Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAP. IX.: Of Benevolence. - The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol. 1
CHAP. IX.: Of Benevolence. - Sir William Petty, The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, vol. 1 
The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, together with The Observations upon Bills of Mortality, more probably by Captain John Graunt, ed. Charles Henry Hull (Cambridge University Press, 1899), 2 vols.
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- Note On the “treatise of Taxes.”
- The Preface.
- Chap. I.: Of the Several Sorts of Publick Charges.
- Chap. II.: Of the Causes Which Encrease and Aggravate the Several Sorts of Publick Charges.
- Chap. III.: How the Causes of the Unquiet Bearing of Taxes May Be Lessened.
- Chap. IV.: Of the Several Wayes of Taxe, and First, of Setting a Part, a Proportion of the Whole Territory For Publick Uses, In the Nature of Crown Lands; and Secondly, By Way of Assessement, Or Land-taxe.
- Chap. V.: Of Usury.
- Chap. VI.: Of Customs and Free Ports.
- Chap. VII.: Of Poll-money.
- Chap. VIII.: Of Lotteries.
- Chap. IX.: Of Benevolence.
- Chap. X.: Of Penalties.
- Chap. XI.: Of Monopolies and Offices.
- Chap. XII.: Of Tythes.
- Chap. XIII.: Of Several Smaller Wayes of Levying Money.
- Chap. XIV.: Of Raising, Depressing, Or Embasing of Money.
- Chap. XV.: Of Excize.
- Verbum Sapienti.
- Note On the Verbum Sapienti.
- The Introduction.
- Chap. I.: Containing Several Computations of the Wealth of the Kingdom.
- Chap. II.: Of the Value of the People
- Chap. III.: Of the Several Expences of the Kingdom, and Its Revenues.
- Chap. IV.: Of the Method of Apportioning Taxes.
- Chap. V.: Of Money, and How Much Is Necessary to Drive the Trade of the Nation.
- Chap. VI.: The Causes of Irregular Taxing.
- Chap. VII.: The Collateral Advantages of These Taxes.
- Chap. VIII.: Of the Expence of the Navy, Army, and Garisons.
- Chap. IX.: Motives to the Quiet Bearing of Extraordinary Taxes.
- Chap. X.: How to Employ the People, and the End Thereof.
- Note On the “political Anatomy of Ireland.”
- To His Grace the Duke of Ormand 1 .
- To the Right Honourable Thomas, Lord Parker 1 , Baron of Macclesfield In the County of Chester. Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.
- The Author's Preface.
- Advertisement 1
- The Contents of the Political Anatomy of Ireland 1 .
- The Political Anatomy of Ireland. 1672 1 .
- [chapter I.] 2: Of the Lands of Ireland.
- [chapter II.]: Of People, Houses, and Smoaks; Their Number, Differences, and Values.
- [chapter Iii]: of the Church and Benefices.
- [chapter Iv]: Concerning the Late Rebellion.
- [chapter V]: of the Future Settlement of Ireland, Prorogation of Rebellions, and Its Union With England.
- [chapter Vi]: of the Government of Ireland.
- [chapter Vii]: of the Militia and Defence of Ireland.
- [chapter Viii]: of the Cœlum and Solum of Ireland.
- [chapter Ix]: of the Proportion In Value, Which the Several Counties In Ireland Do Bear to Each Other , Viz.
- [chapter X]: of the Money of Ireland.
- [chapter Xi]: of the Trade of Ireland.
- [chapter Xii]: of the Religion, Diet, Cloaths, Language, Manners, and Interest of the Several Present Inhabitants of Ireland.
- [chapter XIII.]: Several Miscellany Remarks and Intimations Concerning Ireland, and the Several Matters Aforementioned.
- Report From the Council of Trade 1676.
- Political Arithmetick, Or a Discourse Concerning,
- Note On the “political Arithmetick.”
- To the King's Most Excellent Majesty 1 .
