northermost Third Part or Six Millions of Scotland there dwells 400 Thousand of the whole 1300 Thousand People. Of which 400 Thousand we suppose 300 Thousand to be transplanted into the Low-Lands, or rather into England; leaving 100 Thousand behind for the Cattle-Trade. So as there will be 7 Thousand 100 Thousands, and a Thousand Thousand, and 300 Thousand in England and Wales, and 900 Thousand in the Low-Lands of Scotland; Making in all 9 Millions and 300 Thousand heads to Live upon the whole 48 Millions of Acres, which may be called Great England; Leaving 100 Thousand, as aforesaid, upon the Northermost Third, which may be called Little Scotland besides 300000 upon the 18 Millions of Ireland, as aforesaid. The Consideration of all which may be placed to the Accounts of Political Pastimes and Recreations, according to the first Title of this Essay.
The Sixth Objection. In the Title of this Essay, Mention was made of Settlement in Ireland, I suppose that Settlement of Estates and Title of Land was thereby intended, which (I am affraid) is not yet perfect. Forasmuch as there is great Complaint made against the gross Partialities in the Act of 17° Car. Imi. In the Acts of Settlement A° 1652. In the Acts of Satisfaction made A° 1653. In two other Acts made A° 1656. In the Proceedings in the Court of Athlone and Loghreagh1 . In several Courts for Protestant's Claims before the King's Restauration. In the Acts of Settlement made since Anno 1662, and executed Anno 1663. In the Courts of Innocence. In the Acts of Explanation made A° 1665, and executed in the Years 1666, 1667, and 1668. In the Proceedings upon the Commission for Moderating of Quit-Rents A° 1676. In Settling the Transplantees of Connaught and Clare A° 1677. In the Court of Grace A° 1684. And most of all, in the Proceedings of the Judges, Sherifs and Juries, A° 1687. I say, no great Matter has been offered in this Essay for remedy of the Evils contained in the Acts and Proceedings last mentioned. Which Remedies, I suppose, were mean't by the Word Settlement.
1. We have supposed, That when the Catholicks and Proprietors of Ireland, as also the high-Landers of Scotland, are Transplanted into England, Wales, and the Low-Lands of Scotland containing 48 Millions of Acres, and 9 Millions 300 Thousand People: Among which are all the Catholicks of the Three Kingdoms.
2. We further Suppose, That whereas there are now about 12 Thousand Parishes in the said 48 Millions of Acres, That by Dividing as many of the greater Parishes as are necessary, there may be made just 15 Thousand Parishes or Parochial Divisions; and that the Males of 21 Year's old within every such Division, do choose an Elector for the Great Councel hereafter mentioned. And that the said 15 Thousand Electors, by 500 Assemblies of 30 Electors in each, do choose 500 Members for the General and Ultimate Judicature concerning Estates in Ireland.
3. And Lastly We suppose, That out of the said 500 Members, Juries may be chosen by Lott for the Consummation of this Work by Lott; that is to say, by God, it being hard to conceive any Authority more equal, impartial, and indifferent, than the said Juries, so chosen by God, by the King, and the whole People of all the Three Nations.
There be several other Instruments and Expedients to correct and perfect the present Settlement in Ireland; whereof I insert this one, to be wholly administred by the Catholic Party. (vizt)
There may be a Court erected by Act of Parliament, consisting of five of the most Ancient, Substantial, Upright and Experienc'd Catholic Gentlemen of Ireland, for the Ends following. (vizt.).
1. To find out what Lands any Catholic Restoree holds as his own, and rightfully derives from his Ancestors, as to their Propriety the 23d of October 1641, which in Truth was not so?
2. What Lands any of the Catholic Restorees have gotten by vicious and forg'd Deeds, altho’ the Lands were their own or their Ancestors, in the Year 1641?
3. What Person, adjudged Innocent by the Court of Claims A° 1663, were more nocent, than those which the said Court did judge to be nocent?
4. What Persons, adjudged nocent, were more innocent, than those whom the said Court did judge to be innocent?
5. What Persons restored by Proviso ex mero Motu1 , or as Nominees or Letterees, did less deserve the same, than some of those who were never restored at all?
6. What Persons never restored, do deserve to have some Parts of their Estates, under two Thirds; and what Parts?
7. What meritorious Persons should be restored to their former Estates, in specie, or to the Equivalent, out of the Stock according to the Proportions that shall be respectively allow'd them?
8. That they consider what Catholicks have gotten Grants of other Catholic Estates?
9. That all Restorees, how innocent and worthy soever, may retrench Thirds as the Adventurers did.
10. That out of the Premisses there may be made a Common Stock for Remedys and Gratifications in the several Cases abovementioned, and for Reprizing of such Protestant Patentees as have been, or shall be, ejected.
11. That an accurate Valuation be made of all Lands in order to this Work.
12. That no Lands be disposed of out of this Stock, till the Court abovementioned have first stated what every Restoree or Removee is to have.
The Seventh Objection. What needs the Monstrous Plantation, the Innovation of Trade, and the General Judicature abovementioned, since Things are so well already in Ireland? And since almost all the Offices and Arms are already (and the Legislature itself may shortly be) in those onely who are of the King's Religion?
We have set forth the Benefits, which may arise from the Transplantation, Trade, and Judicature abovementioned: We come next, to set forth the Difference between Ireland, as it is in this present Year 1687, from what the same was in the Year 1683. In some of the principal Points undermentioned. (vizt)
1. The Rents of all the Lands in Ireland A° 16871 , were worth 1200 Thousand Pounds per Annum, and 12 Year's Purchase, at a Medium between Lands near great Cities and Places of Trade, and the obscure thin-peopled Parts of the Nation: So as the whole Land of Ireland was then worth about 14 Millions 400 Thousand Pounds. But it is Generally believed that the Lands, which then might have been Lett for 3s. 6d. per Acre, and sold for 14 Year's Purchase (vizt for 49s. the Acre) will scarce in this Year 1687 yield 2s. 6d. per Acre, nor sell for above 10 Year's Purchase, vizt. 25s. the Acre or little above for half 49s. From whence we may think that the Lands, which A° 1683 were worth 14 Millions 400 Thousand Pounds, are now fallen 7 Millions thereof.
2. The Housing of Ireland having above one Chimney in each (for the rest we reckon not) have been estimated at 2 Millions; and it is too manifest that the Housing of Dublin are less worth now by one Tenth Part (some will say a Fifth) than they were A° 1683. Wherefore we estimate the whole Housing of Ireland to be fallen 200 Thousand Pounds.
3. All the Cattle of Ireland have been estimated at 5 Millions A° 1683, which in this Year 1687 will not yield above 3 Millions in the Market.
4. The Money, Plate, Jewels, and Fine Furniture, which has been these last Two Years conveyed out of Ireland, or otherwise withdrawn from currant Uses, seems by a numerous Collection of Observations and Relations to be about ⅓ Part of the Whole, or about 160 Thousand Pounds.
5. The Value of Beer, Ale, Wine and other Drinks, which have been spent in the Years 1684, 1685, and 1686, above the Level of other Years, seems to be about 294 Thousand Pounds; and it is likely that the superfluous Expence in the same Year2 of other Commodities may have been 100 Thousand Pounds more. In all 400 Thousand Pounds, Seven Eighths whereof was over-spent by the Irish.
6. The Value of the Goods and Merchandize exported above the Value of the Goods imported in the same Time, appears to be 167 Thousand Pounds. Now the last Two of the Six last-mentioned Articles, may be deduced from the ensuing Table.
|Lady Day Quarter||10263||07||—||7493||10||2¾|
|Lady Day Quarter||10288||14||2¾||8976||14||1¼|
|Prisage of Wines||676||482|
|Excise of Beer and Ale||19028||10||7||17891||19|
|The whole Revenue||20019||10||18642||2||3|
|First 3 quarters|
|Last 3 Quarters|
Concerning Several Decays in Ireland.
Observations upon the Table A.
1. The Year 1683 was not remarkable for any extraordinary accident, and therefore we make it a fit Standard for the other Three Years; in the last whereof were extraordinary Changes upon King James the Second's coming to the Crown.
2. The gross Produce of the whole Revenue in the year 1683 was 300085l.: So as the next1 disposable Revenue might be about 270000l.
3. In the Year 1685 (being the first Year of James the Second) the Prisage of Wines, which is the Measure of that Commodity, did rise from 1452l. to 1882l. (or from about 3 to 4) the Excise of Beer and Ale from 68344 to 79170 (or from about 6 to 7) and the Ale-Licenses from 8284 to 9994: All which are Signs of extraordinary Drinking in 1685.
4. The Difference between the Excise of Beer and Ale in the said years 1683 and 1685 was 10826l., which even according to the small Gallon is about ⅛ Part of the Value of the said Beer and Ale, Sold by Retail2 , shews that the extraordinary Expence of Beer and Ale in the said years was 86608l.
5. If we measure the Expence of Wine by the Prisage, then the Expence thereof A° 1685 more than in 1683 was worth 26000l., as the one Third of 80000l. which in round Number is the Yearly Expence of Wines of all Sorts in Ireland.
6. The Customs inwards A° 1683 were 40870l. and A° 1685 were 43167l. the Difference whereof is 2297l.: Which being multiplied by 4 (imported Goods being about Quadruple in Value to their Duties) gives 9188l. as the value of the extraordinary Quantity of foreign goods as they were worth before they were ship'd. Unto which must be added the Customs of them Inwards being 2297l. as aforesaid, with as much more for imported Excise, making in all 12782l. as the Value of the extraordinary Expence of Foreign Goods in that Year 1685.
