Front Page Titles (by Subject) CHAPTER XXV: The Conclusion, with Admonitions to preserve Faith and seek Peace. - The Rights of War and Peace (2005 ed.) vol. 3 (Book III)
CHAPTER XXV: The Conclusion, with Admonitions to preserve Faith and seek Peace. - Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace (2005 ed.) vol. 3 (Book III) 
The Rights of War and Peace, edited and with an Introduction by Richard Tuck, from the Edition by Jean Barbeyrac (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). Vol. 3.
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- The Rights of War and Peace Book Iii
- Chapter I: Certain General Rules, Shewing What, By the Law of Nature, Is Allowable In War; Where Also the Author Treats of Deceit and Lying.
- Chapter II: How Subjects Goods, By the Law of Nations, Are Obliged For Their Prince’s Debts: and of Reprisals.
- Chapter III: Of a Just Or Solemn War, According to the Right of Nations, and of Its Denunciation.
- Chapter IV: The Right of Killing Enemies In a Solemn War; and of Other Hostilities Committed Against the Person of the Enemy.
- Chapter V: Of Spoil and Rapine In War.
- Chapter VI: Of the Right to the Things Taken In War.
- Chapter VII: Of the Right Over Prisoners.
- Chapter VIII: Of Empire Over the Conquered.
- Chapter IX: Of the Right of Postliminy.
- Chapter X: Advice Concerning Things Done In an Unjust War.
- Chapter XI: Moderation Concerning the Right of Killing Men In a Just War.
- Chapter XII: Concerning Moderation In Regard to the Spoiling the Country of Our Enemies, and Such Other Things.
- Chapter XIII: Moderation About Things Taken In War.
- Chapter XIV: Of Moderation Concerning Captives.
- Chapter XV: Moderation In Obtaining Empire.
- Chapter XVI: Moderation Concerning Those Things Which, By the Law of Nations, Have Not the Benefit of Postliminy.
- Chapter XVII: Of Neuters In War.
- Chapter XVIII: Concerning Things Privately Done In a Publick War.
- Chapter XIX: Concerning Faith Between Enemies.
- Chapter XX: Concerning the Publick Faith Whereby War Is Finished; of Treaties of Peace, Lots, Set Combats, Arbitrations, Surrenders, Hostages, and Pledges.
- Chapter XXI: Of Faith During War, of Truces, of Safe-conduct, and the Redemption of Prisoners.
- Chapter XXII: Concerning the Faith of Inferior Powers In War.
- Chapter XXIII: Of Faith Given By Private Men In War.
- Chapter XXIV: Of Faith Tacitly Given.
- Chapter XXV: The Conclusion, With Admonitions to Preserve Faith and Seek Peace.
- Passages of Scripture, Illustrated, Examined, Or Corrected In This Treatise . †
- Appendix Prolegomena to the First Edition of De Jure Belli Ac Pacis
- Bibliography of Postclassical Works Referred to By Grotius
- Bibliography of Works Referred to In Jean Barbeyrac’s Notes
The Conclusion, with Admonitions to preserve Faith and seek Peace.
I.Admonition to Princes to keep their Faith.I. 1. And here I hope I may make an End; not that I have said all that might have been said, but that which hath been said may be enough to lay a Foundation, on which if any other will build a more stately Fabrick, I shall be so far from<736> envying him, that I shall heartily thank him. Yet before I dismiss my Reader, as before, when I treated of the Design of undertaking War, I brought some Arguments to persuade all Men, to the utmost of their Power, to prevent it. So now I shall add some few Admonitions that may be of Use, both in War and after War. These Admonitions regard the Care of preserving Faith and seeking Peace. We ought to preserve our Faith for several Reasons, and amongst others, because without that we should have no Hopes of Peace.For by Faith, (says Cicero) not only every State is preserved, but that grand Society of all Nations is maintained. If this be taken away, saysAristotle rightly, All human Correspondence ceases.
2. Therefore the same Cicero calls it detestable to break Faith, the Observation of which is the Bond of human Life, and, as Seneca says, Faith is the most sacred Good of the rational Soul. Which Sovereign Princes ought the more solemnly to keep, by how much they offend with more Impunity than others. Wherefore take away Faith, they will be like wild Beasts, whose Rage all Men dread. Justice indeed in other Parts, has often something that is obscure, but the Bond of Faith is self-evident, and to that End do Men engage their Faith in their Dealings, that all Doubts may be removed.
3. How much more then does it concern Princes religiously to observe their Faith, first for the sake of their Conscience, then for that of their Reputation, on which depends the Authority of their Government. Let them not then doubt, but that they who endeavour to instill into them the Art of Deceiving, practise the same they teach. Their Practices cannot possibly prosper long, which render Men unsociable to Men, and hateful to GOD.
II.The Design of War to settle a firm Peace.II. Further, it is impossible that we should have a quiet Conscience, and a just Confidence in the Protection of Heaven, unless we aim at Peace in every Thing we do throughout the whole Course of a War. For it was very truly said of Salust,That wise Men, for the sake of Peace, make War. To which agrees the Opinion of St. Augustine,We seek not Peace, to make War; but we make War, in order to establish Peace. Aristotle himself often condemns those Nations that make War their chief End. Violence is in itself brutish, which is yet most eminent in War; wherefore it ought to be the more carefully tempered with Clemency and Humanity, lest by too much imitating Beasts, we absolutely forget the Man.
III.Peace to be embraced, tho’ with Loss, especially among Christians.III. A safe and honourable Peace then is not too dearly bought, at the Expence of forgiving Offenders, Damages, and Charges, especially among Christians; to whom our LORD bequeathed Peace, as his last Legacy, whose best Expositor St. Paul, Rom. xii. 18. Would have us live peaceably with all Men, as far as in us lies. A good Man unwillingly enters into a War, nor is willing to push it to the utmost, as Salust tells us.<737>
IV.Peace is profitable to the Conquered.IV. This Reason alone might indeed be sufficient; but very often our own Interest requires it. First, when we are weaker than our Enemy, because it is dangerous to contend long with one more mighty; and here, as at Sea, we must by some Loss redeem a greater Mischief, without listening to revenge or hope, bad Counsellors, as Livy rightly calls them; whichAristotle thus expresses, It is much better to part with some of our Substance to those that are stronger, than being overcome to perish with all we have.
V.And to the Conqueror.V. Yea, and to the stronger Party Peace turns to account; because as the same Livy most truly says, Peace is glorious and advantageous, when we give it in our Prosperity; it is better and safer, than a hoped-for Victory. For we must consider, that the Success of War is uncertain. Aristotle says,We must remember how many and unforeseen Changes happen in War. Diodorus in an Oration for Peace blames those, Who boast of their great Exploits done in War, as if it were not usual for Fortune to favour sometimes one Side, sometimes another. And the bold Attempts of de-<738>sperate Men are as much to be feared, as the most violent Bitings of dying Beasts.
VI.And to those whose Affairs are doubtful.VI. But if both Parties think they are of equal Strength then (in the Opinion ofCaesar) it is the fittest Time to treat of Peace, whilst each Party has a good Opinion of his own Strength.
VII.Peace once made to be religiously kept.VII. But Peace being made, whatever the Conditions be, they ought to be punctually observed, on account of the Faith given, the Obligation of which I have proved to be sacred and indispensible. And we ought to be very careful to avoid not only Perfidiousness, but whatsoever may exasperate the Mind. For whatCicero said of private Friendship, may be fitly applied to publick. That all the Duties of Friendship are to be observed religiously at all Times, but especially when it has been renewed by a Reconciliation.
VIII.The Author’s Wish, and the Conclusion.VIII. May the ALMIGHTY then (who alone can do it) impress these Maxims on the Hearts of Christian Powers; may he enlighten their Minds with the Knowledge of every Right, Divine and Human, and inspire them with the constant and dutiful Sense of their being the Ministers of Heaven, ordained to govern Men; Men, for whom, of all his Creatures,GOD has the greatest Regard and Affection.
END of the third and last BOOK.
PASSAGES OF SCRIPTURE,
Illustrated, examined, or corrected in this Treatise.
|Gen. iv. 14.||Behold thou hast driven me out this Day, from the Face of the Earth; and from thy Face shall I be hid, and I shall be a Fugitive and a Vagabond in the Earth, and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me.||Page 29.|
|— iv. 24.||If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.||ibid.|
|— ix. 5.||And surely your Blood of your Lives will I require; at the Hand of every Beast will I require it; and at the Hand of Man, at the Hand of every Man’s Brother will I require the Life of Man.||28.|
|— ix. 6.||Whoso Sheddeth Man’s Blood, by Man shall his Blood be shed; for in the Image of GOD made he Man.||ibid.|
|— xiv. 16, 17.||And he brought back all the Goods, and also brought again his Brother Lot, and his Goods, and the Women also, and the People. And the King of Sodom went out to meet him (after his Return from the Slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and of the Kings that were with him) at the Valley of Shaveh, which is the King’s Dale.||678.|
|— xiv. 20.||And blessed be the Most High GOD, which hath delivered thine Enemies into thy Hand; and he gave him Tithes of all.||26, 579.|
|— xviii. 23.||And Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt thou also destroy the Righteous with the Wicked?||518.|
|— xx. 12.||And yet indeed she is my Sister; she is the Daughter of my Father, but not the Daughter of my Mother; and she became my Wife.||524.|
|— xxv. 6.||But unto the Sons of the Concubines which Abraham had, Abraham gave Gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his Son (while he yet lived) Eastward, unto the East-Country.||228.|
|— xxxviii. 24.||And it came to pass about three Months after, that it was told Judah, Saying, Tamar thy Daughter-in-Law hath played the Harlot; and also behold she is with Child by Whoredom: And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.||30.|
|Exod. xvii. 14.||And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a Memorial in a Book, and rehearse it in the Ears of Joshua, for I will utterly put out the Remembrance of Amalek from under Heaven.||27.|
|— xx. 2, 3, 4, &c.||I am the LORD thy GOD, which have brought Thee out of the Land of Aegypt, out of the House of Bondage. Thou shalt have no other Gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven Image, &c.||442.|
|— xxi. 14.||But if a Man come presumptuously upon his Neighbour, to slay him with Guile; thou shalt take him from mine Altar, that he may die.||461.|
|— xxii. 2.||If a Thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall be no Blood shed for him. But if the Sun be risen upon him, there shall be Blood shed for him.||54, 138.|
|— xxii. 28.||Thou shalt not revile the Gods, nor curse the Ruler of thy People.||113.|
|Lev. xviii. 24, 26, 27.||Defile not you yourselves in any of these Things: For in all these the Nations are defiled which I cast out before you. And the Land is defiled; therefore I visit the Iniquity thereof upon it, and the Land itself vomiteth out her Inhabitants. (For all these Abominations have the Men of the Land done, which were before you, and the Land is defiled.)||Page 197.|
|Num. xiv. 30.||Doubtless ye shall not come into the Land, concerning which I sware to make you dwell therein, save Caleb the Son of Jephunneh, and Joshua the Son of Nun.||316.|
|Deut. xix. 19.||Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his Brother.||432.|
|— xx. 10.||When thou comest nigh unto a City, to fight against it, then proclaim Peace unto it.||554.|
|— xx. 15.||Thus shalt thou do unto all the Cities which are very far off from Thee, which are not of the Cities of these Nations.||27.|
|— xx. 19.||When thou shalt besiege a City a long Time, in making War against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the Trees thereof.||651.|
|— xxiii. 6.||Thou shalt not seek their Peace, nor their Prosperity, all thy Days for ever.||343.|
|Josh. ix. 15.||And Joshua made Peace with them, and made a League with them, to let them live: And the Princes of the Congregation sware unto them.||317.|
|Judg. iii. 15.||But when the Children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised them up a Deliverer, Ehud the Son of Gera, a Benjamite, a Man left-handed: And by him the Children of Israel sent a Present unto Eglon the King of Moab.||124.|
|1 Sam. xxv. 33.||And blessed be thy Advice, and blessed be thou, which hast kept me this Day from coming to shed Blood, and from avenging myself with my own Hand.||318.|
|2 Kings iii. 19.||And ye shall smite every fenced City, and every choice City, and shall sell every good Tree.||652.|
|— vi. 19.||And Elisha said unto them, this is not the Way, neither is this the City.||535.|
|— viii. 10.||And Elisha said unto him, go say unto him, Thou mayest certainly recover: Howbeit the LORD hath shewed me, that he shall surely die.||ibid.|
|1 Chron. xxvi. 32.||And his Brethren, Men of Valour, were two thousand and seven hundred chief Fathers, whom King David made Rulers over the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half Tribe of Manasseh, for every Matter pertaining to GOD, and Affairs of the King.||125.|
|2 Chron. xix. 2.||And Jehu, the Son of Hinani the Seer, went out to meet him, and said to King Jehoshaphat, Shouldest thou help the Ungodly, and love them that hate the LORD? Therefore is Wrath upon thee from before the LORD.||344.|