- Preface 1 .
- The Principal Conclusions 1 of This Treatise Are,
- Chap. I.: That a Small Country and Few People, By Its Situation, Trade, and Policy, May Be Equivalent In Wealth and Strength, to a Far Greater People and Territory: and Particularly That Conveniencies For Shipping and Water-carriage, Do Most E
- Chap. II.: That Some Kind of Taxes and Publick Levies, May Rather Increase Than Diminish the Wealth of the Kingdom .
- Chap. III.: That France Cannot By Reason of Natural, and Perpetual Impediments, Be More Powerful At Sea, Than the English, Or Hollanders 1 Now Are, Or May Be .
- Chap. IV.: That the People and Territories of the King of England, Are Naturally Near 1 As Considerable For Wealth and Strength, As Those of France.
- Chap. V.: That the Impediments of Englands Greatness, Are But Contingent and Removable .
- Chap. VI.: That the Power and Wealth of England Hath Increased This Last Forty Years .
- Chap. VII.: That One Tenth Part of the Whole Expence, of the King of England's Subjects, Is Sufficient to Maintain Ten Thousand 1 Foot, Forty Thousand Horse, and Forty Thousand Men At Sea; and Defray All Other Charges of the Government Both Ordina
- Chap. VIII.: That There Are Spare Hands Enough Among the King of England 's Subjects, to Earn Two Millions Per Annum More Than They Now Do; and That There Are Also Employments, Ready, Prope, and Sufficient, For That Purpose .
- Chap. IX.: That There Is Mony Sufficient to Drive the Trade of the Nation.
- Chap. X.: That the King of England's Subjects, Have Stock Competent and Convenient, to Drive the Trade of the Whole Commercial World.
THe raising of Money by Benevolence, seems to be no force upon any man, nor to take from any man but what himself knows he can spare, nevertheless there is more in it; for to be but brow-beaten by a Prince or Grandee, proves often as heavy as to be distrained upon for an Assessment or Subsidy; and the danger of being misrepresented by linsy pick-thanks and Informers as disaffected to the Cause for which the Leavy is made, is more frequent then the payment of any summe in a due proportion with all other men (which I have said is no impoverishment) can possibly be hurtful.
The benefits of this way are these, viz. That forasmuch as it sometimes falls out (as in the late Differences with the Scots, annis 1638. and 1639. when the Church Dignitaries were most concerned) that the cause of the Expence concerns some men more then others, that then an Imposition should not pass upon all for the sakes of a part; Sometimes it happens, that one sort of men have received greater and fresher favours then another; as upon the late Restoration of his Majesty Anno 1660. those who needed an Act of Indempnity did: And sometimes it is visible, that some men have had better times of gain and advantages then others, as the Clergy most eminently have had since his Majesties said Restoration. In all these Cases, the proposal of a Benevolence may be offered, although in no cases it be without its inconveniencies; the which are principally these.
1. The abovementioned Brow-beating and distaste given, ‖ if a man have not contributed as largely as envious observers think he should have done.
2. A Benevolence in many cases may divide a whole Nation into parties, or at least make the strength of Parties too well known to such as need not know it: and withall it may (on the contrary and upon design) disguize the same, and elude the measures which the Governours thought to have taken by such an exploratory artifice.
3. Some men may have particular reasons to contribute large, viz. complacency with, and hopes of being repaired by the favour of some Grandee, who favours the business, and the very same may make to the prejudice of others.
4. Men of sinking Estates, (who nevertheless love to live high, and appear splendid, and such who make themselves friends, (by their hospitality paid for, in effect by others) enough to be protected, even from Justice) do often upon this occasion of Benevolence set extravagant Examples unto others, who have laboured hardly for what they have; those not caring what they pay, because it encreaseth their credit, to borrow the more, so as at length the whole burthen of such Bankrupts Benevolence, lights upon the frugal Patriots, by whom the Publique Weal subsists.