7. So as the extraordinary Expence of Beer, Ale, Wine, and Foreign Commodities was 125,390l. in the Year 1685.
8. By the same Method of Computation the extraordinary Expence upon the 3 last aforementioned Heads A° 1686 was of Beer and Ale (nothing of Wine) about 20000l., of Foreign Commodities 51582l.: In all 71582l.
9. The extraordinary Expence in the Year 1684 were also considerable (the Causes whereof I do not meddle with) vizt in Beer and Ale 73912l.: in Wine 10000l.: in foreign Goods 13902l.: In all 97814l.
10. The said extraordinary Expence was in 1684, 97814l.; A° 1685, 126390l.; and A° 1686, 71582l.: And in all the said Three Years 294786l. Besides 106000l. guessed to be for Inland Superfluities.
Observations upon the Table B.
1. The said Table containeth 9 Quarters of a Year, whereof in the 3 first Quarters, or first Ternary, the Customs inwards were 33291l.; and outwards 20473l.; and in the last 3 of the said 9 Quarters or 3d Ternary, the Customes inwards were 38363l. and outwards 36149. The Difference in the outward Ternaries is 15676l., which multiplied by 12 (the Value of Exported Goods being 12 Times as much as their Duties) gives 188,112l., as the probable Value of the extraordinary exported Goods in the said 3 last Quarters. More-over the Difference between the Duties upon Imported Goods in the said 2 Ternaries is 5071l., which multiply'd by 4 gives 20284l., The probable Value of the extraordinary Quantity of imported Goods. Now deducting the said 20284l. out of 188,112l., the Remainder is 167,828l.: the probable Value of the Goods exported above what was imported.
Observations on the Table C.
That the whole Revenue is more in the Lady-Day-Quarter 1687, than in the same Quarter 1686, by about Part. But the Revenue upon the particular Branches of Prisage, Excise upon Beer and Ale, with that of Ale and Wine Licences is sunk about Part1 .
So as the Six Diminutions (some whereof are more or less reparable) do amount in all to Ten Millions and 927000l.1 the Interest whereof at Ten per Cent. is a Million 92000l. Now as the said Interest is in Proportion to the whole Expence of the Nation (which I take to be Six Millions and ½ for 1300 Thousand heads at 5l. each) so the said Expence must hereafter shrink, vizt from 7 to 6, and so must such Part of the King's Revenue also as dependeth thereon.
Since the Making of these Tables, it has been certify'd from Dublin, That the Customs of that Port were in Mid-summer Quarter A° 1686, 13378l., and the same Quarter of the Year 1687 They fell to 10259l., and that the Excise upon Beer and Ale fell in the same Quarter in that City 947l., or one Sixth Part of the Whole: Altho’ the Prisage of Wines encreased from 204 to 278, in the same Time.
It has been also written that, in the West of Ireland, the Yearly Rent of Lands have fallen from 5 to 3, and that within the last 2 Years the Excise of Beer and Ale in and about the same Lands, has fallen from 29l. 10s. to 7l. 2s. All which does too well Justify the Conjectures, which have been here made concerning the Decays of Ireland, as may better appear by the small Table here inserted, with the Births and Burials.
We said that the Excise of Beer and Ale is shrunk at Dublin ⅙ of the whole, or 947l. in the Midsummer Quarter of this Year 1687, and more in other Places. Now whereas it is commonly said, That the Cause thereof is, That the Army are all almost Irish1 , and that the Irish drink little Exciseable Drink, contenting themselves with Milk, Whey, &c.
To this I answer, that the ⅙ of Excise upon Ale and Beer And Ale Licenses is near 15000l. per Annum; that the Pay of the whole Army is about 204000l. per Annum. That the Soldiers (many of whom have Families) cannot spend of their Pay in Drink, and find themselves with other Necessaries of Meat, Cloths, horses, Arms, &c. out of the rest. That is to say they cannot afford above 20000l. for drink2 the Excise whereof is about ⅛ of the same or 2500l., or which is but ⅙ of 15000l., which was ⅙ of the Whole. We may say That if all the Irish of the Army drink onely Water, the King's Revenue of Excise would scarce fall 3 for that Reason, nor above Part of the Whole 90000l. as aforesaid.
Another Argument for the Impoverishment of the Inhabitants of Dublin, at least for the Lessening their Expence, is the Consumption of Coals their General and Uniform Fuel, which may therefore be a Measure of all other Expence. Now it appears that in the Years 1683 and 1684, that Expence was near alike, but in the Year 1685 (when Fear first seizd the said Inhabitants, who, as appears by the Registred Baptisms, were most Protestants) it shrunk Part; and in the Year 1686 another Part; in all ⅕. Which answers4 the Shrinking of the Customs ¼ and of the Excise ⅙.
The Expence of Coals or Fuel at Dublin5 .
Having made this Estimate of the Decays in the Whole Commonwealth; I descend to inquire what the Catholicks of Ireland have gained by the late Changes; and Say
1. That the whole Pay of the Army being 204 Thousand Pounds per Ann. I hear that the Catholicks receive about 160 Thousand Pounds thereof per Annum: Which at two Year's Purchase (for Military Imployments are not yet worth as many Year's Purchase as they were 4 Years since) amounts to 320 Thousand Pounds.
2. The Lands, for which the Lord Dunsany, Mr Husey, and Mr. Barnwel, have gotten Verdicts,1 may be worth about 1000l. per Ann.
Nor do I believe that ten times the said Summ can be gotten more in the same Manner. Now if the best Titles are worth but 10 Year's Purchase, then the Value of 10000l. per Annum, gotten upon such Verdicts, is not worth so much; and their whole Gain of Soldiers and Ejectors not worth above 400 Thousand Pounds.
On the other Hand the Catholicks have lost as followeth (vizt.)
1. The Superfluous Expence abovementioned, amounting for their Shares probably to 350 Thousand Pounds.
2. The Lands belonging to the Roman Catholicks of Ireland A° 1683, were worth 3 Millions. But if the Generality of Lands have fallen above one half, I question whether their Lands and Houses be not fallen ⅓ or a Million.
3. If the Cattle of Ireland be now fallen from 5 to 3 Millions, and that above one half thereof did belong to the Roman Catholicks, then they have upon this Account lost above a Million more. In all about 2 Millions 350 Thousand Pounds; but have scarce gotten, and probably will not get ⅙ of the said Summ. All which in Time may more sensibly appear, altho’ the greater Losses of the other Party does for the present Ecclypse this.
We add hereunto a Conjecture of the Causes of these Decays and Diminutions.
The Causes in General are Frights, Fears, and Jealousies: For the English and Protestants are frighted.
1. To see that for the Sake of Religion (which upon this Account signify'd nothing before the Reformation) that England's Conquest of Ireland is given back to the Irish, as they are apt to imagine.
2. That after Laws are made in England and Ireland, Enacting, That the Insurrection in 1641; The Change of the English Monarchy into an Irish Democracy in 1642; And the Placing Supremacy in the Roman Catholicks; should be Cause of Forfeiture: That those who bear the visible marks thereof should be now trusted with all Civil and Military Power, and probably from Forfeitors be made Legislators.
3. That a Design was Published for making the Roman Catholicks of Ireland as considerable for their Estates as for their Numbers1 : Which in Effect is to take away 11 or 12 Millions of Wealth from the other Party.
4. That the most Zealous Promoters of the Roman Catholic Religion (which, they say, is the onely Means of Eternal Weal or Woe) should make such an Esteem of an Oath (sacred in all Ages and amongst all Nations) as appears in the Lord Dunsany's Trial hereafter inserted2 .
On the other Hand the English and Protestants have done amiss, to be frighted from their habitations and Business
1. When the King had publickly and solemnly, by his Lord Lievtenant, declared to maintain the Acts of Settlement and Explanation3
2. When he had declared for an absolute Liberty of Conscience.
3. When the Publick Revenue, especially that of Customs and Excise (being the Pulse of the Nation) were never higher than in the year 1686.
Having entred upon the Consideration of the Decays of Ireland, it may not be impertinent to consider also (being a Thing much talked on) the Number and Quality of the Brittish and Protestants, who have lately quitted that Countrey; as apprehending much Danger in the Change from the Army and Civil Government, which have happen'd there. In order whereunto, I frame this General Question (vizt) What would be the Damage and Detriment to the Common-wealth of Ireland, if all the Brittish and Protestants, with their Personal Estates, were removed from thence, That by the Rule of Proportion we may measure the Effects of Removing any Part of the whole, when we come to know that Part.
We have said that the Irish Catholicks are to the Brittish as 8 to 1. We must add that (Generally speaking) the ordinary Wages of English Workmen and Artizans is triple to that of Irish Labourers, which is but 4d. per Diem; whereas the meanest of the other Sort do earn at least 12d. So as reckoning one of the English to be equivalent to 3 Irish, the real Proportion between the said Parties will be as 8 to 3, That is to say, the Irish Catholicks will be 8 of 11, and the English in Effect 3 of 11. Wherefore if the value of the Lands in Ireland be 11 Times 11, or 121, Suppose 11 Groats per Acre and 11 Year's Purchase, then after the English are gone the same will fall to 8 Groats the Acre and 8 Year's Purchase; that is to say, to 64 Groats, which before was worth 121 Groats, and become to be but about half the present Value. Which agreeth with what is observed to come to pass in the above Estimate, Which is a Presage Men have already made concerning that Matter.
