Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAP. II.: Of the Value of the People - The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol. 1
CHAP. II.: Of the Value of the People - Sir William Petty, The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol. 1 
The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, together with The Observations upon Bills of Mortality, more probably by Captain John Graunt, ed. Charles Henry Hull (Cambridge University Press, 1899), 2 vols.
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- Note On the “treatise of Taxes.”
- The Preface.
- Chap. I.: Of the Several Sorts of Publick Charges.
- Chap. II.: Of the Causes Which Encrease and Aggravate the Several Sorts of Publick Charges.
- Chap. III.: How the Causes of the Unquiet Bearing of Taxes May Be Lessened.
- Chap. IV.: Of the Several Wayes of Taxe, and First, of Setting a Part, a Proportion of the Whole Territory For Publick Uses, In the Nature of Crown Lands; and Secondly, By Way of Assessement, Or Land-taxe.
- Chap. V.: Of Usury.
- Chap. VI.: Of Customs and Free Ports.
- Chap. VII.: Of Poll-money.
- Chap. VIII.: Of Lotteries.
- Chap. IX.: Of Benevolence.
- Chap. X.: Of Penalties.
- Chap. XI.: Of Monopolies and Offices.
- Chap. XII.: Of Tythes.
- Chap. XIII.: Of Several Smaller Wayes of Levying Money.
- Chap. XIV.: Of Raising, Depressing, Or Embasing of Money.
- Chap. XV.: Of Excize.
- Verbum Sapienti.
- Note On the Verbum Sapienti.
- The Introduction.
- Chap. I.: Containing Several Computations of the Wealth of the Kingdom.
- Chap. II.: Of the Value of the People
- Chap. III.: Of the Several Expences of the Kingdom, and Its Revenues.
- Chap. IV.: Of the Method of Apportioning Taxes.
- Chap. V.: Of Money, and How Much Is Necessary to Drive the Trade of the Nation.
- Chap. VI.: The Causes of Irregular Taxing.
- Chap. VII.: The Collateral Advantages of These Taxes.
- Chap. VIII.: Of the Expence of the Navy, Army, and Garisons.
- Chap. IX.: Motives to the Quiet Bearing of Extraordinary Taxes.
- Chap. X.: How to Employ the People, and the End Thereof.
- Note On the “political Anatomy of Ireland.”
- To His Grace the Duke of Ormand 1 .
- To the Right Honourable Thomas, Lord Parker 1 , Baron of Macclesfield In the County of Chester. Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.
- The Author's Preface.
- Advertisement 1
- The Contents of the Political Anatomy of Ireland 1 .
- The Political Anatomy of Ireland. 1672 1 .
- [chapter I.] 2: Of the Lands of Ireland.
- [chapter II.]: Of People, Houses, and Smoaks; Their Number, Differences, and Values.
- [chapter Iii]: of the Church and Benefices.
- [chapter Iv]: Concerning the Late Rebellion.
- [chapter V]: of the Future Settlement of Ireland, Prorogation of Rebellions, and Its Union With England.
- [chapter Vi]: of the Government of Ireland.
- [chapter Vii]: of the Militia and Defence of Ireland.
- [chapter Viii]: of the Cœlum and Solum of Ireland.
- [chapter Ix]: of the Proportion In Value, Which the Several Counties In Ireland Do Bear to Each Other , Viz.
- [chapter X]: of the Money of Ireland.
- [chapter Xi]: of the Trade of Ireland.
- [chapter Xii]: of the Religion, Diet, Cloaths, Language, Manners, and Interest of the Several Present Inhabitants of Ireland.
- [chapter XIII.]: Several Miscellany Remarks and Intimations Concerning Ireland, and the Several Matters Aforementioned.
- Report From the Council of Trade 1676.
- Political Arithmetick, Or a Discourse Concerning,
- Note On the “political Arithmetick.”
- To the King's Most Excellent Majesty 1 .
- Preface 1 .
- The Principal Conclusions 1 of This Treatise Are,
- Chap. I.: That a Small Country and Few People, By Its Situation, Trade, and Policy, May Be Equivalent In Wealth and Strength, to a Far Greater People and Territory: and Particularly That Conveniencies For Shipping and Water-carriage, Do Most E
- Chap. II.: That Some Kind of Taxes and Publick Levies, May Rather Increase Than Diminish the Wealth of the Kingdom .
- Chap. III.: That France Cannot By Reason of Natural, and Perpetual Impediments, Be More Powerful At Sea, Than the English, Or Hollanders 1 Now Are, Or May Be .
- Chap. IV.: That the People and Territories of the King of England, Are Naturally Near 1 As Considerable For Wealth and Strength, As Those of France.
- Chap. V.: That the Impediments of Englands Greatness, Are But Contingent and Removable .
- Chap. VI.: That the Power and Wealth of England Hath Increased This Last Forty Years .
- Chap. VII.: That One Tenth Part of the Whole Expence, of the King of England's Subjects, Is Sufficient to Maintain Ten Thousand 1 Foot, Forty Thousand Horse, and Forty Thousand Men At Sea; and Defray All Other Charges of the Government Both Ordina
- Chap. VIII.: That There Are Spare Hands Enough Among the King of England 's Subjects, to Earn Two Millions Per Annum More Than They Now Do; and That There Are Also Employments, Ready, Prope, and Sufficient, For That Purpose .