|Psal. ii. 10, 11.||Be wise now therefore, O ye Kings, be instructed, ye Judges of the Earth: Serve the LORD with Fear.||33.|
|Prov. xiv. 4.||The LORD hath made all Things for himself; yea even the Wicked for the Day of Evil.||405.|
|Eccl. xii. 7.||Then shall the Dust return to the Earth as it was; and the Spirit shall return unto GOD who gave it.||392.|
|Isai. ii. 4.||They shall beat their Swords into Plowshares, and their Spears into Pruning-Hooks. Nation shall not lift up Sword against Nation, neither shall they learn War any more.||37.|
|Jer. xxxviii. 5.||Then Zedekiah the King said, Behold, he is in your Hand: For the King is not he that can do any Thing against you.||90.|
|— xxxviii. 26.||Then thou shalt say unto them, I presented my Supplication before the King, that he would not cause me to return to Jonathan’s House, to die there.||523.|
|Ezek. xviii. 24.||All his Righteousness that he hath done shall not be mentioned: In his Trespass that he hath trespassed, and in his Sin that he hath sinned, in them shall he die.||430.|
|Zech. v. 1, 2, 3, 4.||Then I turned and lifted up mine Eyes and looked, and behold a Flying Roll. And he said unto me what seest thou? And I answered, I see a Flying Roll, the Length thereof is twenty Cubits, and the Breadth thereof ten Cubits. Then said he unto me, This is the Curse that goeth forth over the Face of the whole Earth: For every one that stealeth shall be cut off, as on this Side, according to it: And every one that sweareth shall be cut off, as on that Side, according to it. I will bring it forth, saith the LORD of Hosts, and it shall enter into the House of the Thief, and into the House of him that sweareth falsly by my Name; and it shall remain in the Midst of his House, and shall consume it.||314. In the Notes, Num. 7.|
|Matt. iii. 2. iv. 17.||Repent ye, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.||34.|
|—v. 17.||Think not that I am come to destroy the Law or the Prophets: I am not come to destroy but to fulfil.||35.|
|— v. 21, 22.||Ye have heard, that it was said by them of old Time, thou shalt not kill: And whosoever shall kill, shall be in Danger of the Judgment. But I say unto you, &c.||31.|
|—v. 37.||Let your Communication be Yea, yea, Nay, nay.||327.|
|— v. 38, 39.||Ye have heard that it hath been said, An Eye for an Eye, and a Tooth for a Tooth; but I say unto you, resist not Evil; but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right Cheek, turn to him the other also.||38.|
|—v. 40.||And if any Man will sue thee at the Law, and take away thy Coat, let him have thy Cloak also.||ibid.|
|—v. 41.||And whosoever shall compel thee to go with him one Mile, go with him two.||39.|
|— v. 42.||Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee, turn not thou away.||ibid.|
|— v. 43, 44.||Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy Neighbour and hate thine Enemy. But I say unto you, Love your Enemies, bless them that curse you, do Good to them that hate you, and pray for them who despitefully use you and persecute you.||Page 40.|
|— xxiii. 13.||Hearing they may hear and not understand.||528.|
|— xxiii. 21.||And whoso shall swear by the Temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein.||321.|
|— xxiv. 51.||And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his Portion with the Hypocrites.||327.|
|— xxvi. 29.||I will not drink henceforth of this Fruit of the Vine, until that Day that I drink it new with you in my Father’s Kingdom.||528.|
|— xxvi. 52.||All they that take the Sword shall perish with the Sword.||44.|
|Mark vi. 48.||And he saw them toyling in Rowing: (For the Wind was contrary unto them) and about the fourth Watch of the Night he cometh unto them, walking upon the Sea, and would have passed by them.||525.|
|—x. 19.||Thou knowest the Commandments, do not commit Adultery, do not steal, do not bear false Witness, defraud not.||436.|
|Luke ii. 1.||That all the World should be taxed.||479.|
|— xiv. 23.||Go out into the Highways and Hedges, and compel them to come in.||448.|
|— xvii. 3.||Take Heed to yourselves: If thy Brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him.||417.|
|— xxii. 30.||That ye may eat and drink at my Table, in my Kingdom, and sit on Thrones, judging the twelve Tribes of Israel.||528.|
|— xxiv. 28.||And they drew nigh unto the Village whither they went, and he made as tho’ he would have gone further.||525.|
|— xxiv. 29.||But they constrained him.||448.|
|John ii. 19.||Destroy this Temple, and in three Days I will raise it up.||528.|
|—iv. 9.||Then saith the Woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou being a Jew, askest Drink of me, which am a Woman of Samaria? For the Jews have no Dealings with the Samaritans.||343.|
|— viii. 7.||So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without Sin among you, let him first cast a Stone at her.||404.|
|— xi. 11.||Our Friend Lazarus sleepeth.||528.|
|— xviii. 36.||Jesus answered, My Kingdom is not of this World: If my Kingdom were of this World, then would my Servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: But now is my Kingdom not from hence.||480.|
|Acts xvi. 3.||Him would Paul have to go forth with him; and took and circumcised him, because of the Jews which were in those Quarters: For they knew all that his Father was a Greek.||525.|
|— xvii. 4.||And some of them believed, and consorted with Paul and Silas: And of the devout Greeks a great Multitude; and of the chief Women not a few.||17.|
|Rom. i. 25.||Who changed the Truth of GOD into a Lye, and worshipped and served the Creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever.||446.|
|— iii. 27.||By what Law? Of Works?||32.|
|— xii. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21.||Recompense to no Man Evil for Evil. Provide Things honest in the Sight of all Men. If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all Men. Dearly Beloved, Avenge not yourselves, but rather give Place unto Wrath; for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the LORD. Therefore if thine Enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst give him Drink: For in so doing thou shalt heap Coals of Fire on his Head. Be not overcome of Evil, but overcome Evil with Good.||42.|
|— xiii. 1.||Let every Soul be subject unto the higher Powers.||ibid.|
|— xiii. 2.||Whosoever therefore resisteth the Power, resisteth the Ordinance of GOD: And they that resist, shall receive to themselves Damnation.||105.|
|— xiii. 4.||For he is the Minister of GOD to thee for good. But if thou do that which is Evil be afraid; for he beareth not the Sword in vain: For he is the Minister of GOD, a Revenger to execute Wrath upon them that do Evil.||32, 105.|
|— xiv. 23.||And he that doubteth, is damned if he eat, because he eateth not of Faith: For whatsoever is not of Faith, is Sin.||483.|
|—1 Cor. v. 1.||Such Fornication, as is not so much as named amongst the Gentiles, that one should have his Father’s Wife.||197.|
|— vii. 21.||Art thou called being a Servant: Care not for it.||212.|
|— vii. 36.||But if any Man think that he behaveth himself uncomely toward his Virgin, if she pass the Flower of her Age, and Need so require, let him do what he will, he sinneth not; let them marry.||194.|
|— xi. 14.||Doth not even Nature itself teach you, that if a Man hath long Hair, it is a Shame?||311.|
|2 Cor. i. 17, 18.||Did I use Lightness? That with me there should be Yea, yea, and Nay, nay? But as GOD is true, our Word toward you was not Yea and Nay.||327.|
|—i. 20.||For all the Promises of GOD in him are Yea, and in him Amen.||ibid.|
|—x. 3.||Tho’ we walk in the Flesh, we do not war after the Flesh; for the Weapons of our Warfare are not carnal, but mighty through GOD, to the pulling down of strong Holds.||42.|
|2 Cor. xi. 3.||But I fear lest by any Means, as the Serpent beguiled Eve through his Subtilty, so your Minds should be corrupted from the Simplicity that is in CHRIST.||Page 144.|
|— xii. 14.||Children ought not to lay up for the Parents, but the Parents for the Children.||226.|
|Gal. iii. 24.||The Law was our School Master to bring us unto CHRIST.||23.|
|—iv. 1.||Now I say, that the Heir, as long as he is a Child, differeth nothing from a Servant, tho’ he be Lord of all.||161.|
|Eph. ii. 3.||Among whom also we had our Conversation in Times past, in the Lusts of our Flesh, fulfilling the Desires of the Flesh, and of the Mind; and were by Nature the Children of Wrath, even as others.||311.|
|— v. 11, 12.||Put on the whole Armour of GOD, that ye may be able to stand against the Wiles of the Devil. For we wrestle not against Flesh and Blood, but against Principalities and Powers, against the Rulers of the Darkness of this World, against spiritual Wickedness in high Places.||43.|
|Tim. ii. 1, 2, 3, 4.||I exhort therefore, that first of all, Supplications, Prayers, Intercessions, and giving of Thanks be made for all Men; for Kings, and for all that are in Authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable Life, in all Godliness and Honesty; for this is good and acceptable in the Sight of GOD our Saviour, who would have all Men to be saved, and to come to the Knowledge of the Truth.||32.|
|Tit. ii. 9.||Exhort Servants to be obedient to their own Masters, and to please them well in all Things.||212.|
|Heb. vi. 17, 18.||Wherein GOD willing more abundantly to shew unto the Heirs of Promise, the Immutability of his Counsel, confirmed it by an Oath: That by two immutable Things, in which it was impossible for GOD to lye, we might have a strong Consolation.||316.|
|— vii. 16.||Who is made not after the Law of a carnal Commandment.||32.|
|— vii. 19.||For the Law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better Hope did, by the which we draw nigh unto GOD.||23.|
|— viii. 7.||For if that first Covenant had been faultless, then should no Place have been sought for the second.||ibid.|
|— xi. 6.||He that cometh to GOD must believe that he is, and that he is a Rewarder of them that diligently seek him.||444.|
|James i. 15.||Then when Lust hath conceived it bringeth forth Sin.||428.|
|—iv. 1.||From whence come Wars and Fightings among you? Come they not hence, even of your Lusts that war in your Members? Ye lust and have not; ye kill and desire to have, and cannot obtain; ye fight and war, &c.||43.|
|—v. 12.||But above all Things, my Brethren, swear not, neither by Heaven, neither by the Earth, neither by any other Oath, but let your yea, be yea, and your nay, nay; lest you fall into Condemnation or Hypocrisy.||327.|
|1 Pet. ii. 16.||As free, and not using your Liberty for a Cloak of Maliciousness, but as the Servants of GOD.||212.|
|— ii. 17, 18, 19, 20.||Honour the King. Servants be subject to your Masters with all Fear, not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward; for this is Thank-worthy, if a Man for Conscience toward GOD endure Grief, suffering wrongfully. For what Glory is it, if when ye be buffeted for your Faults, ye take it patiently? But if when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with GOD.||ibid.|
|1 John ii. 16.||The Lust of the Flesh, the Lust of the Eyes, and the Pride of Life.||429.|
|— iii. 16.||We ought to lay down our Lives for the Brethren.||31.|
|—v. 16.||There is a Sin unto Death.||409.|
Prolegomena to the First Edition of De Jure Belli ac Pacis
A NOTE ON THE TRANSLATION
This is a translation of the Prolegomena to the first edition of De Iure Belli ac Pacis (1625). As will be seen by a comparison of it with the Barbeyrac text, a number of passages in the later editions are not present in it, and others have been rewritten (I have discussed some of the more important differences in the Introduction, p. ix). The division of the Prolegomena into numbered paragraphs was introduced for the first time in the edition of 1667 (along with subdivisions to the paragraphs in the main body of the text); and in an attempt to convey what Grotius himself intended, and what readers such as Hobbes, Locke, or Pufendorf saw when they read the book, I have omitted the divisions. The result looks strange to a modern eye, but it captures Grotius’s prose style and avoids some of the clumsy interruptions to his argument which the 1667 editor introduced. I have translated the key term ius sometimes as “law” and sometimes as “right.” As is well known, there is no adequate translation of this term into English, unlike other European languages (where for example droit captures the ambiguity of the word). In general, however, Grotius tends to use it to mean what we would call “law,” as in ius naturale, natural law (not natural right in the sense, e.g., of Hobbes). I have tried to indicate what the original Latin term is in other difficult cases, such as utilitas (“utility,” “interest,” or “advantage”). Utilitas in the Roman and later tradition was consistently contrasted with honestas or aequitas (“integrity” or “fairness”) (see, for example, Cicero’s De Officiis), and Grotius uses the term with this in mind.
PROLEGOMENA TO THE FIRST EDITION OF DE JURE BELLI AC PACIS
Many people have undertaken commentaries and digests of civil laws, both the Roman law and that of other nations; but few people have tackled the law which mediates between different countries, or between their rulers (whether that law stems from nature itself or from custom and tacit agreement), and so far no one at all has dealt with it comprehensively and methodically, though such a thing would benefit the human race. As Cicero truly said, the master science is the one which deals with alliances, agreements and bargains between peoples, kings, and foreign nations; that is, with all the rights of war and peace. Euripides too ranked this study above the knowledge of all divine and human matters: he had Theoclymenes addressed in this way:
- You, who know the affairs of Gods and men present and to come,
- Are worthless still, if what is just escapes you.