Moreover, if the Value of the Cattle, Corn, Merchandize, Shippings, and Money of Ireland be about 7 Millions, and that 4 Millions and ½ thereof doth belong to Brittish Protestants, I see no Reason why the Trade, Commerce and Negotiation of Ireland, when 9 Fourteenth Parts of the Stock is carry'd away, should not fall from 14 to 5 also, and become less than ½ of what it is at present: And by this Rule any Diminution of the English Great or Small, may be computed in the Effect thereof upon the Common-wealth.
We have told that one English Workman at a Medium is Equivalent to 3 Irish Workmen: So we may say that one English Soldier in the Heat of the Warr between June 1649 and June 1652, did prove equivalent to 3 Irish Soldiers. For I have heard from the Muster-Rolls that at the End of the Warr A° 1652 and 1653, the English Army in Pay was about 17000; unto which Number it moldred away from 23000 at the Landing of Cromwel: And I have heard that about the same Time 34000 Irish Soldiers and Soldierlike Persons, did go beyond-Sea; and if half that Number did stay behind, the whole Irish Forces were 51000, or triple to the 17000 English aforementioned. And that the said English, in the said 3 Years, did make an Absolute Conquest of the whole Irish Nation, and all their Adherents, is most manifest. I further add, that the Irish Nation in that Time, that is to say, of Men between 16 and 60 Years old, was 12 Times the Number of the said English Army. All which is said rather to give a just Value to the English, than to disparage the Irish, who have fought against other Nations at even hands.
To strengthen then my Assertion, that the English Army was but 17000: I further say that every Soldier, who served never so little a while between the 6th of June 1649, and the 26th of September 1653, had a distinct Debentur stated for his Service: Upon which it appears how many of them dyed in that Time, besides those that went off upon other Occasions. Now the whole Number of such Debenturs being but 33000, there is no reason to think that there was in pay above 17000 at a Medium at any one Time.
As to the Body of the English, we shall by the subsequent Accounts of Foreign Trade make it probable, That ¾ of the Foreign Commerce and Manufacture is managed by them. We further add that all the Real and Personal Estate of Ireland being worth about 20 Millions, that onely ¼ thereof doth belong to the Irish (vizt) 3 Millions worth of Land, and 2 Millions-worth of Cattle and other Commodities. All which is said that how much soever it be thought fit to magnify the Irish, that the English there be not mistaken to be despicable.
Wherefore it may well enough become this Place, to take a gross View (which I heartily beg those who better understand Trade to examine and correct) of the Foreign Trade of Ireland, as it stood in the Year 1685, beginning with the Exportations. vizt.
1. There were exported 1054 horses, which (I suppose) were bred by the English of Ireland.
2. There were exported 2080 Flitches of Bacon, 2514 Barrels of Pork, 75231 Barrels of Beef, and 1135 Dozen of Neat's -Tongues: The Salting and Saving all which, I take to have been brought in by English.
3. There were exported 134712 Barrels of Butter, 2814 hundred Weight of Cheese. Which I take to be the English Manufactory, That which is made by the Vulgar Irish being scarce a vendible Commodity in Foreign Parts.
4. There was exported 84 hundred of Glew, with great Quantity of Ox-horns, Ox-Gutts, and Ox-bones: All which is English Manufacture.
5. There were exported 1435 hundred of Lamb-Skins, 4067 Dozen of Calves-Skins, 1665 hundred of Coney-Skins, 494 Dear-Skins, 4331 Fox and Otter-Skins, 278 hundred of Goat-Skins, 93412 Raw-Salted Oxhydes. All which were exported, because the English for their Paucity, and the Irish for Want of Skill, could not manufacture them to the best Advantage.
6. There were exported 86093 Tan'd hydes, which certainly was the Manufacture of the English, the Irish being conversant with little other Tanning than that of Leather for Brogues.
7. There were exported 4937 Pieces of New, and 79 Pieces of old Drapery: in making whereof the Irish had little hand.
8. There were exported 629141 Yards of Frize and 24,667 Pairs of Course Stockings: The greatest Part whereof were wrought by the Irish.
9. There were exported 123,703 Stone of Wool, with 725 Stone of Woolen Yarn, sent away to be manufactured in England.
10. There were exported 1851 Pieces of Linnen Cloth, 38251 hundred Weight of Linnen Yarn: a great Part of the courser Sort whereof was wrought by the Irish.
11. There was exported 2710 hundred Weight of Candles and 41365 hundred Weight of Tallow: which was the proceed2 of about 100 Thousand Oxen, or the Equivalent in Sheep, reckoning eight Weathers to one Ox.3
12. There was exported 4644 Barrels of Beer, 1519 Gallons of Aqua Vitæ, 5240 Weight4 of Biskets, 148115 Barrels of Corn: most whereof was the Labor of the Irish.
13. There was exported 3902 Barrels of Herring and hogsheads of Pilchards; 591 hundred of Dry Fish, with 3055 Barrels of Salmon: whereof about 3 Quarters were the Labor of the English.
14. The exported Timber, Plank, and Coopers5 , were for the most part the Work of the English.
15. There is more Iron exported out of Ireland, than imported into it, and consequently all the Quantity of Iron used in Ireland is made there and that by the English: Neither are the Irish found by Experience so good as the English, even for Cutting, Cording, and Coaling of Wood, nor for raising of Mines, and carrying off the Water from their Pitts.
Lastly, the Feathers, Kelp, Melasses, Train-Oil, Rape-Seed, Wax and Shoos, exported out of Ireland, is almost all the Work of the English.
As for Importations.
1. The Gold, Silver, Copper1 , Tin, Lead and Steel, as also the Iron (excepting Horse-Shoes, and Plow-Irons) is manufactur'd by the English.
2. The Tobacco-pipe-Clay, Slates and Coals is the Work of the English.
3. The most Part of Dying is done by the English, the Irish indeed can use Bog-Earth, Weeds, and some Indico for that Purpose.
4. The Cotton, Grogram-Yarn and 7831l. of raw Silk is all manufactur'd by the English, the 18241 Pieces of Callico are brought from the Indies by the English.
5. The 2056 Tun of French Wine and 727 Pipes of Spanish, is for the most part brought in by the English Merchants and Mariners. The 15000 hundred Weight of Sugars, and 3 Millions Pounds of Tobacco, were made in America by the English, and chiefly brought in by them.
6. The 1056 hundred of hemp is wrought into Cordage by the English.
7. All the Gunpowder, and most of the Arms, are made by the English.
8. 2811 hundred Weight of hops are grown for the most part in England, & brought into Ireland2 .
There be many other important Observations, to be made upon this gross Account of Trade, but not pertinent to this Place.
1. It has been said that there are now several Decays in Ireland.
2. That the Causes of them have been Fears and Jealousies.
3. That the said Fears do chiefly respect some Changes in the late Disposure of the Lands of Ireland.
4. We shall therefore add a few Words, Why the present Settlement of the said Lands is so much suspected, I suppose, by both Parties. But omitting the Angry Part of the efficient and final Causes of this Settlement, as not reducible to Number, Weight, and Measure.
I shall only say, That my own Fears concerning the Settlement are, and ever were, That the same was not better grounded upon the Accounts, which ought to have been made of the Particulars following (vizt.)
1. How many Acres the whole Territory of Ireland did contain, and how many of them (A° 1641) did belong to Protestants, and how many to Roman Catholicks?
2. Of the Lands belonging to Catholicks (A° 1641), how much of the same were in the Hands of Catholicks (A° 1659) how much more A° 1664?
3. What the Value of the said Lands were A° 1641, 1653, and 1663.
4. What the Irish got from the Brittish, or the Catholicks from others, between the 23d of October 1641 and the 10th of November 1642, in Cattle, Goods, &c?
5. What the new Catholic State got by Land, witheld from the Brittish and the Church between the Year 1642 & 1650?
6. What the Irish got, and the Kingdom lost, by the 34000 Soldiers, sent into Foreign Parts in the Year 1652?
7. What the King gained by the Parliament of Ireland, which made the Acts of Settlement?
8. What he gained by raising the Quit-Rents from the Irish to the English Measure; and by the Year's Value out of forfeited Lands?
9. What was the Quantity and Value of Regicide's Lands, and of the Lands of obnoxious Persons shelter'd by Favourites?
10. What was the Value of Adventures and Debenturs of several Sorts in every Year between A° 1652 and 1659? And what was the Total of each Sort of Debenturs and Adventures? And what was the Quota satisfied upon each Sort before the Year 1659?
11. What Proportion did the Pay of 49 Officers bear to that of their Private Soldiers?
12. What Number of English Soldiers appeared by these Debenturs to have perished in the Warr of Ireland between the Years 1648 and 1654? And what Number of the English, who joined with the Irish, were slain in the same Time?
13. What Money and Money's Worth was really sent out of England into Ireland, between the Years 1641 and 1661?
14. What was the Charge of the Army in Ireland, between the Years 1653 and 1664?
15. What was the Number of the People in Ireland A° 1641 and what 1653? And what probably might they have been A° 1653, if the Warrs had not been?
16. What Lands of the Catholic Restorees, gotten into their hands A° 1664, which were not their's A° 1641?
17. How much did Innocents and other Catholic Restorees recover by vicious Deeds?
18. What has been the Charge in all Courts between the Years 1653 and 1664, concerning forfeited Lands? All which might have conduced to better the Explanatory Act made in the Year 1665.
I am also sorry that the Confirming and Finishing this Settlement was not made in England, where the Ultimate Judicature is, Where the Supreme Legislature of Ireland is; And where are 1600 Thousand indifferent Men, not concerned in this Matter.