- Chap. IX.: That There Is Mony Sufficient to Drive the Trade of the Nation.
- Chap. X.: That the King of England's Subjects, Have Stock Competent and Convenient, to Drive the Trade of the Whole Commercial World.
Of the Value of thePeople
NOW if the Annual proceed of the Stock, or Wealth of the Nation, yields but 15 millions, and the expence be 40. Then the labour of the People must furnish the other 25; which may be done, if but half of them, viz. 3 millions earned but 8 l. 6 s. 8 d.per annum, which is done at 7 d. per diem, abating the 52 Sundays, and half as many other days for accidents as Holy days, sickness, recreations, &c.
2. If ⅙ of these 3 millions earned but 2 d. per diem; another ⅙ 4 d. another ⅙ 8 d. per diem, another 10 d. and another 12 d. The medium will be this, 7 d. per diem. ‖
3. Whereas the Stock of the Kingdom, yielding but 15 Millions of proceed, is worth 250 Millions; then the People who yield 25, are worth 416 ⅔ Millions. For although the Individiums of Mankind be reckoned at about 8 years purchase; the Species of them is worth as many as Land, being in its nature as perpetual, for ought we know.
4. If 6 Millions of People be worth 417 millions of pounds Sterling, then each head is worth 69 l. or each of the 3 millions of Workers is worth 138 l. which is 7 years purchase, at about 12 d. per diem; nor is superlucration above his subsistence to be reckoned in this Case.
5. From whence it follows, that 100,000. persons dying of the Plague, above the ordinary number, is near 7 Millions loss to the Kingdom; and consequently how well might 70,000l. have been bestowed in preventing this Centuple loss ?
6. We said, that the late mortality by the Pest, is a great loss to the Kingdom; whereas some think it but a seasonable discharge of its Pestilent humours: to clear which difficulty, I say,
7. If the Plague discerned well, between the well and the ill-affected to Peace and Obedience, ‖ or between the Bees and the Drones, the Fact would determine the Question: But if it destroy promiscuously, the Loss is proportionable to the Benefit we have by them that survive; for ‘tis they that make England worth above 600 millions, as aforesaid: It being certain, That if one person only had escaped: the whole Territory, and all that is in it, had been worth but a livelihood for that one; and he subject to be a prey to the next two that should invade him.
8. It seems reasonable, that what we call the Wealth, Stock, or Provision of the Nation, being the effect of the former or past labour, should not be conceived to differ from efficiencies in being, but should be rated alike, and contribute alike to the common necessities: And then of all and every summ to be raised, the Land and Stock must pay 3 parts; and the People considered without any Estate at all, 5 more; the whole into 8 divided.
9. If the expence of the Nation be 40 Millions; it seems but the same hardship to set apart 4. viz. of the whole for the publick use, as what now lies upon many already: But 4 Millions would afford one for the ordinary Expence, and ‖ three for the extraordinary Wars, that is 250000l. per mensem; that is 3 frac12 as much as 70. For the raising whereof, many now pay above a of their whole Estates, for want of Method and Proportion.
10. Labouring men work 10 hours per diem, and make 20 meals per week, viz. 3 a day for working-days, and two on Sundays; whereby it is plain, that if they could fast on Fryday nights, and Dine in one hour and an half, whereas they take two, from eleven to one; thereby this working more, and spending less, the abovementioned might be raised, at least with more ease, than to take up Arms, and resist it.
- 1. London within ye bills hath 696th people in 108th houses.
- 2. In pestilentiall yeares, (which are one in 20) there dye ⅙th of ye people of ye plague and ⅕th of all diseases.
- 3. The remedies against spreading of ye plague are shutting up suspected houses and pest-houses within ½ a mile of ye citty.
- 4. In a circle about ye center of London of 35 miles semi-diameter, or a dayes journey, there live as many people and are as many houses as in London.
- 5. Six heads may bee caryd a days journey for 20th.
- 6. A family may bee lodged 3 months in ye country for 4th, so as ye charge of carying out and lodging a family at a medium will be 5th.
- 7. In ye greatest plague wee feare, scarce 20th families will be infected; and in this new method but 10th, ye charge whereof will be 50th pounds.
- 8. The People which ye next plague of London will sweep away will be probably 120th, which at 7£ per head is a losse of 8,400ths, the half whereof is 4,200ths.
- 9. So as 50 is ventured to save 4,200, or about one for 84.
- 10. There was never a Plague in ye campagne of England by which ⅙th of ye people dyed.
- 11. Poore people who live close dye most of ye plague.
- 12. The Plague is about 3 monthes rising and as much falling, which cold weather hastens.
- 13. Killing dogs, making great fires in ye street, nor the use of medicaments are considered sure, for which everyone by common directions may bee theire owne Physicians.
- 14. In ye circle of 70 miles diameter, choose 10 large wide roomey disjoyned houses with water and garden to each, the Inhabitants to remove at 7 dayes notice.
- 15. Convenient wagons or coaches to bee prepared to carry away ye suspected.
- 16. A method to furnish ye pesthouses with medicines for theire mony.
- 17. Bookes of devotion for every house.