Work on this subject is all the more necessary because plenty of people, both in our own time and in earlier ages, have condemned this kind of law as nothing more than an empty name. Euthydemus’s remarkin Thucydides is on almost everyone’s lips, that for a king or state with sovereign power, nothing which is in their interest is unjust. Much the same are the sayings that when the stakes are high, success is the only justice, or that a state cannot be ruled without injustice. We can add to these the claim that the controversies which arise between nations or rulers generally have Mars as their arbiter. It is not only ordinary people who think there is a great gulf between war and law, but even learned and sensible people often make pronouncements which foster this belief. Nothing is more common than to oppose law and arms to one another. So Ennius said
- They looked to cold steel, not to law, for what they claimed.
And Horace described the ferocity of Achilles as follows:
- Thinking that laws were made for other men
- He carved his share with arms alone.
Lucan represented a character embarking on a war as saying
- With this I leave behind both peace and futile law.
Even such a modest person as Pompey could dare to say, “Why should I think of laws, with weapons in my hand?” Among Christian writers there are many passages to the same effect; one in Tertullian will stand for the others. “Deceit, savagery and injustice are the proper business of war.” No doubt those who think like this will quote to me that passage in Terence,
- Believing that your reason’s going to make
- This vagueness certain, is the same as if
- You thought you could go mad, and still stay sane.
It would clearly be useless to undertake a discussion of law if there is no such thing; so if I am to win acceptance for my project, I need in its defence briefly to refute this crucial error. And so that I do not have to deal with the whole crowd of my opponents, let me assign them a spokesman. Who better than Carneades, who reached what to the Academy was the summit of achievement, in that he could use his rhetorical powers just as effectively on behalf of falsehood as on behalf of truth? When he undertook the critique of justice (which is my particular subject at the moment), he found no argument more powerful than this: men have established iura according to their own interests [proutilitate], which vary with different customs, and often at different times with the same people. So there is no natural ius: all men and the other animals are impelled by nature to seek their own interests. Consequently, either there is no justice, or if there is such a thing, it is completely irrational, since pursuing the good of others harms oneself. We should not by any means accept the truth of what this philosopher says, nor of what Horace said in imitation,
- Nature itself will not split wrong from right.
For though man is an animal, he is one of a special kind, further removed from the rest than each of the other species is from one another—for which there is testimony from many actions unique to the human species. Among the things which are unique to man is the desire for society [appetitus societatis], that is, for community with those who belong to his species—though not a community of any kind, but one at peace, and with a rational order [pro sui intellectus modo ordinatae]. Therefore, when it is said that nature drives each animal to seek its own interests [utilitates], we can say that this is true of the other animals, and of man before he came to the use of that which is special to man [antequam ad usum eius quod homini proprium est, pervenerit]; though we should also make this exception in the case of the other animals, that their pursuit of their own interests is tempered by a regard partly for their own offspring, and partly for the other members of their species. We believe that this proceeds in their case from some extrinsic principle of intelligence, since a similar intelligence does not appear in other actions of theirs which are equally difficult. In the case of men, however, when they perform such actions, it is reasonable to suppose that they stem from some internal principle, which is associated with qualities belonging not to all animals but to human nature alone. This care for society in accordance with the human intellect, which we have roughly sketched, is the source of ius, properly so called, to which belong abstaining from another’s possessions, restoring anything which belongs to another (or the profit from it), being obliged to keep promises, giving compensation for culpable damage, and incurring human punishment. From this concept of ius arises another and more extensive one. Since men not only have this social instinct [vim socialem] more than other animals, but also possess the capacity to assess pleasures or pains [quae delectant aut nocent], both immediately and in the future, and to make judgments about what will conduce to them; we should understand that it is appropriate to human nature rationally [pro humani intellectus modo] to follow good judgment in these matters, and not be disturbed by fear or the lure of immediate pleasure, and that whatever is plainly contrary to good judgment is also contrary to the law of nature (that is, of human nature). As a result it behooves us when distributing resources responsibly to individuals or groups to ensure that we give more weight to the intelligent [sapiens] than to the less intelligent, more to a neighbor than to a stranger, and more to the poor than to the rich, as their conduct and the nature of the case requires. In the past many people took this to be part of ius properly and strictly so called, whereas ius accurately understood is very different in its character, as it consists in refraining from taking what belongs to another person, or in fulfilling some obligation to them. What I have just said would be relevant even if we were to suppose (what we cannot suppose without the greatest wickedness) that there is no God, or that human affairs are of no concern to him: the contrary of which on the one hand is borne in upon us (however unwilling we may be) by an innate light in our soul, and on the other is confirmed by many arguments and by miracles witnessed down the ages. It follows that without exception we should obey God as our creator to whom we owe everything, especially as he has revealed himself repeatedly as the best and most powerful being, who can give his followers great and eternal rewards; and we ought to believe that he wishes to do so all the more if he has promised it in so many words: which we Christians, following the ancient Hebrews, believe on the basis of unquestionable trust in the testimonies of his will. The free will of God gives rise to another ius in addition to that of nature, and our reason [intellectus] irrefutably tells us that we should submit to it. Moreover, despite the fact that natural ius, with which I am concerned, whether we think of it as the basis of society or take it more loosely [sive illud sociale, sive quod laxius ita dicitur], necessarily derives from intrinsic principles of a human being [ex principiis homini internis necessario profluit], it can also justly be attributed to God, since he willed that there should be such principles in us. It was in this sense that Chrysippus and the Stoics said that one should simply seek the origin of ius in Jove himself. The word ius in Latin indeed probably comes from the name Iovis. Among men our parents are like Gods of a kind, to whom not infinite but appropriate honor is due. Now, since it is part of the ius naturae that we keep our promises (for it was necessary that men should have some way of obliging themselves, and no other natural means can be conceived), civil laws [iura civilia] stem from the same source. For when people form themselves into a society [coetus] or subject themselves to some man or men, they have either expressly promised, or should be presumed from the nature of the arrangement to have tacitly promised, that they will agree with whatever the majority of the society, or the bearers of authority in it, have decided upon. Accordingly, what not Carneades alone but others as well have said,
- Utility [utilitas] might be called the mother of justice and equity,
is not true, if we speak accurately: for human nature itself is the mother of natural law, as it drives us to seek a common society [societatem mutuam] even if there is no shortage of resources: the mother of civil law is the obligation which arises from agreement, and since that gets its force from natural law, nature can be termed the grandmother of civil law. But utility is annexed to the natural law: the author of nature willed that as individuals we should be weak and in need of many things if we are to lead a good life, in order that we should be all the more impelled into living in society; and utility is the occasion of civil law [iuri autem civili occasionem dedit utilitas], since what I have termed association or subjection originally came into existence for the sake of some interest [utilitatis]. It is also the case that anyone who prescribes laws for other people usually does so with a view to increasing utility, or at least ought to do so. But just as the laws of each state [civitas] consult the utility of that state, so there could be (and indeed there seem actually to be) laws between states—either between all states or between a number of them— which consult the utility not of the individual societies but of their totality. This is what is termed “the law of nations,” insofar as we distinguish that law from the law of nature. Carneades omitted this kind of law when he categorized all laws as either the laws of nature or those of particular nations, though since he was dealing with the law which governs international relations (for the subject of his lecture was “war and its consequences”), he ought to have dealt with it above all. So Carneades was wrong when he stigmatized justice with the name of irrationality: for just as on his own account a citizen is not irrational who obeys the civil law of his state, even though doing so may require the citizen to forgo some personal benefit, so a nation is not irrational if it does not pursue its own interest at the expense of the common laws of nations. The reasoning is the same in each case: a citizen who breaks the civil law for the sake of some immediate interest will thereby undermine his own and his descendants’ permanent interests, and a nation which violates the laws of nature and nations will have renounced its right [rescindit munimenta] subsequently to live in peace. So even if no benefit is to be expected from obedience to a law, it is wise and not irrational to do what we feel we are led to by our nature. By the same token, it is not invariably true that
- We ought to say that from fear of injustice came laws;
or, as Plato puts the same thought, laws were invented from a fear of suffering injury, and it was violence which got men to cultivate justice. Strictly speaking, this applies only to those practices [instituta] and laws which were devised to help with instituting relationships of justice: many people who were individually weak got together to found and maintain with their collective strength a legal system [iudicia], so that they would not be oppressed by the more powerful, and that what they could not achieve separately would be within their power as a community. It is in this sense that it can reasonably be said that what is right is what benefits the most powerful, when we understand that a system of right can secure its external objective only with the help of force. Moreover, laws can still have an effect even without any violence annexed to them. For justice leads to a secure conscience, while injustice leads to the torment and laceration which Plato depicts in the hearts of tyrants; the common consent of upright people approves of justice and condemns injustice; and, most importantly of all, God is hostile to injustice and a friend to justice. Though he keeps his judgments for when we are dead, he nevertheless often represents their power to us in this life, as history tells us with many instances. Many people require the practice of justice from citizens but do not bother about it from nations or the rulers of nations. The principal cause of their mistake is that they are looking only to the utility which arises from laws, which is obvious in the case of citizens who cannot enjoy security as separate individuals, while great states which seem to possess all the resources needed for a properly secure existence apparently have no use for the virtue which involves other people, namely justice. But without repeating what I have already said, laws are not instituted for the sake purely of utility, and there is no state so powerful that it might not need some help from people outside it, whether for trade, or for protecting itself from the strength of many foreign nations united in opposition to it. This is why we see even the most powerful nations and kings seek alliances, the whole force of which is undermined by those who restrict laws to the internal affairs of states. The great truth is that everything is insecure as soon as we abandon laws. If no community can preserve itself without law (as Aristotle showed with his famous example of the brigands), so the community which all human beings, or a multiplicity of nations, construct among themselves certainly requires laws. Cicero recognized this when he said that evil actions should not be committed even for the sake of our country. Pompey too, whom we mentioned just now as taking the opposite view, when a Spartan king said to him that the happiest state was one whose boundaries spread as far as the spear and sword could take them, denied it, asserting that the happiest state made justice its frontier. He might also have used the authority of another Spartanking, who ranked justice above military valor, on the grounds that bravery should be governed by some kind of justice, and that if all men were just, they would not need courage. Themistius in his speech to Valens said persuasively that kings who are governed by the rule of wisdom are concerned not merely with the one nation assigned to them, but with the whole human race, and are (as he termed them) not solely “Macedonophiles” or “Romanophiles” but “Philanthropists.” What some people say, that in war all laws cease, is completely unacceptable: rather, war should only be undertaken in the pursuit of rights, and once under way should be conducted according to the measure of law and honesty [fides]. Demosthenes was right when he said that war was to be used against those who could not be constrained by judicial processes. Those processes have force only against people who think of themselves as subject to them, while war should be mounted against people who make themselves out to be the equals of their judges—though it should definitely be conducted with no less scrupulousness [religio] than we are accustomed to in courts. If “laws are silent among arms,” this is true only of civil laws and of laws relating to the judiciary and the practices of peacetime, and not of the other laws which are perpetual and appropriate to all circumstances. Dio Prusaeensis put it well: between enemies no notice is to be taken of written, that is, civil, laws, but notice must be taken of the unwritten laws which nature dictates, or the agreement of nations has established. The old Roman formula illustrates this: “I believe that these things are to be sought through a pure and holy [pius] war.” Those ancient Romans, as Varro observed, undertook their wars cautiously and in a disciplined fashion, since they thought that no war should be waged unless it was holy. Camillus said that war ought to be waged with no less justice than courage; and in Livy we read, “There are laws [iura] of war just as there are of peace.” Seneca admired Fabricius as a great man because he succeeded in the most difficult task of preserving his innocence in a war, and because he believed that some acts were utterly wrong even when committed against an enemy. Historians constantly demonstrate how much influence a conviction of justice carries in warfare, and often ascribe victory to this cause above all. It is proverbial that the strength of a soldier waxes and wanes with his cause; that he who takes up unjust arms rarely comes home intact; that hope is the companion of a good cause; and so on. The fortunate success of unjust projects should not influence us: it is sufficient that the fairness of a cause has a determinate—and great—motive force, even though that force (as happens in human affairs) is often impeded in its effects by some other countervailing causes. The belief that we do not go to war casually or unjustly, but conscientiously [pie], plays a major part in sustaining friendships, which are as advantageous in all sorts of ways to nations as they are to individuals. For no one will readily ally with anyone who thinks that law, morality, and honesty [ius, fas, fidem] are worthless. Because of the reasons I have given, I am in no doubt that there is some common law [ius commune] among nations which applies to war and its conduct; so there are many urgent issues leading me to take up my pen. I have seen a wantonness in wafare among Christians which would be shameful even among barbarians; I have seen men run to arms for frivolous or non existent reasons, and having taken them up, show no reverence for divine or human law, as if at a word their fury had been unleashed and they were capable of any crime. Many highly decent men have been led by this spectacle of inhumanity to suppose that all weapons should be forbidden for the Christian, whose way of life commits him to love all men; these include at times both Johannes Ferus and Erasmus, our countrymen, each of them dedicated to peace in the Church and the State. But I think they have followed the familiar practice of going from one extreme to the other in the pursuit of truth. This attempt to go too far in the other direction often causes more harm than good, since their extremism in one area loses them respect as far as their more reasonable claims are concerned. We should therefore remedy their arguments, so that people are not encouraged to believe either nothing or everything that they say. In addition, I wanted to advance the study of jurisprudence: something which I used to practice in public affairs with as much integrity as I could, but which I now have to pursue as a private citizen, since I have undeservedly been exiled from the land which I worked so hard to serve. Many people have already tried to put it into a systematic form [artis formam], but no one has succeeded; nor will they, until there is a proper distinction made between what is conventional and what is natural, to which no one yet has paid full attention. For natural principles, being always the same, are easily put into a systematic form, whereas conventional principles, which often change and which vary from place to place, like other collections of particulars cannot be handled systematically. So if the experts [sacerdotes] on true justice were to undertake to deal with the different parts of natural and perpetual jurisprudence, they should first set to one side everything which derives from the free will. Then one of them should deal with laws, one with tributes, one with the role of judges, one with the estimating of intentions [voluntatum coniectura], and one with the establishing of belief about facts; having done all this, a body of knowledge could be put together out of the discrete parts. For my part, I will show what approach I want to take not in words now, but by the material itself in this work, which contains what is by far the most significant part of jurisprudence. In the first book of the work I examined the general question of the origin of law, and whether any war can be just. Next, in order to understand the distinction between public and private war, I had to analyze the powers of sovereignty: which peoples and which kings have it undivided [solidam], which hold part of it, which have the right to alienate it, and which do not. Then I had to discuss the duties of subjects toward their superiors. In the second book I discussed all the causes which