From which Accounts will arise the Conclusions following, and many others (vizt)
1. That the Parliament of England A° 1642 did allot 2 Millions and ½ of Forfeited Acres for Suppressing the Rebellion: Which was about ½ of the Lands which the Irish Catholicks then had.
2. That A° 1683 the Irish Catholicks had about half of what-ever they had A° 1641; and Brittish Protestants had the rest, being about 2 Millions 400000 Acres.
3. Of the said 2 Millions 400000 Acres, the Soldiers who actually conquer'd Ireland between the Years 1648 and 1653 had 1400000 Acres.
4. That the said Soldiers did consist of 4 Sorts: (vizt) 1st Phanatic English. 2dly The old Protestants of Ireland. 3dly English Cavaliers then wanting Employments. 4thly Some Lukewarm Irish.
5. Of the Fanatic English, the Regicides and Halbiteers lost all; and about 25 others of the chief and most obnoxious Persons lost at least one Third; by sheltring themselves under the Lord Anglesey and other like Favourites: And many of the rest sold their Interest at low Rates.
6. The said Soldiers stated about 33000 Debenturs, amounting in all to 1160000l., which were fairly and openly sold before the Year 1655 for 3s. 4d. the Pound, at most for 10s., and at a Medium for 6s. 8d. So as all the said Debenturs might have been bought for 380000l, vizt at about 10l. each for 4 Year's Service of every Soldier in that Conquest. The greatest Debentur of any one Man not amounting to above 2400l.; and the greatest Man not having so many Debenturs, as would have been sold in the Market for 1500l. in ready Money.
7. The Adventurer's Legal Debt was about 300000l., and the Interest thereof to the Year 1653, as much more; and the Insurance to both double to both the said Summs: In all 1,200000l. For the Adventurers were to have nothing unless the Rebellion had been suppress'd.
8. The Lands in Ireland now forfeited were worth A° 1641 about 30s. the Acre one with another, And but 2s. 6d. A° 1653. Near 20s. A° 1663. About 30s. A° 1673. And about 40s. A° 1683.
9. The Quit-Rents of Forfeited Lands, were1 as a Gratuity to the King (after his Restauration and Promises at Breda) were advanced from Irish to English Measure vizt 24000l. per Annum: Which at 15 Year's Purchase amounts to 360000l. which with 180000l. (the Year's Value of forfeited Lands in the Year 1659) did amount to a Gratuity of 540000l. for what was worth but 300000l. A° 1653.
10. The Convention and Parliament, which made the Acts of Settlement, gave to the King 2 Pole-Moneys 20000l. for particular Uses, 120000l. as a Supplement to the Year's Value, 35 Subsidies of 15000l. each: Amounting in all to near 1,200000l.
11. The same Parliament also settled upon him a Revenue of near 60000l. new Quit-Rents, 30000l. Hearth Money, 120000l. Customes1 70000l. Excise, and 10000l. Licenses for Selling several Sorts of Drinks. In all a Revenue of 290000l. per Ann. and near Quadruple to what it was before the Warrs.
12. The Brittish Protestants lost by the Robbing and Plunderings of the Irish between 23d of October 1641 and the 10th of November 16422 For their personal Estates were then worth above 2 Millions, and the Irish were 10 for one.
13. The new Catholic State gained between the Years 1642 and 1650, by Usurping of the King's Revenue, of Church-Lands and Livings, and the Sequestration of the Protestant's Estates3 : For the Premisses were worth above 500000 per Ann. and the said State reigned above 8 Years.
14. The Irish Nation gained, and the Kingdom lost, by the Exportation of 34000 able-body'd Irish-men, transported about the Year 1652: For such Men are worth here above 80l. per head, at Algier above 40l., and as Negroes above 20l. per head.
15. The Lands restored to the Catholicks after the King's Restauration were worth more than in A° 1653 by 1200000l.
16. The Charge of the Army in Ireland, between the Year 1653 and 1663 was about equal to the Rent of all the forfeited Lands in the said Time.
17. The Money and Money's Worth, actually sent out of England into Ireland between the Years 1641 and 1661 was much above a Million.
18. The People of Ireland were fewer in the Years 1653 than they might have been by about 600,000 Souls; by reason of the Sword, Famine, Plague, Banishment, and Desolations, which happened between the Year 1641 and 1653.
19. There were in the Year 1653 about 260000 Catholicks Males in Ireland of above 16 Year's old: whereof but 26 (or one in Ten Thousand) did prove their constant good Affection to the Parliament of England; and we never heard of 26, which did Publickly and solemnly protest against the Confederation of the Roman Catholicks, in their General Assembly or Supreme Councel.
20. The Usurpers, by their Act of Settlement made A° 1652 excepted many Protestants as well as Papists for Life and Estate; took nothing from Papists who proved their good Affection to themselves; took a 5th Part even from Protestants, who could not prove such Affection, and were deficient in this Point: Whereas the Act of Explanation retrenched a 3d even from the most legal Adventurers.
21. The Pay of the 49 Officers amounted to above 1200000l., and consequently the pay of the Private Soldiers and the said Officers together must have been 3 Millions and a half or 500000l. per Annum, for the Seven Years between the Beginnings of the Commotions A° 1641 to the Peace of 1648, which shews their Army to have been above 20 Thousand Men.
22. Now the eight Part of the Irish being onely nocent, as appeared by the Judgment of the Court of Claims, did beat the said English Army of 20000 Men into the Peace of 1648; Whereas we have shewn That about 17000 Men did conquer all Ireland in Three Years: All which not standing well together, we rather think That a Great Part of the Innocent Seven Eights became so by foul Play, or false Testimony.
23. And because the Innocents, being a fifth Part of the Claimants, carry'd away above a fourth Part of the whole Land, we may think that the said Innocents got by foul Play also much more than was their own A° 1641.
24. The Court of Qualifications at Athlone, was the same Thing, tho’ by another Name, with the Court of Innocents at Dublin A° 1663; And in this Court all Claims were heard; and the Claimants carry'd away above ⅙ Part of all the Lands, which belonged to Catholicks in 1641 and the Courts after the King's Restauration gave them near 2 sixths more, In all near one half in Quantity, but worth four Times more than the whole was worth in the Year 1653.
25. The Lands, which belonged to Protestants in the Year 1641, were then worth about 4 Millions; but in the year 1653 scarce worth 400000l., by reason of the Commotions begun by the Irish. So as the English were damnify'd 12 Times as much as the forfeited Lands (sett out to the English) of all Sorts were worth in the said Year 1653.
Memorandum, That several Blanks are not here filled up, and several whole Conclusions are omitted, for fear of Widening the Breaches we hope to make up: Nor had so many Conclusions been inserted as are, but that the Peace, we hope for, must be founded upon the Knowledge of Truth.
The other Fright of the English is, that by Partialities in Judicature, they are like to lose their Estates without Reprizals; in such a Way as endangers all Property, and as will damp Buying and Selling, Borrowing or Lending, Marriages and Settlements, and (at length) even Plowing and Sowing, till the Nation come not onely to Poverty, but to Brutality also. There have 5 Ejectments been brought this Year (whereas 500 have been talked of, and which probably will amount to 30) whereof 3 have been already tryed: vizt. That against Dr. Gorges, that against Major Bull, and that against Mr. Napper by the Lord Dunsany. The latter whereof is onely come to my Knowledge, and is comprehended in the following Discourse.
The Lord Dunsany's Case.
Of the Lord Dunsany's own, and of his Father's and Grandfather's Wrongs and Oppression in Ireland, since the Year 1662, and of his Relief Anno 1687.
[An account of the legal details of this case, here omitted, begins on folio 118 and extends through 125 of the MS., which then takes up the last of the “objections.”]
The Eighth Objection, That notwithstanding all the Fallacies and Sophistries abovementioned, this Transplantation of People is an uncouth, wild, monstrous, and Chymerical Notion, yea a very Notion.
And so were not long since the Assertions following, vizt.
1. That tho’ the World thought there had been near twice as many Females as Males in Mankind; yet it has been well proved that there are at London 14 Males to 13 Females, and at Rome 7 to 51 : And because Males are prolific 40 Years and Females but 25, there are in Effect at London 560 Males for 325 Females, or 112 for 65.
2. That the City of London is now about quadruple to what it was 80 Years ago, and containes about the 10th Part of the People of the whole Kingdom.
3. That in the famous hospital at Paris called L’ hostel Dieu there dye above 3000 per Ann. unnecessarily, to the Damage of France of above 200 Thousand Pounds Sterl. per Ann.
4. That London has more People than Paris, Rome, and Roven.
5. And as many as the whole Province of Holland.
To all which no great Matter has been yet Objected.
