Front Page Titles (by Subject) The SECOND ESSAY. - The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol. 2
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The SECOND ESSAY. - Sir William Petty, The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol. 2 
The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, together with The Observations upon Bills of Mortality, more probably by Captain John Graunt, ed. Charles Henry Hull (Cambridge University Press, 1899), 2 vols.
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The SECOND ESSAY.
As for other Comparisons of London with Paris, we farther repeat and enlarge what hath been formerly said upon those matters, as followeth, viz.
1. That 40 per Cent. die out of the Hospitals at Paris where so many die unnecessarily, and scarce of that proportion out of the Hospitals of London, which have been shewn to be better than the best of Paris.
2. That at Paris 81280 Kitchins, are within less than 24000 ‖ Street-dores1 , which makes less cleanly and convenient way of living than at London.
3. Where the number of Christnings are near unto, or exceed the Burials, the People are poorer, having few Servants and little Equipage.
4. The river of Thames is more pleasant and navigable than the Seyne, and its Waters better and more wholesome; and the Bridge of London, is the most considerable of all Europe.
5. The Shipping and foreign Trade of London is incomparably greater than that at Paris and Rouen. ‖
6. The Lawyers Chambers at London have 2772 Chimnies in them, and are worth 140 thousand Pounds sterling, or 3 millions of French Livers, besides the dwellings of their Families elsewhere.
7. The Air is more wholesome, for that at London scarce 2 of 16 die out of the worst Hospitals, but at Paris above 2 of 15 out of the best. Moreover the Burials of Paris are ⅕ part above and below the Medium, but at London not above , so as the intemperies of the Air at Paris is far greater than at London.
8. The Fuel cheaper, and lies in less room, the Coals being an ‖ wholesome sulphurous bitumen.
9. All the most necessary sorts of Victuals, and of Fish, are cheaper, and Drinks of all sorts in greater variety and plenty.
10. The Churches of London we leave to be judg'd by thinking that nothing at Paris is so great as St. Paul's was, and is like to be, nor so beautifull as Henry the seventh's Chapel.
11. On the other hand, 'tis probable, that there is more Money in Paris than London, if the publick Revenue (grosly speaking, ‖ quadruple to that of England) be lodged there.
12. Paris hath not been for these last 50 years so much infested with the Plague as London; now that at London the Plague (which between the year 1591 and 1666, made 5 returns, viz. every 15 years, at a Medium, and at each time carried away ⅕ of the People) hath not been known for the 21 years last past, and there is a visible way by God's ordinary Blessing to lessen the same by ⅔ when it next appeareth1 .
13. As to the Ground upon which Paris stands in respect of London, we say, that if there be 5 Stories ‖ or Floors of Housing at Paris, for 4 at London, or in that proportion, then the 82 thousand Families of Paris stand upon the equivalent of 65 thousand London Housteds, and if there be 115 thousand Families at London, and but 82 thousand at Paris, then the proportion of the London Ground to that of Paris is as 115 to 65, or as 23 to 13.
14. Moreover Paris is said to be an Oval of 3 English Miles long and 2½ broad, the Area whereof contains but 5½ square Miles; but London is 7 Miles long, and 1¼ broad at a Medium, which makes an Area of near 9 square Miles, which proportion of 5½ to 9 differs little from that of 13 to 23. ‖
15. Memorandum, That in Nero's time, as Monsr. Chivreau reporteth1 , there died 300 thousand People of the Plague in Old Rome; Now if there died 3 of 10 then, and there, being a hotter Countrey, as there dies 2 of 10 at London, the number of People at that time, was but a million, whereas at London they are now about 700 thousand. Moreover the Ground within the Walls of Old Rome was a Circle but of 3 Miles diameter, whose Area is about 7 square Miles, and the Suburbs scarce as much more, in all about 13 square Miles, whereas the built Ground at London is about 9 square Miles as ‖ aforesaid; which two sorts of proportions, agree with each other, and consequently Old Rome seems but to have been half as big again as the present London, which we offer to Antiquaries. ‖
On the basis of one kitchen for each of Auzout's families and one street door for each of his 23,233 houses, see p. 527.
Probably an allusion to Petty's plan ‘Of Lessening ye Plagues of London.’ See Verbum Sap., p. 109, note.
Petty's use of Chevreau's estimate argues no knowledge of the Histoire du Monde (Paris, 1686, 2 v. 4°) beyond what he might have drawn from Bayle's words, “Il s étend beaucoup sur la magnificence de Rome… Il croit qu'il s'y est trouvé prés de quatre millions d'habitans, & il reporte que les trois cens mille personnes quiry moururent de peste en une Automne sous le regne de Neron, ne firent pas remarquer que le nombre des habitans fῦt devenu moindre. République des Letters, Nov., 1686, Oeuvres, I. 680.