give rise to war. I went into detail about which things are common and which private property; what rights people can have over other people; what obligation stems from ownership; what are the rules for royal succession; what rights arise from agreements or contracts; what is the force of treaties and oaths (both public and private), and how we interpret them; what compensation is due for offences; what protection is accorded to ambassadors; what right we have to bury our dead; and what is the nature of punishments. The subject matter of the third book is, firstly, what is lawful in the course of a war. Secondly, it distinguishes between actions which in practice go unpunished or are even treated by exotic nations as legitimate, and those which are genuinely not wrong; while lastly it deals with the types of peace agreement, and all the conventions admitted in wartime. The value of this work seems all the greater because, as I have said, no one has handled the whole of this argument, and those who have handled parts of it have done so in such a way that much is left to the industry of others. Nothing survives of this kind from the Ancient Philosophers: neither from the Greeks (among whom Aristotle wrote a book called The Justifications of War), nor from the Latin authors, and not even from the early adherents of Christianity, whose works we would welcome above all. Nothing has even descended to us of the ancient Roman books of the fetial law, other than the name. Those who wrote summae of so-called cases of conscience included in their range of topics chapters on war, on promises, on oaths, and on reprisals. I have also looked at the specialized works on the laws of war, some of which are composed by theologians such as Franciscus Victoria, Henricus Gorichemus, or Wilhelmus Matthaei and others by jurists such as Ioannes Lupus, Franciscus Arius, Ioannes de Lignanus, or Martinus Laudensis; but all of them say very little about such a rich subject, and they are mostly very muddled and confused about which laws are natural, which divine, which are part of the law of nations, which are civil laws, and which belong to canon law. The great deficiency in all of these writers was that they lacked the illumination provided by History. Attempts to supply the deficit were made, first, by the most learned Faber in some chapters of his Semestria, but in his own fashion, and with an excessive citation of sources; then in a more extensive manner, and with their masses of examples organized in accordance with some definitions, by Balthazar Ayala and, especially, Albericus Gentilis. I know that others may be helped by his diligence, and I admit that it has helped me; so I leave it to his readers to judge what is lacking in the way he distinguishes between questions and between different types of law. But I will say this, that when he discusses a controversy he tends to follow either a few ill founded examples, or the authority of recent Jurisconsults in their answers; and many of those were written on behalf of clients, and not with a view to what is right or good. Ayala did not deal with the reasons why a war might be called just or unjust; and while Gentilis outlined the principal topics in his distinctive fashion, he did not deal at all with many aspects of the most important and persistent controversies. I have taken pains to consult anything relevant which is in print, and have given the sources for my judgments in order to make it easy to determine even the matters which I have left out. It remains for me briefly to set out the resources I have used and what my concerns have been in the project. My prime concern has been to base my examination of what belongs to the law of nature on ideas which are so certain that nobody can deny them without doing violence to their fundamental being [nisi sibi vim inferat]. The principles of natural law are clear and self-evident, to a much higher degree than the things which we perceive with our outward senses—even though our senses do not fail us if their organs are working properly and other necessary conditions are met. So Euripides in his Phoenissae made Polynices, whose cause he wanted to be obviously just, say that
- What I am saying, Mother, is not encircled with mysteries,
- But finds its support in the rules of the right and the good
- Which the masses see always as clearly as men of great learning.
The judgment of the chorus promptly confirmed this view (and it consisted of women, and barbarian women at that). In investigating this law, I have benefited from the testimony of philosophers, historians, poets, and, lastly, orators. One should not naively believe whatever they say, since they are often loyal to a particular party, program, or cause; but what is affirmed by many people at different times and places to be obvious must be presumed to rest on some universal reason. In the issues we are considering, this reason can only be either a correct deduction from the principles of our nature, or some general agreement. The former means that it is a law of nature, the latter that it is a law of nations. The distinction between these two categories is not to be gathered from their writings (for the authors continuously confound the terms “law of nature” and “law of nations”), but from the character of the material. For whatever cannot be deduced by sure reasoning from definite principles, but is nevertheless found everywhere, must have arisen from some voluntary act. Accordingly, I have constantly put special effort into distinguishing between these two laws, as much as into distinguishing both of them from the civil law. In the case of the law of nations I have discriminated between genuine law, found everywhere, and that which strictly speaking produces some external effect in imitation of the fundamental law—for example, it is most definitely and clearly legitimate to resist violence, but everywhere people are obliged to use the public powers to defend themselves, for the sake of some advantage or to avoid serious inconveniences. It will be clear as I develop the argument of this work how relevant this observation is to many issues. I have also been anxious to distinguish rights properly and strictly so called, which give rise to some obligation of restitution, from actions which we call right because it would be against the dictate of right reason to behave in some other way; I have already touched on this distinction. Among philosophers Aristotle is reckoned the king, whether you take into account the structure of his arguments, his sharpness in making distinctions, or the weight of his reasons. But I wish that his rule had not been transformed into tyranny, so that there is now nothing which oppresses truth, on whose behalf Aristotle was such a zealous and loyal worker, more than the name of Aristotle himself. Here and elsewhere I copy the freedom of the early Christians, who forswore loyalty to any school of philosophers; not because they agreed with those who say that nothing can be known (that is the most ridiculous thing to say), but because they thought that no school was right about everything, and each school had some merit. So they believed that to put together the truths distributed among different individuals and schools was equivalent to setting out the authentic teachings of Christianity. Among other things, I would say in passing, as it is relevant to my discussion, that I think some Platonists and the early Christians were quite right to dissent from Aristotle’s doctrine that virtue lies in a mean of emotions or actions. His commitment to this view led him to treat quite disparate virtues as if they were identical, such as generosity and thrift; and to posit that truthfulness had as its opposite two vices of greatly differing significance, boastfulness and dissimulation. He also labeled a number of things as vices which are either nonexistent or are not wrong in themselves, such as contempt for pleasure or honors, and the failure to feel anger at other men. The error of such a sweeping definition is clear from the case of justice: when his inspection of emotions and their corresponding actions failed to locate the opposing extremes between which justice was supposed to lie, he turned to the objects themselves with which justice deals. First, this was to switch between categories, which he himself rightly condemned in others; and second, to take less than one is owed (though it might contingently be a vice, if one had responsibility for the welfare of oneself or others) cannot be antagonistic to justice, since justice simply consists in respecting someone else’s rights [tota in alieni abstinentia posita est]. A similar delusion led him to say that if adultery was the consequence of lust, or murder the consequence of anger, then they could not properly be called acts of injustice. In fact, injustice simply consists of taking what belongs to someone else, and it does not matter whether it stems from greed, or lust, or anger, or an improvident benevolence; or from the desire to excel, which is the source of the greatest injustices. As long as our reason for resisting an incentive to behave in some way is solely that doing so would undermine human association, then that is what it is to be just. To return to my earlier theme: while it is true of some virtues that they involve the moderation of our emotions, this is not because it is an intrinsic and universal feature of every virtue, but because right reason (which virtue follows everywhere) in some things prescribes moderation, and in others urges excess. Thus it is not possible to revere God too much (what is wrong with superstition is not that God is excessively worshiped, but that it is a perverse kind of reverence); nor can we have an immoderate desire for eternal blessings and an excessive fear of damnation; nor can we hate sin too much. So I intend to set great value on Aristotle, but to treat him with the same freedom with which he treated his teachers in his zeal for truth. Works of history are useful for my argument in two ways, for they provide both examples of conduct, and moral judgments upon them. Examples from the best periods and cultures [populi] carry the most authority, so I have selected those from the Ancient Greeks and Romans in preference to any others. Nor have I rejected their judgments, especially where everyone was in agreement: for while the law of nature (as I have said) may be determined in other ways, the law of nations is established solely by general agreement. The remarks of the poets and orators have less weight, and I have used them not so much to bolster my case as to add some elegance to what I want to say. I have often deferred to the authority of the books which men wrote (or received) under the inspiration of God, but I have differentiated between the old and the new law. Some people say that the old law is the law of nature itself, but there is no doubt that this is false: much in the old law comes from the free will of God, though it is compatible with the true law of nature. To that extent we can use it as a basis for our discussion, provided that we distinguish carefully between a law of God enforced upon men by God on some limited occasion, and a law men have constituted for themselves [dummodo distinguamus accurate ius Dei quod Deus per homines interdum exsequitur, et ius hominum inter se]. I have tried as far as I could to avoid this error, as well as its opposite, that of supposing that once the new covenant came in, nothing of the old covenant mattered any more. I dissent from this view partly because of what I have just said, and partly because the character of the new covenant is such that whatever is prescribed in the old covenant about moral virtues is prescribed in the same terms, or more fully, in the new. We find the early Christian writers using examples from the old covenant in this way. And the Hebrew commentators can give us not a little assistance in interpreting the books of the old covenant, especially those who had good knowledge of the language and customs of their people. I use the new covenant to demonstrate what Christians are permitted to do, since there is no other way to determine it. But (in opposition to what many claim) I distinguish the new covenant from the law of nature, as I am sure that a much greater holiness is enjoined upon us by the most sacred law of the new covenant, than is required of us by the law of nature in itself. But I have not failed to note that where things are commended to us rather than commanded, then, just as we understand that to refuse commands is a sin and leaves us liable to punishment, so someone with a generous mind will follow the counsels of perfection, and will not fail to reap a reward. The canons of the authoritative Councils are selections from the general pronouncements of the divine law, adjusted to particular circumstances; they too illustrate what the divine law requires, or encourage us to do what God urges. And this is indeed the role of the Christian Church: to hand down what God transmitted to it, in the form in which it was transmitted. But the customs which the early Christians (at least, those who deserved to bear such a great name) accepted and praised are rightly treated as of equal value to the canons. Next in authority are those who enjoyed a great reputation among Christians in their own time (whenever it may have been) for their piety and doctrine, and were not reckoned to have made any grave errors. For what they say with great assurance, as if they were certain of it, ought to carry no small weight in the interpretation of obscure passages in the scriptures, especially when many of them seem to agree, or when they are close in time to the period of early purity, before power and intrigue had corrupted the original truth. The Scholastics, who followed them, often show how much they are to be admired for their cleverness. But they happened to live in an unfortunate age, ignorant of proper liberal arts [artium bonarum]; so we should not be surprised that, while there is much to be praised in their work, some of it at the same time has to be excused. However, when they agreed about some moral matter, they were seldom in error; for they were exceedingly quick at seeing the faults in other people’s arguments. And even in their enthusiasm for contradicting one another, they set an admirable example of modesty: for they fought among themselves with reasons and not with the insults which defile contemporary literature, and are the shameful products of impotent minds. There are three kinds of professors of Roman law. The first are those whose works are to be found in the Pandects, the Codes of Theodosius and Justinian, and the Novellae. The second are those who came after Irnerius, such as Accursius, Bartolus, and all the rest, who ruled in the courts for a long time. The third comprises those who joined the humanities [humaniores literas] to the study of law. I defer on many matters to the first group, for they provide an excellent and copious set of arguments to show that something is part of the law of nature, and often supply examples of the law of nations as well as the law of nature—though they are as prone as everyone else to confuse the two terms, and indeed frequently use the term “law of nations” to describe a practice which is strictly speaking of only limited extent, and is not based on agreement but on one nation imitating another, or on some chance similarity. And they often carelessly merge what genuinely belongs to the law of nations into their discussion of Roman law, as in the title “Captives and Postliminium. ” So I have worked hard to make the appropriate distinctions. The second group of professors were uninterested in divine law and ancient history: they tried to decide all the controversies of kings and peoples by reference to the Roman law, with the occasional admixture of canon law. They too were precluded by the mis-fortune of their period from properly understanding Roman law, but in other respects they were fairly sharp at discerning what is good or fair. As a result they are often the best authors to rely on for legislation, even if they are bad interpreters of preexisting laws. We should pay them most attention when they give an example of some custom which is now taken to be the law of nations. The third group of teachers, who restricted themselves to the Roman law, and who either neglected the common law of mankind [ius illud commune] or discussed it in a superficial fashion, have nothing useful to add to my argument. Two Spaniards, Covarruvia and Vasquius, have linked scholastic subtlety to knowledge of civil and canon law, and have not held aloof from the controversies of peoples and kings. Vasquius has handled the issues with great boldness [libertate], while Covarruvia has approached them more cautiously, and with a fairly good judgment. The French have tried to incorporate history into the study of law. The most distinguished of them have been Bodinus and Hottomanus; the former produced a connected work while the latter gave us a scattered set of questions. Their assertions and arguments will often prove useful in this inquiry. In the whole work I have made three fundamental commitments. One is to make the reasons for my propositions as obvious as possible; the second is to set out the material of my discussion in a systematic order; and the third is clearly to distinguish like cases from unlike. I have abstained from discussing questions of utility [quid ex usu sit facere], which are appropriate to some other work; those questions belong to a special political science [artem], which Aristotle rightly handled by itself, without any extraneous material—unlike Bodin, who confused this science with the kind of legal analysis [arte] which I have undertaken. I have on some occasions mentioned what is in people’s interests [quod utile est], but in passing, and in order to distinguish it from what is just. If anyone accuses me of being concerned with the controversies of our own time (whether current or about to break out), they will do me an injustice: I affirm that, just as mathematicians treat geometrical figures as abstracted from material objects, so I have conceived of law in the absence of all particular circumstances. As for my prose style, I did not want my readers (whose interests I did consider) to feel overwhelmed by a verbose treatment of so many different issues, so I have tried wherever possible to be concise and to convey my meaning clearly, with the hope that people engaged in public affairs will take in at a single glance both the kinds of disputes which arise in this field, and the principles for deciding them. Once they have absorbed the principles they will easily find their own way of expressing them, and can develop them as much as they like. I have periodically given quotations from ancient writers, where they seemed to carry particular weight or lend a special elegance to what I was saying; sometimes I have left a quotation in Greek, where it was short or where I could not hope to match its charm in a Latin translation, but I have always added a Latin version for the benefit of those who know no Greek. I sincerely pray that anyone who picks up this work will treat me with the same lack of deference [libertatem] which I have shown to the ideas and writings of other people; I will correct any error as soon as it has been brought to my attention. Lastly, if I have said anything contrary to piety, or morality, or Scripture, or the common agreement of the Christian Church, consider it unsaid.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF POSTCLASSICAL WORKS REFERRED TO BY GROTIUS
This bibliography is based largely on the marvelous “List of Sources” provided by R. Feenstra and C. E. Persenaire in their reedition of B. J. A. De Kanter-van Hettinga Tromp’s edition of the Latin text, Aalen, 1993, pp. 1027–70 (emended in a few places), and the index to the Carnegie Endowment English translation, De Jure Belli ac Pacis libri tres, trans. Francis W. Kelsey, Oxford University Press, 1925. I have not included references to the ancient writers so copiously cited by Grotius, who can usually be identified readily and consulted, for example, in the Loeb editions. A full list of the ancient authors is available in the index to the Carnegie Endowment translation.