I further answer That this Essay is not a Chymerical Conceit, spun out of Fables, Dreams, Visions, Mysteries, insignificant Words and supercilious Saying; but a real Notion grounded upon Matter of Sense, and Fact, and intelligibly thus express'd (vizt)
1. That this Transplantation will increase the Gain of England from Foreign Parts from 1 to 2.
2. The Value of Ireland from 2 to 3; as also lessen Ireland's Present Decays, which are from 3 to 2.
3. Will raise the Value of Lands in England from 3 to 4.
4. And the King's Revenue from 4 to 5, but make the same as easie, as if it had contrariwise fallen from 5 to 4.
5. The Value of Transplanted People from 7 to 10.
6. All which put together exceeds 140 Millions, and cures a cruel Calamity of above 500 Years old.
To Conclude, if this Notion (such as it is) pretending to so much General Good, shall not be examined and confuted within some reasonable Time, we shall be emboldened to frame another Essay
Shewing that the King of England's Territories and Subjects are (as to their intrinsic Weight, Force, and Substance) little inferior to the same of France, without any Detraction from that Glorious Kingdom.1
If in this Jealous Age this Essay should be taxed of an Evil Design to Wast and Dispeople Ireland, We say that the Author of it intends not to be Felo de se, and propound something quite contrary, by Saying it is naturally possible in about 25 Years to double the Inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland and make the People full as many as the Territory of those Kingdoms can with tolerable Labor afford a competent Livelihood unto: Which I prove thus, (vizt)
1. The sixth Part of the People are teeming Women of between 18 and 44 Years old.
2. It is found by Observation That but ⅓ Part or between 30 and 402 of the teeming Women are Marryed.
3. That a Teeming Woman, at a Medium, bear a child every two Years and a half.
4. That in Mankind at London, there are 14 Males for 13 Females, and because Males are prolific 40 Years, and Females but 25, there are in Effect 560 Males for 325 Females.
5. That out of the Mass of Mankind there dyes one out of 30 per Annum.
6. That at Paris, where the Christnings and the Births are the same in Number, the Christnings are above 18000 per Annum, and consequently the Births at London, which far exceed the Christnings there, cannot be less than 19000 where the Burials are above 23000.
As for Example.
Of 600 People, the Sixth Part (vizt 100) are teeming Women, which (if they were all marry'd) might bear 40 Children per Ann. (vizt) 20 more than do dye out of 600, at the rate of one out of 30; and consequently in 16 Years the Increase will be 320, making the whole 920. And by the same Reason, in the next 9 Years, the said 920 will be 280 more, in all 1200, vizt double of the Original Number of 600.
Upon these Principles, if there be about 19000 Births per Ann. at London, the Number of the marry'd teeming Women must be above 38000; and of the whole Stock of the Teeming Women must be above 114000, and of the whole People Six Times as many vizt 684000; which agrees well enough with 696000, which they have been elsewhere computed to be1 .
To conclude it is naturally possible, that all teeming Women may be marry'd, since there are in Effect 560 Males to 325 Females; and since Great Britain and Ireland can with moderate Labor2 food and other Necessaries to near double the present People or to about 20 Millions of heads, as shall when Occasion requires it, be demonstrated.
Memorandum, that the Councel or Judicature abovementioned to be final for Ireland, may serve also for Managing the Multiplication of the King's Subjects, and may withal be a Means to perpetuate and secure the Universal Liberty of Religion late indulged by his Majestie; May take care that humor and sinister Designs be not obtruded upon the Government as Tenderness of Conscience; Nor that the said Latitude in Divine Worship and Profession of Opinions concerning Spiritual Matters, and what concerns the World to come, may not in this World destroy the Unity, Peace and Plenty, of the People. And all this under the King's Authority, This Councel being supposed to have none of it's own, altho’ it be Vox Populi, and as near as may be, the very Church of England.
Another View of the same Matters, by Way of Dialogue Between A and B.
A. How many Acres of Land, belonging to the Catholicks of Ireland A° 1641, are now, in this year 1687, enjoyed by the English Protestants?
B. Two Millions 400000 Acres, as appears by the Books of Distribution, extracted out of the Decrees and Certificates of the Court of Claims.
A. What is the Value of the said Lands?
B. I do not know what their Value is in this Year 1687, but in the Year 1683 (having bin extremely improved) I guess they might have been worth near 40s. the Acre, and A° 1641 and 1673, about 30s. the Acre, A° 1663 about 20s. & A° 1653 about half a Crown.
A. With what Face can you say they were so Cheap?
B. It is Notorious and expressly mentioned in the Acts of 17th Charles the First; as also in the Usurper's Act of Satisfaction made A° 1653, That the Lands in Leinster should be rated at 12s. per Acre, in Munster at 9s. in Connaught at 6s., and in Ulster at 4s. So as 4 Acres set out by Lot (one in each Province) should go for 31s. in Debentur-Money, which makes but 10s. in Silver-Money. Now if 4 Acres be worth but 10s. one is worth but 2s. 6d.
A. This is very hard to be believed. Have you any other Proof?
B. Yes for 4 Millions 800000 Acres A° 1659 were by Solemn Commission returned to be worth but 180000l., or 9d. the Acre: And if they were worth but 9d. the Acre A° 1659, they were not worth 5d. per Acre A° 1653, nor above 41 Year's Purchase at that Rent, viz. not above 20d. per Acre even for the Inheritance: Which by Experience is nearer the Truth than half a Crown.
A. I am amazed! I Believe, but help my Unbelief, and tell me what was the Reason of what you say.
B. At that Time there was no Housing, nor Cattle upon the Land, little Money or Trade in the Nation, no sure Titles; Soldier's Debenturs were taken for a Jest: And the whole Government and Army in the Hands of Anabaptists.
A. Well, I am satisfy'd that all the said Lands might fairly and squarely have been bought for 300 Thousand Pounds in ready Money. But pray, Who did Claim them before the Acts of Satisfaction 1653.
B. You will wonder and Laugh to hear my Answer.
1. For the Adventurer said, that his equitable Debt was in Principle Interest and Insurance 1200000l., and Quadruple to the Value of the Lands, But that his Legal Debt or Original Money was equal unto it.
2. The British Protestants, who were plundered A° 1642 by the Rebels, said that the Goods, Money, and Cattle, which they lost, were worth 600000l., as appeared by Examination upon Oath, besides the Interest thereof for 10 Years. And therefore that all the said 300000l., worth of Forfeited Lands belonged unto them and not to Strangers.
3. The owners of Ruined Housing said, That their Damage, in the 12 Years of the Warrs, amounted to Six Times the then Value of the said forfeited Lands.
4. The Owners of the Cattle, which had been destroyed in the said 12 Years (for very few were left) said that their Value amounted to at least 3 Millions, or ten Times the Value of the said Lands.
5. The Army, who serv'd from the Year 1641 to the Year 1648, and the People that fed them, pretended to a Debt of 3600000l.
6. The State and People of England said they had actually sent over 1200000l., or 4 Times the Value of the said Lands.
7. The Protestant Land Lords of Ireland said, that their Lands A° 1641, were worth above 4000000l., and A° 1653 but 400000l.: So as they were damnify'd 12 Times the Value of the forfeited Lands.
8. The Protestant Churchmen said, That their Lands and Tyths, which the Catholick's State had Usurp'd during the 8 Years of their Reign, amounted at least to 900000l., or 3 Times the Value of the forfeited Lands.
9. The King (or those who Usurped his Right) said that the Public Revenue, taken by the said new State for the said Time, amounted to 5 or 600000l. That the Value of the 34000 Men, sent into the Service of Foreign Princes, were worth above 1200000l., and that the 600000 Subjects, which the Kingdom had less in the Year 1653, than they might have had (had not the Warrs begun by the Irish hinder'd their Increase) at 70l. per Head, were worth 42 Millions, or 140 Times the whole Value of the Forfeited Lands.
10. Lastly, the Soldiers who actually conquer'd Ireland said that their Debenturs amounted1 1160000l., or Quadruple the Value of the Forfeited Lands.
A. Oh, I am amazed, It seems to me that all these Claims do amount to near 200 Times the Value of the Forfeitures.
B. They do so. But perhaps they will say, The Number of the King's Subjects lessen'd by the Wars, was not 600000 Heads. I believe, indeed, the Value of each Head at a Medium is about 70l.
A. And so do I. But pray make it out that the Number of wanting Subjects is 600000.
B. I cannot well undertake it, but will tell you what I remember to have heard upon this Subject, vizt. It is allowed That the present Number of People of Ireland is 1300000, That they are increased, since the Year 1653, by Comers out of Scotland and England, 500002 ; And by the ordinary Course of Generation in 34 Years 350000 more.
A. I find by Grant's Observations, That they do not increase in England so fast.
B. Very likely. For in England, the Proportion of Marry'd Teeming Women, is not so great as in Ireland; Where they marry upon the first Capacity, without staying for Portions, Jointures, Settlements, &c. Well, let it pass for the present, That the People A° 1653, were 900000, I will prove it better at our next meeting. I say further, That the People A° 1641 were 1400000, And that they would have increased, had not the Warrs hindered, to 1500000 in the 12 Years between 41 and 53, and the Difference between 15 and 9 is 600000, as was propounded.
A. You go a little too fast. I believe that 14 in 12 Years might have very well increas'd to 15. But pray tell me, Why there were 14 A° 1641, when there are but 13 now.
B. (1) I have heard many ancient observing People say so. 2. I find that the Tyths yielded more in A° 1641, than in these latter Years; And that the Number of Grist-Mills were also more A° 1641, than now. 3. The Quantity of Hops, Tobacco, Sugars, and Salt, imported, were more than now. And the Quantity of Hydes, Tallow, Cattle Dead and Alive, and of Wools wrought and unwrought, were less; which shows that in Ireland the Consumption was great (the Natural Produce being the same at both Periods) & consequently more People.