- Abbas Panormitanus, see Panormitanus.
- Abbas Urspergensis, see Conradus a Lichtenau.
- Abulensis, see Tostatus.
- Accursius: (ca. 1182–1260, Italian glossator), see, for example, Johannes Fehus, ed., Corpus iuris civilis Iustinianei, Lyons, 1627.
- Acosta: Josephus Acosta (ca. 1539–1600, Spanish Jesuit), De promulgatione Evangelii apud barbaros sive de procuranda Indorum salute libri sex, in his De natura novi ordinis libri duo et De promulgatione, etc., Salamanca, 1589.
- Adamus Bremensis: Adam of Bremen (eleventh-century German historian), Historia ecclesiastica, cura Erpoldi Lindenbruch, Leiden, 1595.
- Ado: (ca. 800–875, Archbishop of Vienne), Breviarium chronicorum, Paris, 1561.
- Adrianus VI: Pope Adrian VI (1459–1523), Hadrianus Florentii de Traiecto, Quaestiones quodlibeticae, Louvain, .
- Aemilius: Paulus Aemilius (d. 1529, Italian historian), De rebus gestis Francorum libri X, Basel, .
- Aeneas Sylvius: Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (1405–64, Italian humanist, later Pope Pius II), Commentariorum de Concilio Basel celebrato libri duo, [Basel or Cologne, 1521].
- Afflictus: Matthaeus de Afflictis (1448–1528, Italian jurist), Decisiones Neapolitanae, [Lyons], 1533, and In tertium librum Feudorum, Lyons, 1548.
- Aguirre: Michael ab Aguirre (d. 1588, Spanish jurist), Responsum de successione Regni Portugalliae, Venice, 1581.
- Aimonius: Aimonius (d. 1008, French monk, of Fleury-sur-Loire), Historiae Francorum, in Corpus Francicae Historiae (q.v.).
- Albericus de Rosate: Albericus de Rosate (d. 1354, Italian jurist), Commentariorum de statutis libri IV, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.); In primam [secundam] ff. Veter. Part. Commentarii, Venice, 1585.
- Albertus Argentinensis: Albertus Argentinensis (fl. 1349, German chronicler), Chronici fragmentum, in Otto Frisingensis (q.v.).
- Alciatus: Andreas Alciatus (1492–1550, Italian humanist jurist), De praesumptionibus, in his Opera IV, Franckfurt, 1617; Tituli aliquot Decretalium annotationibus illustrati, in his Opera III; Paradoxa juris civilis, in his Opera IV; Responsa, libris novem digesta, Basel, 1582 (incl. Consilia).
- Alemannus: Nicolaus Alemannus (1583–1626, Italian historian), Historiam arcanam Procopii notae historicae, in Procopius Caesariensis, Anekdota, Arcana historia, Nicolaus Alemannus protulit, Latine reddit, notis illustravit, Lyons, 1623.
- Alexander Imolensis, see Alexander Tartagnus.
- Alexander Tartagnus: Alexander Tartagnus Imolensis (ca. 1424–77, Italian jurist), Consiliorum prima [secunda, tertia, quarta, quinta, sexta, septima] pars, cum annotationibus Caroli Molinei, Lyons, 1549; Commentaria in I et II Digesti Novi partem, Venice, 1595.
- Alphonsus de Castro: Alfonsus a Castro (1495–1558, Spanish Franciscan theologian), De potestate legis poenalis libri duo, Salamanca, 1550.
- Alphonsus Tostatus, see Tostatus.
- Ancharanus, see Petrus de Ancharano.
- Andreas Barbatia, see Barbatia.
- Angelus Aretinus: Angelus a Gambilionibus Aretinus (1418–61, Italian jurist), In quatuor Institutionum libros commentaria, Venice, 1570.
- Angelus de Clavasio: Angelus de Clavasio (d. 1493, Italian theologian), Summa Angelica de casibus conscientiae, [Strasbourg], 1520.
- Angelus de Ubaldis: Angelus de Ubaldis (1328–1407, Italian jurist), Consilia, Frankfurt, 1575; In Codicem commentaria, Venice, 1579; In I et II Digesti veteris partem commentaria, Venice, 1580; In Tres Libros Codicis (see Baldus, In... Codicis commentaria; this is the work referred to at II. III. 13 n. 1 as a commentary on the Decretals).
- Antoninus Florentinus: Antoninus archiepiscopus Florentinus (1389–1459, Italian theologian), Prima [secunda, tertia, quarta] pars Summe, [Basel, 1511].
- Antonius Cordubensis: F. Antonius Cordubensis (d. 1578, Spanish Franciscan theologian), Quaestionarium theologicum, Venice, 1604.
- Antonius de Butrio: Antonius a Butrio (ca. 1338–1409, Italian canonist), Super Secunda Primi Decretalium commentarii, Venice, 1578.
- Archidiaconus, see Guido de Baysio.
- Aretinus, see Angelus Aretinus.
- Argentraeus: Bertrand d’Argentré (1519–90, French jurist), L’histoire de Bretagne, Paris, 1588.
- Arias: Franciscus Arias (fl. 1533, Spanish jurist), De bello et eius iustitia, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.).
- Arius, see Arias.
- Arnoldus Lubecensis, see Helmoldus.
- Arumaeus: Dominicus Arumaeus (1579–1637, Dutch jurist), Discursus academici ad Auream Bullam Caroli Quarti Romanorum Imperatoris, Jena, 1619.
- Attaliates: Michael Attaliata (eleventh-century Byzantine historian), Opus de jure sive Pragmatica [i.e., Synopsis], in Leunclavius, Iuris graeco-romani (q.v).
- Averroes: Averroes (d. 1198, Islamic philosopher), Aristotelis Metaphysica cum Averrois Expositione, in Aristoteles, Opera VIII, Venice, 1560.
- Ayala: Balthazar Ayala (ca. 1548–84, Spanish jurist), De jure et officiis bellicis et disciplina militari libri III, Antwerp, 1597.
- Aymo, see Cravetta.
- Aymonius, see Aimonius.
- Aymus: Baptista Aymus (fl. 1570), De alluvionibus tractatus, [Leipzig], 1601.
- Azorius: Ioannes Azorius (1533–1603, Spanish Jesuit), Institutiones morales, Cologne, 1602–12.
- Azpilcueta, see Navarrus.
- Baba Kama: Baba Qama mimaseget neziqin, De legibus Ebraeorum forensibus liber singularis, ex Ebraeorum pandectis versus et commentariis illustratusper Constantinum L’Empereur ab Opwyck, Leiden, 1637.
- Balbus: Franciscus Balbus (fl. 1510, Italian jurist), Tractatus de praescriptionibus, Cologne, 1590.
- Balduinus: Franciscus Balduinus (1520–73, French Protestant jurist), Ad Aedilitium Edictum, in his Breves commentarii in praecipuas Iustiniani Imp. Novellas sive Authenticas constitutiones, idem Ad Aedilitium Edictum, Lyons, 1548.
- Baldus: Baldus Ubaldus (1327–1400, Italian jurist), Consiliorum sive responsorum volumen primum [secundum, tertium, quartum, quintum], Venice, 1575; In primum, secundum et tertium [in quartum et quintum; in sextum; in VII, VIII, IX, X et XI] Codicis commentaria, Venice, 1586; Ad tres priores libros Decretalium commentaria, Lyons, 1585; In primam [secundam] Digesti veteris partem, in primam et secundam Infortiati partem, [et] in Digestum novum commentaria, Venice, 1586; Super feudis, [Lyons],1545; Tractatus de statutis, alphabetico ordine congestus, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.).
- Balsamon: Theodorus Balsamon (fl. 1193, Greek canonist), Canones SS. Apostolorum, conciliorum generalium et provincialium, Sanctorum Patrum Epistolae canonicae, omnia commentariis Theodori Balsamonis explicata et de Graecis conversa Gentiano Herveto interprete, Paris, 1620.
- Banez: Dominicus Bañez (1528–1604, Spanish Jesuit), Decisiones de iure et iustitia, Duaci, 1615; De fide, spe et charitate, Scholastica commentaria in Secundam Secundae Angelici Doctoris partem, quaead Quaestionem quadragesimam protenduntur, Lyons, 1588.
- Baptista Trovamala: Baptista Trovamala (d. 1484, Italian canonist), Summa Roselle de casibus conscientie [Strasbourg, 1516].
- Barbatia: Andreas Barbatia (ca. 1400–1479, Italian canonist), Quartum volumen consiliorum, Venice, 1516.
- Barclaius: Guilielmus Barclaius (ca. 1540–1606, French jurist), De regno et regali potestate libri VI, Hanover, 1612.
- Bartholomaeus de Salyceto: Bartholomaeus a Salyceto (d. 1412, Italian jurist), In primum et secundum [in III. et IV., in V. et VI., in VII., VIII. et IX.] Codicis libros commentaria, Venice, 1586.
- Bartholomaeus Socinus, see Socinus.
- Bartolus: Bartolus a Saxoferrato (1313–57, Italian jurist), Commentaria, Venice, 1596.
- Basilicorum Ecloga: LX librorum basilikon Ecloga sive Synopsis, ed. per Joan.
- Leunclavium, Basel, 1575. Baysio, see Guido de Baysio.
- Beda: Beda (English historian, ca. 674–735), Ecclesiasticae historiae gentis Anglorum libri quinque, Antwerp, 1550.
- Bellaius, see Du Bellay.
- Belli: Petrinus Belli (1502–75, Italian jurist), De re militari et de bello, in Tractatus universi iuris [q.v.].
- Belluga: Petrus Belluga (fifteenth-century Spanish jurist), Speculum principum, Venice, 1580.