A. I can find no great Fault with what you have said. But cou'd wish that this great Point might not be slubber'd; Murders and Massares (sic) are odious Crimes. And some say, to Blacken the Irish, that they caused the Death of above 150000 English and Scotch Protestants in the first Year of their Commotions. And others, to extenuate the Causes of Forfeiture, do shrink that Number to 4001 . But you have started a most soft and candid Question, by Asking onely, without Rancor, How many of the King's Subjects were fewer in Ireland, when the Warr ended, A° 1653, than they might have been, if there had been no Warr at all, That is to say, Whether they perished by Murders and Massacres committed by Private Hands, or by Hunger and Cold, or by being frighted out of the Kingdom; or Whether they were slain as Soldiers on both Sides; or Whether they perished by the Plague, which reigned very fiercely A 1650; Or by Famin2 and Desolation, which was great about the End of the Warr; Or whether this Number were Lessen'd, by Hindring the Ordinary Course of Generation: For it is all one, by what Means they were Lessen'd, as to the Account we are now Stating, Of the Damages which accru'd from the Rebellion. Altho’ it be not all one, as to the Sin of the particular Scelerates, which caused this Calamity.
B. What if I had said but 300000 instead of 600000, the Loss even of 300000 People, is more than all the Estates of the Irish Real and Personal, at their greatest Worth and Splendor, can expiate. Nevertheless, because it is a curious Inquiry, and to shew you that I do not talk altogether at Random, I will repeat and strengthen the Demonstration I began; vizt.
1. That there [are] about 1300000 Souls in Ireland in this Year 1687. I say that the Revenue of Hearths is 30000l., So as the Hearths must be 300000 in Number. I say that, by a good Estimate from the Hearth-Books, all the Houses in Ireland, which have more than one Chimney are 20000; and that there dwell 6 Heads in each of such Houses, one with another: In all 120000 Souls. And that there are in the said Houses 3 Chimneys one with another, in all 60000 Chimneys: Which deducted out of 300000, leaves 240000 chimneys for 240000 Thousand Families. But in the poor Cabineer Families, one with another, there live 5 Heads in each; which makes the Number of those Cabineers 1200000: Which added to the 1200000 (sic) abovementioned, makes 1320000 Heads, which is the next round Number to 1300000.
2. Let me suppose that there were 900000 People in the Year 1653, and 1300000 now, then at a Medium there were 1100000: Out of which there dyed, at the Rate of one out of 30,370001 per Annum. Grant saith2 that in Countrey Parishes, where there are 4 Burials there are 5 Births; and consequently the Increase of the People in Ireland must be the Quarter of 37000 or 9000 one Quarter per Annum: Which multiply'd by 35 makes 315000 to have increased by Generation, between the Year 1652 and 1687, and the Number in 1652 to be 985000.
3. Altho’ I said there were more People A° 1641 than A° 1687, as appears by the Exportations, Importations, Tyths, Grist-Mills, and the Judgment of Intelligent Persons; Yet I shall suppose them to be but one 13th Part, or 1400000 in all: But 1400000 would have increased from the Year 1641 to the Year 1653 115003 per an or 138000, making the whole 1538000. Now the Difference between 15380001 and 9850001 is 5530001. So as of the 9850001 last Mentioned we need suppose but 470000(sic) to have come out of England and Scotland in 35 Years; And then the Assertion, that the King has lost 600000 Subjects by the Irish Commotions is well justify'd.
I know these are not so perfect Demonstrations as are required in pure Mathematicks; but they are such as our Superiors may work with, as well as Wheelwrights and Clock-makers do work without the Quadrature of a Circle. For to have been more Nice or Punctilious in them, had been the same Excess, as if a Painter should work a large high Altar-Piece in Miniature: Whereas the gross Image of this Affair lyes in Saying, that the Irish changed the Monarchy into Democracy, which cost the Crown of England 600000 People, worth 42 Millions of Money.
A. You have said more than I thought could have been said: But remember, I must have another Bout with you about this Matter. You told me how many Claimants there were for this 300000l. worth of Forfeited Lands: Pray proceed to tell me how the same was Actually dispos'd of by the Acts of Settlement and Explanation, keeping to the Supposition, That the Whole was but 300000l.
B. You come a little too suddenly upon me; I cannot tell you all these Things without Book, but will give you the best Guess I can, which is
1. That the Adventurers (of the said 300000l.) had 43000l.
2. That 155000l. were given to the Soldiers.
3. That out of the Adventurers and Soldiers which had been Regicides, 20000l. was given to the Duke of York; and that Obnoxious Men of both Sorts gave 4000l. to be shelter'd by Favourites.
4. The Church and Colledge of Dublin, and other Publick Uses had about 8000l., and the 49 Officers 32000l.
5. Protestant Sufferers, Servitors, and Favourites had the rest, or 38000l.
A. But what did all the Claymants, you just now mention'd, say to this Shrinking of their Hopes into a Welshman's Button?
B. They rail'd at the present Settlement and said, That the Usurpers needed not to have been so kind, as by their Act in 1652 to give away above Part of the Whole to the Catholicks, who forfeited all in Lump as one Man, eo Nomine; Tho’ not for going to Mass or Confession, nor for Praying to Saints or for the Dead; But for Changing Monarchy into Democracy, for placing Supremacy into a Council of Confederate Roman Catholicks, and for Extorting from the King (in duris) the Articles of 1648. For the Usurpers themselves touch'd no man for his Religion, and punish'd Protestants and Papists equally, whom they found disaffected unto them; and thought Difference in Religion to be no more a Cause of Forfeiture, than an English Ship's carrying a Flag with a Red Cross to an Enemy-Nation. But no doubt the Usurpers had an End for this their Indulgence, as in the Preamble of the said Act is set forth. For they gave all Men Leave to Claim upon their Qualifications, and the 8th Qualification was the same with Innocency; and all Complainants (for ought I know) were heard, and had Decrees at Athlone of one Sort or other.
A. This was a scurvy Grumble to begin withal: What else did they say?
B. I told you there were several Species of Claimants, whereof some Grumbled one way and some another. As for Example: Some thought they had been confirm'd, by the King's Promises at Breda, in what they possess'd the 7th of May 1659, without further Trial of Innocence1 , after a Present given the King of 540000l. Others thought that the Acts of the Rump-Parliament were, as to this Matter, completely warranted by the Act of 17th of Charles the First, and that of Judicial Proceedings, which Doctrine the English Act of Oblivion seems to favour; Others wonder'd to see 7 of 8 Irish Claimants adjudged Innocent, and that very suspicious Deeds of Entail [were] allow'd to the Sons of Outlawed Persons; That English Strangers should be put to prove what was done 20 Years before in the Rebels Quarters, and be deny'd the Testimony of the 49 Men for that Purpose: And in Fine, That about 1500000 Acres of Land should be restored upon such Innocents, and upon such Titles, and upon Provisos of mere Grace. Lastly, others grumbled, That the Irish should so vehemently crave a further Hearing of all their Claims; and such Sherifs and Juries should be chosen, as shall allow the Deeds which the Irish have suppressed For1 20 Years. There be many other Grumblings against Great Men; but the World will never be quiet, nor cease to be Envious, not considering that if Things have been amiss in this Settlement, they may be as bad in another.
A. You were saying that there was Grumbling against Great Men, upon the Account of the present Settlement. I remember that the Narrative of the Sale and Settlement of Ireland2 grumbles hard against the Duke of Ormond, as for having as much Land, as would have satisfied all the Adventurers, in or about the Year 1667, when that Pamphlet was written. Can you make me understand this Matter, for it seems very Enormous, and by that I might make a Judgement of the whole Book.
B. That Author does often speak at random, and what he does not know; omitting very many Things which ought to be known. But to this3 Present Point I say, 1. That the Acres, which the Adventurers first had, were 3900004 ; and I do not find that the Duke of Ormond had ever above 3 Quarters of that Number in his Hands of any Sort, or in any Sense.
2. That if he then had 300000 Acres in his Hands, above 200000 thereof was the course Lands of Kerry; upon which he had onely some Chaffages1 .
3. That the said Lands were indeed 200000 Acres, but it was by the erroneous Measure of the extream2 Column: Whereas they contained indeed scarce 30000 Acres by the Legal Measure of the reduced Column, according to which very Measure, they were not worth 2s. per Acre before the Warrs.
4. His Grace, upon Trial of the Matter in the Court of Claims, quitted these Lands to those who had Right in them, a little after the Author wrote. So that in Truth, upon the whole Matter, this vast Scope of Kerry-Lands would not have made above Part of the Adventurer's Satisfaction, which that Author conceived might have been a full Satisfaction to them: And as his Grace was abused by this Narrative, so was he also by them who put him upon Meddling with those Lands at all, which he held about 5 Years upon their Sinister Perswasions.
A. I instance, in the next Place, the horrible Grumbling against Sr. Wm. Petty as an exorbitant Gainer by the said Settlement. Can you say any Thing of him?
B. That Man has been 35 Years upon the Stage of Irish Affairs, so as a Volume might be writt concerning him. But the Answer to your Question may be short, vizt. That Gentleman made an Admeasurement of Ireland in the Year 1655 and 1656, now fairly recorded in his Majesty's Surveyor General's Office, by distinct Maps of every Parish; and also Printed and Published in distinct Maps of every Country and Province. And the same was appointed to be done, not onely by the Usurper's Acts, but even by the Act 17° Car. Imi and the Work was confirmed not onely by several Years of Probation during the Usurper's Government, but also by the Acts made in Ireland since the King's Restauration; and more particularly, after ten Year's Examination of the same by the Act of Explanation in the 22d and 23d Pages thereof: And hath been before and since the Rule and Standard of the greatest Transactions in Ireland.
This Survey was performed by Measuring as much Line by the Chain (and Measuring about 20 Angles within every Mile's Space by the Circumferenter) as would encompass the Globe of the Earth 8 Times about in it's greatest Circle. Now if we may allow him to gain 1000l. for Measuring each Time about the World (his Accounts amounting to 9000l.) then the said Gain, lay'd out in forfeited Lands at half a Crown the Acre (which was the fair Market-Rate, as hath been elsewhere proved) then Sr. Wm. Petty might have 70000 Acres for his Work, worth at 2s. the Acre 7000l. per Ann.