- Belviso, see Jacobus de Belviso.
- Bembus: Petrus Bembus (1470–1547, Italian humanist), Historiae Venetae libri XII, Venice, 1551.
- Bernardus Clarevallensis: Bernardus Clarevallensis (1090–1153, French theologian), Opera omnia, Paris, 1602.
- Bertachinus, see Johannes Bertachinus.
- Bizarus: Petrus Bizarus (ca. 1525–83, Italian historian), Senatus populique Genuensis rerum domi forisque gestarum historiae atque annales, Antwerp, 1579.
- Bocer: Henricus Bocerus (1561–1650, German jurist), Tractatus de iure collectarum, Tübingen, 1617.
- Bodinus: Joannes Bodinus (1530–96, French jurist and philosopher), De republica libri sex, Frankfurt, 1609.
- Boerius: Nicolas Boerius (1469–1539, French jurist from Bordeaux), Decisiones Burdegalenses, [Geneva], 1620. The reference to “Boërius” at I. III. 18. 1 is in fact a reference to Augustinus Beroius, In primam [secundam] partem libri primi, in primam [secundam] libri secundi, in librum tertium, in quintum librum Decretalium commentarii, Lyons, 1550.
- Bonfinius: Antonius Bonfinius (1427–1502, Italian humanist), Rerum Ungaricarum decades quatuor cum dimidia, Frankfurt, 1581.
- Boreo: the citation of a “Iohannes Boreo” at II. VIII. 8 n. 1 seems to be a printing error; probably Iohannes Buteo is meant.
- Bossius: Aegidius Bossius (1488–1546, Italian jurist), Practica et tractatus varii seu quaestiones criminalem materiam sive actionem fere omnem exacte continentes, Basel, .
- Brigitta: Brigitta (1302–73, Swedish saint), Revelationes S. Birgittae olim a card. Turrecremata recognitae et a Consalvo Duranto notis illustratae, Cologne, 1628.
- Brodaeus: Ioannes Brodaeus (1500–1563, French humanist), Miscellaneorum libri sex, Basel, [ca. 1560].
- Bruning: Iohannes Bruningh (seventeenth-century German jurist), Disputationum politico-historico-iuridicarum, Basel, 1621.
- Brutus, see Junius Brutus.
- Buchananus: Georgius Buchananus (1506–82, Scottish humanist), Rerumscoticarum historia, Edinburgh, 1583.
- Busbequius: Augerius Gislenius Busbequius (1522–92, Flemish scholar), Legationis Turcicae epistolae quatuor, Paris, 1595.
- Buteo: Johannes Buteo (1492–1572, French mathematician), De fluviaticis insulis secundum ius civile dividendis, in his Opera geometrica, Lyons, 1554.
- Butrio, see Antonius de Butrio.
- Cabedo: Georgius de Cabedo (1559–1604, Portuguese jurist), Practicarum observationum sive decisionum Supremi Senatus Regni Lusitaniae pars prima [secunda], Antwerp, 1635.
- Cacheranus: Octavianus Cacheranus (fl. 1590, Italian jurist), Decisiones Senatus Pedemontani, [Frankfurt on Main, 1570].
- Caepolla: Bartholomaeus Caepolla (d. 1474, Italian jurist), Tractatus de servitutibus tam urbanorum quam rusticorum praediorum, Cologne, 1616.
- Caietanus: Thomas de Vio Cajetanus (1469–1534, Italian theologian), Evangelia cum commentariis, [Paris], 1532; Commentaria [in Summam S. Thomae Aquinatis universam sacram theologiam complectentem], in Thomas Aquinas, Summa (q.v.); Summula de peccatis, Lyons, 1565.
- Calderinus: Ioannes Calderinus (d. 1365, Italian canonist), Consilia sive responsa Ioannis Calderini, Gasparis et aliorum, Antonii de Butrio, Felini Sandaei, Venice, 1582.
- Camdenus: Guilielmus Camdenus (1551–1623, English historian), Annalesrerum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum regnante Elisabetha, Leiden, 1625.
- Canaye: Philippe Canaye (1551–1610, French diplomat), Lettres et ambassade, Paris, 1635.
- Canibus, see Johannes Jacobus de Canibus.
- Cardinalis, see Franciscus Zabarella (The reference to “Card.” at II. I.4.1 is an error for “Cord.,” i.e., “Cordubensis.”)
- Carolus Calvus: Charles the Bald (823–77, king of France), Karoli Calvi et successorum aliquot Franciae regum capitula in diversis synodis ac placitis generalibus edita, Iacobus Sirmondus collegit notisque illustravit, Paris, 1623.
- Carolus Magnus: Charlemagne (742–814, king of France), Karoli Magni et Hludovici Pii Capitula sive leges ecclesiasticae et civiles ab Ansegiso Abbate et Benedicto Levita collectae lib. VII, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.); Testamentum Karoli Magni, in Annalium et historiae Francorum scriptores coetanei XII, ex Bibliotheca P. Pithoei, Frankfurt, 1594.
- Carthagena: Ioannes de Carthagena (d. 1617, Spanish theologian), Propugnaculum catholicum de iure belli Romani Pontificis adversus Ecclesiae iura violantes, Ad Paulum Quintum Pontif. Max., Rome, 1609.
- Cassiodorus, De amicitia, see Petrus Blesensis, Liber de amicitia.
- Castaldus: Restaurus Castaldus (d. 1564, Italian civil lawyer), De imperatore, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.).
- Castrensis, see Paulus Castrensis.
- Castro, see Alphonsus de Castro.
- Cephalus: Ioannes Cephalus (Cefali) (1511–80, Italian jurist), Consiliorumsive responsorum liber primus [secundus, tertius, quartus, quintus], Frankfurt on Main, 1579–83.
- Chassanaeus: Bartholomaeus Chassanaeus (1480–1541, French jurist), Catalogus gloriae mundi, Frankfurt on Main, 1612; Consuetudines Ducatus Burgundiae fereque totius Galliae, Bartholomaei a Chassenaeo commentariis illustratae, Lyons, 1582.
- Chiffletus: Iulius Chiffletius (d. ca. 1670, French historian), Audomarum obsessum et liberatum anno MDCXXXVIII, Antwerp, 1640.
- Choppinus: Renatus Choppinus (1537–1606, French jurist), De domanio Franciae libri III, Paris, 1605.
- Chronicon Melanchtonis: Chronicon Carionis, expositum et auctum a Philippo Melanchtoni et Casparo Peucero, [Geneva], 1617.
- Chytraeus: David Chytraeus (1530–1600, German Protestant theologian), Saxonia ab anno 1500 usque ad annum 1600, Leipzig, 1611.
- Clarus: Iulius Clarus (1525–75, Italian jurist), Receptarum sententiarum opera, Lyons, 1600.
- Clavasio, see Angelus de Clavasio.
- Code Henry: Henry III (1551–89, king of France), Le Code du Roy Henri III, augmenté des Edicts du Roy Henri IIII, troisième edition, Paris, 1609.
- Collatio legum Mosis et Romanarum: “Incipit Lex Dei quam Deus praecepit ad Moysen,” in Codicis Theodosiani libri XVI, Paris, 1586.
- Cominaeus, see Philippus Cominaeus.
- Concilia Galliae: Concilia antiqua Galliae tres in tomos ordine digesta, opera et studio Iac. Sirmondi, Paris, 1629.
- Concilia generalia: Concilia generalia et provincialia graeca et latina, [ed.] Severinus Binius, Paris, 1636. This is the work referred to by mistake at II. XIII. 6 n. 1 and II. XIII. 7 n. 2 as Concil. Gall.
- Connanus: Franciscus Connanus (1508–51, French jurist), Commentariajuris civilis, Paris, 1553.
- Connestagius: Ieronimo de Franchi Conestaggio (d. 1635, archbishop of Capua), Dell’ unione del Regno di Portogallo alla Corona di Castiglia, Genoa, 1585.
- Conradus a Lichtenau: Conradus a Liechtenaw Urspergensis Coenobiiabbas (d. 1240, Bavarian chronicler), Chronicon, Strasbourg, 1609.
- Conradus Vicerius: Conradus Vecerius (fl. 1523, Burgundian humanist), Libellus de rebus gestis Imperatoris Henrici VII, in Veterum scriptorum qui Caesarum et Imperatorum Germanicorum res literis mandarunt tomus unus, ex bibliotheca Iusti Reuberi, Hanover, 1619.
- Consilia Marpurgensia: Consiliorum sive responsorum doctorum et professorum facultatis juridicae in Academia Marpurgensi volumen primum [secundum, tertium], Marburg Cattorum, 1611–14.
- Consolata del mare: Il Consolata del mare, Venice, 1599.
- Constantinus L’Empereur: Constantinus L’Empereur (fl. 1627, d. 1648, Dutch orientalist), Commentarii, in Baba Kama (q.v.).
- Constitutiones Galliae, see Code Henry, Fontanon, and Guenois.
- Constitutiones Hispaniae, see Siete Partidas.
- Constitutiones Siculae: Constitutionum Neapolitanarum sive Sicularum libri tres, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.).
- Consuetudines Normanniae: Le Grant Coustumier de Normandie, [Paris, 1534].
- Cordubensis, see Antonius Cordubensis.
- Corpus Francicae Historiae: Corpus Francicae Historiae, [ed. Marquard Freher], Hanover, 1613.
- Corsetus: Antonius Corsetus (d. 1503, Italian canonist), De potestate et excellentia regia tractatus, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.).
- Costa: Emanuel Costa (d. 1564, Portuguese jurist), Patrui et nepotis de successione Regni Portugalliae tractata quaestio, Coimbra, 1558.
- Cothmannus: Ernestus Cothmannus (1557–1624, German jurist), Responsorum seu consiliorum ac consultationum volumen primum [II, III, IV, V], Frankfurt, 1613–21.
- Covarruvias: Didacus Covarruvias (1512–77, Spanish canonist), In librum quartum Decretalium epitome, Secunda pars [de matrimonio], in his Opera I, Antwerp, 1610; Constitutionis secundae ex rubrica de pactis, lib. VI, cuius initium Quamvis pactum inscribitur, interpretatio, in ibid.; In Clementis Quinti constitutionem Si furiosus, rubrica de homicidio, relectio, in ibid.; Regulae Peccatum, de regulis iuris, libro Sexto, relectio, in ibid.; Relectio regulae Possessor malae fidei, de regulis iuris, libro VI, in ibid.; Practicarum quaestionum liber unus, in his Opera II, Antwerp, 1610; Variae ex iure pontificio, regio et caesareo resolutiones, in ibid.
- Crantzius, see Krantzius.
- Cravetta: Aymo Cravetta (1504–69, Italian jurist), Consiliorum sive responsorum primus et secundus [tertius, quartus, quintus, sextus] tomus, Frankfurt, 1589–93; Tractatus de antiquitatibus temporum, Frankfurt, 1616.
- Cromerus: Martinus Cromerus (1512–89, Polish historian), De origineetrebus gestis Polonorum libri XXX, Basel, .
- Cujacius: Iacobus Cuiacius (1520–90, French jurist), Paratitla in libros quinquaginta Digestorum seu Pandectarum, in his Opera II, Frankfurt, 1623; De feudis libri quinque, in his Opera III, Frankfurt, 1623; Paratitla in libros IX Codicis Iustiniani, in ibid.; Observationum et emendationum libri XXVIII, in his Opera IV, Frankfurt, 1623.
- Curtius (F.): Francischinus Curtius (ca. 1470–1533, Italian jurist), Consiliorum pars prima, Venice, 1575.
- Curtius (R.), see Rochus de Curte.
- Damianus, see Petrus Damianus.
- Danaeus: Lambertus Danaeus (1530–96, French Calvinist theologian), Politices Christianae libri septem, [Geneva], 1596.
- Dantes: Dantes Aligherius (1265–1321, Italian poet), Monarchia, in Syntagma tractatuum de imperiali iurisdictione, authoritate et praestantia authorum variorum, [ed. Simon Schardius], Strasbourg, 1609.
- Decianus: Tiberius Decianus (1508–81, Italian jurist), Responsorum volumen primum [secundum, tertium, quartum, quintum], Frankfurt on Main, 1589.
- Decisiones Genuenses: Rotae Genuae de mercatura decisiones, Frankfurt, 1592.
- Decius: Philippus Decius (1454–1535, Italian jurist), Consilia sive responsa, Frankfurt on Main, 1588.
- Dominicus de Sancto Geminiano: Dominicus de Sancto Geminiano (fl. 1407, Italian canonist), Lectura in Sextum Librum Decretalium, [Lyons], 1532.
- Donellus: Hugo Donellus (1527–91, French jurist), Commentariorum de iure civili libri viginti octo, Frankfurt, 1596.
- Driedo: Ioannes Driedo (ca. 1480–1535, Flemish theologian), De libertate Christiana libri tres, Louvain, 1548.
- Drusius: Iohannes Drusius (1550–1616, Dutch theologian), Annotationum in totum Jesu Christi testamentum sive Praeteritorum libri decem, Franeker, 1612.