Memorandum, That if he had gotten more than is here mentioned, he need not have been a Knave thereby: For he had A° 1657 4000l. in Money more than the 9000l. that he got by the Survey. But if he has a less Estate than aforesaid, he was a Fool or unfortunate pro tanto. I further say, That the Lands belonging to the Catholicks A° 1641 were near 5 Millions of Irish Acres, or 8 Millions of English Acres profitable, with 3 Millions more in Rivers, High-ways, Loughs, Bogs, Rocks, and barren Mountains. And the Charge of the said Admeasurement was 24000l. or little above 40s. per Thousand Acres, and little above one half-penny per Acre Rough and Smooth. And if the said Survey be computed at 200000 English Miles, which will encompass the World 8 Times about; Then, allowing half a Crown or 2s. 4d. for Measuring an English Mile (with perhaps 20 Angles in the same) or about Ten Groats for an Irish Mile, the Charge of the said Survey1 will not amounts (sic) to 25000l., which is more than was given for the same.
A. Pray proceed to the Cases of other Men, who have got great Estates by the Settlement.
B. In answer to your Desire, I will name you about 25 of the greatest Gainers by the Settlement: Protesting against having any Prejudice against any of them. And must first tell you, That the King has about 56000l. per Ann. by new Quit-Rents out of the Forfeitures; that of the Catholicks the greatest Gainers are the Duke of York, Earl of Clancarty, Earl of Inchequeen, Earl of Tyrconnel, Earl of Carlingford, the Lord of Clare, the Lord Dillon, Coll. Matthews, & Mr. John Brown of Connaught.
2. That of those, who lived in Ireland before the Rebellion, the most considerable were the Duke of Ormond, Earl of Anglesey, Earl of Orrery, Earl of Montrath, the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Lansborough, the Lord Kingston, Lord Coloony, Sr. Theophilus Jones, Sr. Maurice Eustace, and Aldermn Preston.
3. That of those, who came into Ireland since the Year 1648, the most considerable were the Lord Massareen, Aldermn Erasmus Smith, Sr. Wm. Petty, Captn James Stopford, Mr. John Eyres of Connaught, and Sr. Henry Ingoldsby: some of all which Sorts did their Business by downright Gifts and Grants, Some were forced into great Advantages by Guilty and Obnoxious Persons; Some by the Sheltering and Colouring Vicious and defective Interests; Some by the Trade of Buying and Selling Debenturs, and Adventures, and Connaught-Purchases. So as I verily believe, That of the whole 300000l. worth of Forfeitures, there did not remain with the new English A° 1683 one full Third Part thereof. I mean by the new English, not all those that came into Ireland since the Beginning of the Rebellion, but onely those who came thither between the Year 1646 (when the King's Affairs went to wreck in England) and the Year 1656 (when the Usurpers were in their Meridian), Which Party of Men, altho’ they all seem to be Phanatically and Democratically disposed, yet in truth were Animals of all Sorts, as in Noah's Ark.
A. The Narrative of the Sale and Settlement pathetically sets forth, That never any Nation was so miserable as the Irish after their Conquest A° 1653: Whereas you insinuate, They Gained more than they Lost by the Rebellion.
B. I say by my own Observation, That I never saw so much Merriment anf Jollity anywhere, than A° 1652, among those that were to be Transported and their Friends. And have heard that the said Transportees lived more pleasantly Abroad than at Home. I also say, That Nine Parts of Ten of that Nation, who lived as Labourers and Tenants, did live more plentifully and freely in the next Seven Years after their Conquest between A° 1653 and 1660, than they had done in the Seven Years next before the Warrs. For they had Lands at small Rents even at at1 the present, and yet sold their Commodities at greater Rates than now, and, paying their Rents, were as free as their Landlords. Nor do I remember any Man to have been by Authority punished for his Religion in that Time, there being no National Church then established in Ireland.
A. I thank you for your Informations, but cannot digest that Honest-Moderate-Wealthy Catholicks should lose their Estates, for what a Company of Lewd, Ignorant, Barbarous, and Beggerly Rascals did against the English in the Tumultuary Year 1642.
B. Alas it is the Wrath of God, and a Curse upon Mankind, that Things should be so! Is not the whole World ingaged in Original Sin, for Adam's Eating the Forbidden Fruit? Do not Princes, by the Allowance of their Confessors, throw Bombs and Fire-works into besieged Towns, which light more upon innocent Women and Children, than upon those who have offended the said Princes, or even upon Soldiers in Arms? The General Assembly of the Catholicks did not punish the Outrages committed in that Tumult by those Scelerates; nor did those Moderate Men (you mention) by Word or Deed protest against their General Assembly, nor the Confederate Usurpers of Supremacy; but had all Secret Hopes of Gaining some agreeable Ends out of those Horrible Beginnings. Are not all Men bound by an Act of Parliament in England, altho’ 4 Parts of 5 have no Right to make Members for either House? I am unwilling to drive this Nail too far; Think on what I have said, and let me have your Objections at our next Meeting.
A. Pray, have a little Patience, and as you have now told me what the English and Protestants have lost, so repeat (if you please) what the Irish Catholicks have got by the Rebellion, or what else you will call it?
B. As to the Name Rebellion, I matter it not, That which the Irish did amiss in was, as I apprehend, THE CHANGING THE ENGLISH MONARCHY INTO A DEMOCRACY; The Placing Supremacy into a Confederacy of Roman Catholicks to the Wrong and Blemish of that Religion, and the Extorting from the King (in duress) the Articles of A° 1648: All which is plain-intelligible English of which there is no Doubt.
The Particulars by which the Irish gain'd are these; vizt.
|1. By the Robberies and Plunderings of the English|
before the Gen1 Assembly.
|2. By Usurpation of the King's Revenue for above 8|
|3. By Usurpation of the Church-Lands and Livings for|
the same Time.
|4. By Exportation of 34000 Men at 40l.. per Head.||1300000l.|
|5. By Improvements upon Restor'd Lands.||1200000l.|
Now tho’ the Value of the forfeited Lands were A° 1641, 3600000l., Yet it must be understood that Parts thereof was lost by Common Calamity, and onely 300000l. (the Value of the same A° 1653) was lost by Penalty or Forfeiture, which is but the 15th Part of what they gained, as aforesaid.
A. I do not see that those, that lost their Lands, got any Part of the 4500000l., above-mentioned.
B. Truely, I believe not. For I think the 600000l. got by Plundering, was immediately and lewdly spent by the Plunderers themselves. That the King's and Church's Revenue might have been spent upon the Common Cause. That the Gain upon the 34000 exported Men, redounded to the Exportees themselves, and to their Conductors and Commanders. That the Improvements accrewed to the Restorees onely. But all that is nothing: For all the Confederate Roman Catholicks, ought to be looked upon but as one Man; who lost by Way of Forfeiture 300000l. and gain'd 4500000l., which is 15 for one. Now for Remedy of Inequality among themselves, it may be done by a Court or Council of Catholicks erected for that purpose, as aforementioned, and by the Prudence of Confessors; without Frighting and Disturbing the whole Nation with a perpetual Fear of Unsettlement.
A. I will trouble you no further. The Summ of what I have learn'd is this, That by the Rebellion in Ireland is properly mean't, The Change of Monarchy into Democracy, and Transferring Sovereign Power from the King to the Confederate Catholicks: And Aggravated by Extorting the Articles of 1648, and not Punishing the Outrages of 1641. And that the said Confederates gained thereby 15 Times more than they properly lost; And that all the several Branches of the English-Protestant Interest lost 200 Times more than they gain'd.
B. You need not now at last be so very short; but (if you please) sum up what we have said thus. (vizt)
1. Between the 23d of October 1641, and the 10th of November 1642, there was a Barbarous and Outragious Tumult of the Irish Catholicks against the English Protestants in Ireland: Who being then about 10 to one committed many Murders, Robberies, and Mischiefs upon the English.
2. That the 10th of November 1642, and after Edge-Hill-Fight in England, when the King was dangerously ingaged against his Enemies, the Irish changed Monarchy into Democracy.
3. The Roman Catholicks then blemished their own Sacred and Infallible Religion, by Making it a signal Ear-Mark and Brand of Rebellion upon themselves.
4. Their several Cessations and Peaces with the King gave him no Relief to his Distresses in England; But the Latter in 1648, was thought to be a main Cause of his disastrous Death.
5. That the English, in Pursuance of an Act made by the King, Lords, and Commons of England, perfectly suppress'd that Rebellion in the Year 1653, with an immense Expence of English Blood and Treasure, and the Loss of 600000 People.
6. The actual Conquerors did, by way of Indulgence, give to the Catholicks a 6th Part of all the Lands which belonged to them A° 1641, with the Liberty of their Persons and Personal Estates, punishing no Man for his Religion.
7. They Leased back the Lands, which they got from them as forfeited, at one Quarter of the real Value between 1653 and 1660.
8. The said actual Conquerors surrendred all their Acquisitions to the King at Breda, and made him a Present of 540000l., which, with 60000l. spent in Defence of his Title, amounted to double the Value of what they now keep, as A° 1653.
9. An Army was kept up from 1653 to 1663, whose Pay was equivalent to the Rent of all the Forfeited Lands.
10. The Regicides and Halberteers were outed of all their Acquisitions, and many disaffected Persons driven to take shelter under others &1 to part with their Interests at small Rates.