- Duarenus: Franciscus Duarenus (ca. 1509–59, French jurist), Omnia quae quidem hactenus extant opera, Lyons, 1578.
- Du Bellay: Martin du Bellay (d. 1559, French historian), Les Memoires, Paris, 1573.
- Dubravius: J. Dubravius (d. 1553, Bohemian historian), Historia Boiemica, Basel, 1575.
- Du Faur, Anthony, see Faber (A.).
- Du Faur, Pierre, see Faber (P.).
- Dumoulin, see Molinaeus.
- Duns Scotus: Ioannes Duns Scotus (ca. 1265–1308, Scottish theologian), Quaestiones in III libros Sententiarum et Quodlibetales, Venice, 1617.
- Durandus, see Guilielmus Durandus.
- Edictum Childeberti: Childebert I (d. 558, king of the Franks), Decretio Childeberti regis, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.).
- Edictum Rothari: Rotharis (d. 652, king of the Lombards), Leges Longobardorum quas Rotharis Rex... composuit iussitque Edictum appellari, in Originum ac germanicarum antiquitatum libri, opera Basilii Ioannis Herold, Basel, .
- Edictum Theodorici: Theodoric (457–526, king of the Ostrogoths), Edictum Theodorici regis, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.).
- Eginhardus: Eginhartus (ca. 770–840, French historian), Vita et gesta Karoli cognomento Magni, in Corpus Francicae Historiae (q.v.).
- Epitome ed. a Frehero: Gestaregum Francorum epitomata, in Corpus Francicae Historiae (q.v.).
- Erasmus: Desiderius Erasmus (1465–1536, Flemish humanist), Encomium moriae [together with Iustus Lipsius, Satyra Menippaea, and P. Cunaeus, Sardi venales], Leiden, 1617.
- Everardi, see Nicolaus Everardi.
- Faber (A.): Antonius Faber (1557–1624, French jurist), Codex Fabrianus definitionum forensium et rerum in sacro Sabaudiae Senatu tractatarum, Lyons, 1606; Coniecturarum iuris civilis libri sex priores, ed. tertia, Lyons, 1605; De Montisferrati Ducatu contra ducem Mantuae pro Duce Sabaudiae consultatio, Lyons, 1617.
- Faber (J.), see Johannes Faber.
- Faber (P.): Petrus Faber (1540–1600, French jurist), Semestrium liber unus, Lyons, 1590; Commentarius ad titulum de diversis regulis juris antiqui, Lyons, 1566.
- Felinus Sandeus: Felinus Sandeus (ca. 1444–1503, Italian canonist), Commentariorum in Decretalium libros V pars prima [secunda, tertia], Basel, 1567.
- Fernandez: Tellus Fernandez (sixteenth-century Spanish jurist), Prima pars commentariorum in primas triginta et octo leges Tauri, secunda editio, Madrid, 1595.
- Ferus: Johannes Ferus (1494–1554, German theologian), mentioned Preliminary Discourse XXX, without specifying a title.
- Fichardus: Ioannes Fichardus (1512–81, German jurist), Consiliorum tomus primus, Frankfurt on Main, 1590.
- Firmanus, see Johannes Bertachinus.
- Flodoardus: Flodoardus (894–966, French historian), Historiarum [Remensis] Ecclesiae libri IV, Paris, 1611.
- Fontanon: Antoine Fontanon (fl. 1589, French jurist), Les edicts et ordonnances des rois de France, par Antoine Fontanon, tome troisieme, Paris, 1611.
- Fortescue: Iohannes Fortescue (d. ca. 1485, English jurist), De laudibus legum Angliae, London, 1616.
- Fortunius Garcia: Fortunius Garcia (fl. 1514, Spanish jurist), De ultimo fine iuris canonici et civilis, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.); Repetitio in 1. Manumissiones, ff. de iustitia et iure, in Repetitiones in varia iurisconsultorum responsa, Lyons, 1553.
- Franciscus a Ripa, see Ripa.
- Franciscus Arius, see Arias.
- Franciscus de Accoltis: Franciscus de Accoltis de Aretio (1418-ca. 1485, Italian canonist), Consilia, [Lyons], 1529.
- Franciscus Zabarella: Franciscus Zabarella (1360–1417, Italian canonist), Consilia, Venice, 1581; Commentarii in Clementinarum volumen, Lyons, 1511.
- Francus, see Philippus Francus.
- Fraxinus Canaeus, see Philippe Canaye.
- Fredegarius: Fredegarius Scholasticus (fl. ca. 660, French chronicler), Chronicae liber, in Corpus Francicae Historiae (q.v.).
- Freherus, see Corpus Francicae Historiae and Epitome ed. a Frehero.
- Freitas: Seraphinus de Freitas (d. 1622, Portuguese canonist), De iusto imperio Lusitanorum asiatica, Valladolid, 1625.
- Friderus Mindanus: Petrus Friderus Mindanus (d. 1616, German jurist), De mandatis et monitoriis iudicialibus sine clausula tractatus, Liber secundus, Frankfurt on Main, 1596.
- Froissart, see Jean Froissart.
- Frossardus, see Jean Froissart.
- Fulgosius, see Raphael Fulgosius.
- Gabrielius: Antonius Gabrielius (d. 1555, Italian canonist), Communes conclusiones in septem libros distributae, Frankfurt, 1597.
- Gail: Andreas Gail (1525–87, German jurist), Practicarum observationum libri duo, Cologne, 1608 [second part: De pace publica, De pignerationibus, De arrestis].
- Garatus, see Martinus Laudensis.
- Gentilis: Albericus Gentilis (1552–1608, Italian jurist), De jure belli libri III, Hanover, 1612; De legationibus libri tres, Hanover, 1594; Hispanicae advocationis libri duo, Hanover, 1613.
- Gl. [i.e., Glosa], see Accursius.
- Goeddaeus: Johannes Goeddaeus (1555–1632, German jurist), in Consilia Marpurgensia (q.v.).
- Gomezius (A.): Antonius Gomezius (fl. 1550, Spanish civil lawyer), Commentariorum variorumque resolutionum juris civilis communis et regii tomi tres, Frankfurt, 1596.
- Gomezius (L.): Ludovicus Gomesius (1494–1553, Spanish jurist), Commentaria super titulo Institutionum de actionibus, in De actionibus titulus Institutionum, commentariis Iasonis Mayni illustratus etc., Venice, 1574.
- Gorcumensis, see Henricus Gorcumensis.
- Grammaticus: Thomas Grammaticus (ca. 1473–1556, Italian jurist), Decisiones Sacri Regii Consilii Neapolitani, Frankfurt on Main, 1573.
- Gregorius Magnus: Gregory I, Pope (ca. 540–604), Epistolae, in his Omnia quae extant opera, Antwerp, 1572.
- Gregorius Turonensis: Gregory of Tours (544–594, French historian), Historiarum libri X, in Corpus Francicae Historiae (q.v.).
- Grotius: [Hugo Grotius], Mare liberum sive de iure quod Batavis competit ad Indicana commercia dissertatio, Leiden, 1609.
- Gryphiander: Iohannes Gryphiander (d. 1652, German historian), De insulis tractatus, ex iurisconsultis, politicis, historicis et philologis collectus, Frankfurt, .
- Guenois: Pierre Guenois (1520-ca. 1600, French jurist), La nouvelle conférence des ordonnances et edicts royaux, Paris, 1642.
- Guicciardinus: Franciscus Guicciardinus (1482–1540, Italian humanist), Historiarum sui temporis libri viginti, ex italico in latinum sermonem conversi, Basel, 1566.
- Guido de Baysio: Guido de Baysio (“Archidiaconus”) (fl. 1290, Italian canonist), Commentaria Rosarium appellata in volumen Decretorum, Milan, 1508.
- Guido Papa: Guido Papa (ca. 1400-ca. 1475, French jurist), Decisiones Parlamenti Dalphinalis Gratianopolis, Lyons, 1534.
- Guilielmus de Monteferrato: Guilielmus de Monferrat (fifteenth-century French jurist), Tractatus de successione regum, in Tractatus universi juris (q.v.).
- Guilielmus Durandus: Guilielmus Durandus (ca. 1237–96, French canonist), Speculum iuris, Pars prima et secunda, Basel, 1574.
- Guilielmus Neubrigensis: Guilielmus Neubrigensis (1136–98, English historian), De rebus Anglicis libri quinque, Paris, 1610.
- Guillimanus: Franciscus Guillimannus (fl. 1610, Swiss historian), De rebus Helvetiorum sive antiquitatum libri V, Fribourg, 1598.
- Guntherus: Guntherus (fl. 1205, French Cistercian), Ligurinus sive de gestis Friderici libri X, in Otto Frisingensis (q.v.).
- Haraeus: Franciscus Haraeus (d. 1632, Dutch historian), Annales ducum seu principum Brabantiae totiusque Belgii, Antwerp, 1623.
- Harmenopulus: Constantinus Harmenopulus (1320–80, Greek jurist), Promptuarium iuris, [Geneva], 1587.
- Heigius: Petrus Heigius (1558–99, German jurist), Quaestiones juris tam civilis quam Saxonici, Wittenberg, 1619.
- Helmoldus: Helmoldus (d. ca. 1183, German historian), Chronica Slavorum seu Annales Helmoldi, presbyteri Buzoviensis, hisque subiectum derelictorum Supplementum Arnoldi, abbatis Lubecensis, opera et studio Reineri Reineccii, Frankfurt, 1581.
- Henricus de Segusio, see Hostiensis.
- Henricus Gorcumensis: Henricus de Gorychum (ca. 1386–1431, Flemish theologian), Tractatus de iusto bello, in his Tractatus consultatorii, [Cologne, 1503].
- Henriquez: Henricus Henriquez (1536–1608, Portuguese Jesuit), Summae theologiae moralis libri quindecim, Maintz, 1613.
- Herrera: Antonio de Herrera (1559–1625, Spanish historian), Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas i tierra firme del mar oceano, Madrid, 1615.
- Hieronymus de Monte: Hieronymus de Monte, Tractatus de finibus regundis, Venice, 1556.
- Hincmarus: Hincmarus (806–82, French bishop and historian), Opuscula et epistolae Hincmari Remensis archiepiscopi, Paris, 1615; Opusculum de divortio Hlotarii regis et Tedtbergae reginae, in Opuscula; Vita S. Remigii scripta ab Hincmaro, in Vitae sanctorum ex probatis authoribus et mss. codicibusper Laurentium Surium editae, Cologne, 1617.
- Hispania illustrata: Hispaniae illustratae seu rerum urbiumque Hispaniae, Lusitaniae, Aethiopiae et Indiae scriptores varii [ed. A. Schottus], Frankfurt, 1603.
- Honorius: Philippus Honorius (seventeenth-century Italian humanist), Thesaurus politicus, hoc est selectiores tractatus etc. [authoribus variis], Frankfurt, 1617.
- Hostiensis: Henricus de Segusio Cardinalis Hostiensis (d. 1271, Italian canonist), In primum [secundum, tertium, quartum, quintum] Decretalium librum commentaria, Venice, 1581; Summa [Decretalium], [Lyons], 1537.
- Hotmannus: Franciscus Hotmannus (1524–90, French jurist), Quaestionum illustrium liber, Geneva, 1598.
- Illescas: Gonçalo de Illescas (d. ca. 1580, Spanish historian), Segunda parte de la historia pontifical y catholica, Burgos, 1578.
- Innocentius IV: Innocentius IV (d. 1254, Italian canonist and pope), Apparatus super primo, secundo, tertio, quarto et quinto Decretalium libris, [Lyons, 1520]. The second reference to Innocentius at II. V.21 n. 4 is an error for Johannes de Imola.
- Instructie Admiraliteyt: Instructie van de Heeren Generale Statender Vereenighde Nederlanden voor de Collegien van der Admiraliteyt... in date den 13 Augusti 1597, in Groot Placaetboeck... by een gebracht door Cornelis Cau, The Hague, 1664.
- Instructiones rei maritimae, see Instructie Admiraliteyt.
- Ius Graeco-Romanum, see Leunclavius.
- Jacobus de Belviso: Jacobus de Belviso (ca. 1270–1335, Italian civil lawyer), Commentarii in Authenticum et Consuetudines feudorum, Lyons, 1511.
- Jason de Maino: Jason Maynus (1435–1519, Italian jurist), Consiliorum pars prima [secunda, tertia, quarta], [Lyons], 1534; In primam [secundam] Codicis partem commentaria, [Lyons], 1533; In primam [secundam] Digesti Veteris partem commentaria; In primam [secundam] Infortiati partem commentaria; In primam [secundam] Digesti Novi partem commentaria, [Lyons], 1533; Commentaria super tit. de actionibus Institutionum, [Lyons], 1541.
- Jean Froissart: Iehan Froissart (1338-ca. 1410, French historian), Histoire et chronique memorable, Paris, 1574.
- Johannes Andreae: Ioannes Andreae (d. 1348, Italian civil lawyer), In secundam Decretalium librum novella commentaria, Venice, 1581.