11. A new Court of Innocence, and Clauses of Grace, give2 after the Promises of Breda, one Third more to the Catholicks of all that belonged to them in 1641, with as much Improvement as was worth 4 Times what all the Lands they lost were worth A° 1653.
12. A° 1655, The English retrench a Third of what was most Legally due. But the Irish Restorees nothing.
13. Upon the whole Matter, the Irish Catholicks seem to have gained by these Commotions 15 Times more than they lost; And all the Branches of the English-Protestant Interest, seem to have Lost 200 Times more than they have Gained.
14. The Parliament of Ireland gave to the King in Pole-Money, Subsidies, &c. within 5 Years after his Restauration, about 1200000l.
15. The same Parliament gave the King a Revenue, by new Quit-Rents out of Forfeitures, of near 60000l. per Ann. and made his whole Revenue quadruple to what the said was before the Warrs.
16. The Irish Catholicks, by indeavouring to out the English of what they held1 A° 1684, have reduced all the Real and Personal Estate of Ireland to be Worth but one half of what the same was worth in the said Year 1684, and lessen'd their own Estate above 2 Millions.
17. The Transplantation above-mentioned, which should have been made above 500 Years since, will benefit both Nations 140 Millions; and that of Scotland 60 Millions more: In all 200 Millions at the Hazard of 4 or 5 onely.
A. The Title of your Treatise is POLITICAL PASTIMES AND PARADOXES. Now, besides my particular Thanks, I give you this Complement, That the Consideration of these Matters may be Pastimes becoming the King. And your Assertions, concerning the Gain and Loss by the Rebellion (tho’ but a 10th Part thereof should be true) is a Paradox in all the Courts of Christendom, where the Narrative of the Sale and Settlement of Ireland has been published.
B. I thank you, and do willingly submit my self to the Censure of the World; and shall take it as a Kindness from any good Patriot, that will solidly confute, that is to say, rectify what I have said amiss, That England (which has the Ultimate Judicature of these Matters) may be throughly informed.
This syllabus shews rather what Petty intended than what he accomplished. The Treatise attempts to establish but eleven of the thirteen points. To the thirteenth it pays slight attention incidentally, of the twelfth it barely makes mention.
‘&’ inserted by Petty.
Petty had calculated the population of Ireland at 1,100,000 in 1672 and at “about 1200 Thousand” in 1676. Polit. Anat., p. 141, and note on p. 142, Polit. Arith., p. 272.
‘then at present’ inserted by Petty.
See note on p. 142.
Cf. note on p. 461, where Petty calculated but 186⅔ non-Catholics to one Catholic in England.
A variation from the estimate of 1672, Polit. Anat., p. 142, note.
‘but’ inserted by Petty.
James II.'s Declaration of Indulgence had been issued 4 April, 1687.
‘to’ inserted by Petty.
‘And’ inserted by Petty.
‘even’ inserted by Petty. In the Polit. Anat., p. 152 he estimates the fee simple of Irish lands in 1641 at “above 8 millions.”
Cf. note 2, p. 454.
A blank in the MS., opposite which the copyist set 8 ‘q’ in the margin. Zero might have been inserted.
Petty thus allows the herdspeople £6. 13s. 4d. expence, the English rate, cf. p. 559.
? a slip for ‘by.’
On p. 579 Petty revises this calculation.
‘militia’ inserted by Petty.
See note on p. 573.
The Polit. Anat., which contains such estimates, (pp. 150, 151) was not published when Petty wrote. On p. 608 he handles the subject somewhat gingerly.
Petty's discussion of this subject appears to be lost.
Here follows, in Addl. MS. 21128, Another View of the same Matters, which is printed after “the eighth objection,” p. 606. Cf. p. 548.
MS. ‘and,’ altered by Petty.
‘whole’ inserted by Petty.
‘how many Catholiques’ inserted by Petty.
‘Irish’ inserted by Petty.
Clarendon had been appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in September, 1685. Tyrconnel became Commander-in-Chief and virtual viceroy in June 1686, and returned to the Island as Lord Deputy to succeed Clarendon in February 1687. His extreme catholic policy in both positions alarmed the Protestants in Ireland and large numbers of them returned to England with Clarendon. Clarendon, Correspondence, II. 138, et passim, Fitzmaurice, 271–273.
Ezekiel, xxxvii. 22.
Confirms Bonrepaus's letter of 4 Sept., 1687, to Seignelay, concerning the trustworthiness of which Lingard professed some doubt. Hist. of England, 5th ed., x. 243, 414; cf. Mazure, Hist. de la Révolution de 1688, II. 287.
Cf. note on p. 578.
See p. 556.
The Court of Claims and Qualifications of the Irish, called from the place of its sessions, the Athlone Commissioners, was appointed 28 December, 1654, to determine the guilt of each Irish proprietor and to ascertain the extent and value of lands which he had lately held on the English side of the Shannon. The Loughrea Commissioners thereupon set out lands, to such of the Irish as were transplanted into Connaught, according to the findings of the Athlone Commissioners.
See Polit. Anat., p. 131, note 2.
Apparently should be ‘1683’
The figures for 1683 and 1684 differ somewhat from those given in Clarendon, Correspondence, 1. 651–652.
A blank space in the MS.
No attempt has been made to correct the inaccurate footings of the MS.
Apparently should be ‘nett’.
End of the observations upon the tables.
Petty's six diminutions (p. 583) are:
|9,927,000. The total 10,927,000|
may have been reached by taking the present value of the cattle (3 millions) instead of the diminution of their value.
As a result of Tyrconnel's reorganization. Clarendon, Correspondence, I. 500, 506, II. 30–31.
‘for drink’ inserted by Petty.
I.e. one tenth of the actual decline of £15000.
‘answers’ inserted by Petty in a blank left by the copyist.
Among the items at the De Clifford sale was a letter from Petty to Southwell (date not given) on the coals burnt in Dublin, together with two papers on the improvement of Ireland. Catalogue of MSS. the Property of Lord De Clifford, sold by Christie 11 February, 1834, lot 299. These papers are said to have been bought for the British Museum but could not be found there in September 1895.
The Irish courts as reconstituted by Tyrconnel, ejected a number of Protestants from lands that had been allotted them and gave the lands to Catholic claimants.
See p. 578, note.
See p. 602.
In his speech to the Council when he was sworn into the office of Lord Lieutenant, 9 January, 1686, Clarendon had said, “I have the King's commands to declare upon all occasions that whatever imaginary (for they can be called no other) apprehensions any men may have, his Majesty hath no intention of altering the Acts of Settlement.” Clarendon, Correspondence, II. 475. Those who were frightened, however, were not frightened altogether without reason, for in the next month after Petty tried to submit the Treatise to the King, Sunderland told Barillon that James intended’ to reverse the Act of Settlement. Dalrymple, Memoirs, II. 262.
May be ‘3835,’ the MS. is blotted.
MS., ‘Equivalent,’ altered by Petty to ‘proceed.’
‘Ox’ inserted by Petty in blank left by copyist.
Apparently should be ‘hundred weight.’
MS., ‘Capers,’ altered by Petty to ‘Coopers.’
‘Copper’ inserted by Petty.
‘& brought into Ireland’ added by Petty.
‘120,000l. Customes’ inserted by Petty.
Opposite this line a ‘q’ in the margin of the MS.
No ‘q’ in the margin at this point.
Proof of this assertion does not occur in Petty's printed works.
Perhaps the Political Arithmetick.
i.e. in 100.
‘4’ inserted by Petty.
MS., ‘500000’ altered to ‘50000.’ Nevertheless 500000 is the figure consistent with Petty's calculation, cf. pp. 610–611.
MS., ‘4000,’ altered to ‘400.’
MS., ‘Fame,’ altered to ‘Famin.’
MS., ‘17000.’ Petty wrote the ‘37000’ in the margin.
MS., ‘11000,’ altered to ‘11500.’
MS. in each case has a superfluous o erased by Petty.
MS., ‘Innocents,’ altered by Petty.
MS., ‘these,’ altered by Petty.
A Narrative of the Earl of Clarendon's Sale and Settlement of Ireland was published at Lovam in 1668. The author appears to have been Nicholas French, titular Bishop of Ferns, though Carte attributes it to Peter Talbot. Life of Ormond, 11. 384. The pamphlet, which I have not seen, is said to attack Ormond and Clarendon with great bitterness, to asperse the entire English interest in Ireland, to praise the Irish extravagantly, and to suggest the repeal of the Act of Settlement. It appears from Petty that the pamphlet was reprinted in 1686, but Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice, who attributes it to one Edward Fitzgerald, writes as if it were first published in that year. Life of Petty, 272. Petty was urged to reply to the Narrative, as being one especially acquainted with the settlement of Irish land-titles. He at first demurred, but finally wrote his Speculum Hibernia, dated 1686, and Another more true and exact Narrative of the Settlement and Sale of Ireland, dated 1687. The Dialogue, too, appears to be directed in part against the Narrative, and chiefly against its assertion that the Catholics in Ireland had lost and the English protestants had gained by the events between 1641 and 1665.
MS., ‘the,’ altered by Petty.
MS., ‘300000,’ altered by Petty.
MS., ‘Cheiffryes,’ altered by Petty.
‘Extream’ inserted by Petty.
MS., ‘of,’ altered by Petty.
MS., ‘same,’ altered by Petty to 's aid Survey.’
‘&’ inserted by Petty.
MS., ‘given,’ Petty obliterated the ‘n’ but did not change the ‘i’ to an ‘a.’
MS., ‘had,’ altered by Petty.