- Johannes Bertachinus: Ioannes Bertachinus de Firmo (d. 1497, Italian canonist), De gabellis, tributis et vectigalibus, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.).
- Johannes de Carthagena, see Carthagena.
- Johannes de Imola: Joannes de Imola (d. 1436, Italian canonist), Super primo [secundo] Decretalium, Lyons, 1525–49.
- Johannes de Lignano: Ioannesde Lignano (d. 1383, Italian canonist), Tractatus de bello, in Tractatus universi juris (q.v.).
- Johannes de Turrecremata: Ioannes a Turrecremata (1388–1468, Spanish canonist), In primum volumen Causarum commentarii, Lyons, 1555.
- Johannes Faber: Ioannes Faber (d. 1340, French jurist), In Codicem breviarium, Lyons, 1550.
- Johannes Ferus, see Ferus.
- Johannes Jacobus de Canibus: Ioannes Iacobus a Canibus (d. ca. 1494, Italian jurist), De represaliis, in Tractatus universi juris (q.v.).
- Johannes Leo, see Leo Africanus.
- Johannes Lupus: Ioannes Lupus (d. 1496, Spanish canonist), Tractatus de bello et bellatoribus, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.).
- Johannes Maior: Joannes Maior (ca. 1470-ca. 1540, Scottish theologian), In Quartum Sententiarum quaestiones, Paris, .
- Johannes Sarisberiensis: Ioannes Sarisberiensis (ca. 1115–80, English philosopher), Policraticus, Leiden, 1595.
- Jornandes: Iornandes (sixth-century Gothic historian), De Getarum sive Gothorum origine et rebus gestis, Leiden, 1597.
- Junius Brutus: Stephanus Iunius Brutus (pseudonym of late-sixteenth-century Protestant theorist), Vindiciae contra tyrannos, Hanover, 1595.
- Knichen: Andreas Knichen (1560–1621, German jurist), De sublimi et regio territorii iure, in his Opera, Hanover, 1613; De vestiturarum pactionibus, in ibid.
- Krantzius: Albertus Krantzius (ca. 1450–1517, German historian), Regnorum Aquilonarium, Daniae, Sueciae, Norvagiae chronica, Frankfurt on Main, 1575; Saxonia, De Saxonicae gentis vetusta origine, longuinquis expeditionibus susceptis et bellis domi pro libertate diu fortiterque gestis, Frankfurt on Main, 1580; Wandalia, De Wandalorum vera origine, variis gentibus, crebris e patria migrationibus, regnis item, quorum vel autores vel eversores fuerunt, Frankfurt, 1575.
- Kromer, see Cromerus.
- La Canaye, see Canaye.
- Lambertus Scafnaburgensis: Lambertus Schafnaburgensis (fl. 1077, German historian), Annales, Strasbourg, 1609.
- Lapide: Cornelius Corneli a Lapide (1567–1637, Flemish Jesuit), Commentaria in Pentateuchum Mosis, Antwerp, 1618.
- Laymann, see Pacis compositio.
- Le Cirier: Ioannes Le Cirier (fl. 1515, French jurist). Tractatus singularis de iure primogeniturae vel maioricatus, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.).
- Leges Galliae, see Guenois.
- Leges Hispanicae, see Siete Partidas.
- Leges Siculae, see Constitutiones Siculae.
- L’Empereur, see Constantinus L’Empereur and Baba Kama.
- Leo Africanus: Ioannes Leo Africanus (fl. 1526, Moroccan geographer), Africae descriptio IX lib. absoluta, Leiden, 1632.
- Lessius: Leonardus Lessius (1554–1623, Flemish Jesuit), De iustitia et iure caeterisque virtutibus cardinalibus libri quatuor, Antwerp, 1609.
- Leunclavius: Iohannes Leunclavius (1533–93, German historian), Iuris graecoromani tam canonici quam civilis tomi duo, Iohannis Leunclavii studio eruti latineque redditi cura Marquardi Freheri, Frankfurt, 1596; Historiae Musulmanae, Turcorum, Frankfurt, 1591.
- Lex Baioariorum: Lex Baivvariorum, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.).
- Lex Burgundionum: Lex Burgundionum, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.).
- Lex Langobardorum, see Lombarda.
- Lex Salica: Liber Legis Salicae, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.).
- Lex Visigothorum: Codicis Legis Wisigothorum libri XII, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.).
- Libri Feodorum, see, for example, Johannes Fehus, ed., Corpus iuris civilis Iustinianei, Lyons, 1627.
- Lindenbrogius: Fridericus Lindenbrogius (1573–1647, German Protestant jurist), Codex legum antiquarum, ed. Frid. Lindenbrogius, Frankfurt, 1613; Observationes in Ammianum Marcellinum, Hamburg, 1609.
- Littleton: [Thomas] Littleton (ca. 1420–81, English jurist), Les tenures, London, 1617.
- Loazes: Ferdinandus Loazius (d. 1568, Spanish theologian), Consilium sive iuris allegationes super controversia oppidi a Mula orta inter illustrissimum Dom. a Velez Marchionem et illius subditos super dicti oppidi dominio atque iurisdictione, Milan, 1552.
- Lombarda: Legis Longobardorum libri tres, in Lindenbrogius, Codex (q.v.).
- Lopez (J.), see Johannes Lupus.
- Lopez (L.): Ludovicus Lopez (d. ca. 1595, Spanish theologian), Tractatus de contractibus et negotiationibus, Lyons, 1593.
- Lorca: Petrus de Lorca (1554–1606, Spanish theologian), Commentaria et disputationes in Secundam Secundae Divi Thomae, Madrid, 1614.
- Ludovicus II: Ludovicus II (778–840, king of the Franks and emperor), Ludovici II Imp. Aug. rescriptum ad Basilium Imperatorem, in Collectio constitutionum imperialium I, ed. Melchior Goldastus, Frankfurt on Main, 1615.
- Ludovicus Pius: Louis I (778–840, king of France), Capitulare II Ludovici Pii, in Concilia Galliae (q.v.).
- Ludovicus Romanus: Ludovicus Romanus (1409–39, Italian jurist), Consilia, [Lyons, 1520].
- Lupus, see Johannes Lupus.
- Magnus (J.): Ioannes Magnus (1488–1544, Swedish historian), Historia Metropolitanae Ecclesiae Upsalen., Roma, 1560; Gothorum Sueonumque historia, Basel, 1558.
- Magnus (O.): Olaus Magnus (ca. 1490–1568, Swedish historian), Historia de gentium septentrionalium variis conditionibus statibusve, Basel, .
- Maino, see Jason de Maino.
- Maior, see Johannes Maior.
- Malderus: Ioannes Malderus (1563–1633, Flemish theologian), De Virtutibus theologicis et iustitia et religione commentaria ad Secundam Secundae D. Thomae, Antwerp, 1616.
- Mantica: Franciscus Mantica (d. 1614, Italian jurist), Vaticanae lucubrationes de tacitis et ambiguis conventionibus, Geneva, 1615.
- Manutius: Paulus Manutius (1512–74, Italian humanist), Antiquitatum Romanarum liber de legibus, Paris, 1557.
- Mariana: Joannes Mariana (1536–1624, Spanish Jesuit), Historiaederebus Hispaniae libri XXX, Maintz, 1605.
- Marsa: the reference to “Anthony Marsa” at II. VIII.8 n. 1 is probably an error in the 1642 and subsequent editions; Antonius Maria Vicecomes (q.v.) seems to be intended.
- Marsilius Patavinus: Marsilius Patavinus (d. 1328, Italian jurist, of Padua), Defensor pacis, Frankfurt, 1592.
- Martinus Laudensis: Martinus Laudensis (fl. 1440, Italian civil lawyer), Tractatus de bello, in Tractatus universi juris (q.v.).
- Masius: Andrea Masius (1515–73, Flemish theologian), Iosuae imperatoris historia illustrata atque explicata ab Andrea, Masio, Antwerp, 1574.
- Mastrillus: Garsias Mastrillus (d. 1620, Italian jurist), Demagistratibus, eorum imperio et iurisdictione tractatus, Palermo, 1616.
- Mathie, see Wilhelmus Mathie.
- Matthaeus Mathesilanus: Matthaeus Mathesilanus (fifteenth-century Italian jurist), Singularia, in Singularia doctorum in utroque iure, Frankfurt, 1596.
- Maynus, see Jason de Maino.
- Medina (B.): Bartholomaeus a Medina (1527–81, Spanish theologian), Expositio in Primam Secundae Divi Thomae, Salamanca, 1588.
- Medina (G.): Ioannes Medina (1490–1547, Spanish theologian), De paenitentia, restitutione et contractibus, Ingolstadt, 1581.
- Meibomius, see Wittekind.
- Meichsner: Iohannes Meichsnerus (sixteenth-century German jurist), Decisionum diversarum causarum in Camera Imperiali iudicatarum, Frankfurt on Main, 1604.
- Melanchton, see Chronicon Melanchtonis.
- Menchaca, see Vasquius.
- Mendoza: Bernardino de Mendoça (sixteenth-century Spanish historian), Comentarios de lo sucedido en las guerras de los Payses baxos, Madrid, 1592.
- Menochius: Iacobus Menochius (1532–1607, Italian jurist), Consiliorum sive responsorum liber primus [tredecimus], Frankfurt on Main, 1625; De arbitrariis iudicum quaestionibus et causis libri duo, Cologne, 1615; De praesumptionibus, coniecturis, signis et indiciis commentaria, Cologne, 1628.
- Meursius: Ioannes Meursius (1579–1639, Dutch historian), Historiae Danicae libri III, Copenhagen, 1630.
- Meyerus: Iacobus Meyerus (1491–1552, Flemish historian), Commentarii sive Annales rerum Flandricarum, Antwerp, 1561.
- Mindanus, see Friderus Mindanus.
- Molina: Ludovicus de Molina (1535–1600, Portuguese Jesuit), De Hispanorum primogeniorum origine ac natura libri quatuor, Cologne, 1588; De justitia et jure tomi duo, Maintz, 1602–3.
- Molinaeus: Carolus Molinaeus (1500–1566, French jurist), Prima pars commentariorum in Consuetudines Parisienses, Paris, 1539; Annotationes, in Alexander Tartagnus, Consiliorum prima pars... (q.v.).
- Monstrelet: Enguerran de Monstrellet (ca. 1390–1453, French historian), Le premier [second, tiers] volume des chroniques, Paris, 1518.
- Monte (Hieronymus de), see Hieronymus de Monte.
- Monteferrato, see Guilielmus de Monteferrato.
- Mynsinger: Ioachimus Mynsingerus (1514–88, German jurist), Responsorum iuris sive consiliorum decades decem, Basel, 1576; Singularium observationum Iudicii Imperialis Camerae (ut vocant) centuriae quatuor, Basel, 1563.
- Natta: Marcus Antonius Natta (sixteenth-century Italian jurist), Consiliorum sive responsorum tomus primus, [secundus, tertius, quartus], Venice, 1570–74.
- Navarra, see Petrus de Navarra.
- Navarrus: Martinus ab Azpilcueta Navarrus (1493–1586, Spanish theologian), Enchiridion sive Manuale confessariorum et poenitentium, in his Opera III, Cologne, 1616.
- Neostadius: Cornelius Neostadius (1549–1606, Dutch jurist), De pactis antenuptialibus rerum iudicatarum observationes, The Hague, 1605.
- Nicolaus Everardi: Nicolaus Everardus a Middelburgo (1461–1532, Flemish jurist), Loci argumentorum legales, Lyons, 1556.
- Nov. Emanuelis Comneni: Novella Emanuelis Comneni, in Leunclavius, Iuris graeco-romani (q.v.).
- Oceanus iuris, see Tractatus universi iuris.
- Oderbornius: Paullus Oderbornius (fl. 1585, German Lutheran theologian), Ioannis Basilidis Magni Moscoviae Ducis vita, [Wittenberg], 1585.
- Oldendorp: Ioannes Oldendorpius (ca. 1480–1567, German jurist), Actionum forensium pro gymnasmata, in his Opera II, Basel, 1559. See also Consilia Marpurgensia.
- Oldradus: Oldradus de Ponte (d. 1335, Italian canonist), Consilia seu responsa et quaestiones aureae, Venice, 1571.
- Osorius: Hieronymus Osorius (1506–80, Portuguese historian), Derebus Emmanuelis Regis Lusitaniae gestis, in his Opera omnia, Roma, 1592.
- Otto Frisingensis: Otto Frisingensis (ca. 1111–58, German historian), Leopoldi Pii Chronicon, eiusdem De gestis Friderici I libri duo, Radevici Frising, de eiusdem Frid. gestis libri II, Guntheri poetae Ligurinus sive de gestis Friderici libri X, Basel, 1569.
- Pacis compositio: [P. Laymann(?) (1575–1635, German Jesuit)], Pacis compositio inter principes et ordines Imperii Romani catholicos et Augustanae confessioni adhaerentes in comitiis Augustae anno 1555 edita, quam jureconsulti quidam catholici quaestionibus illustrarunt anno 1629, editio altera, Dilingen, [1629?].
- Panormitanus: Abbas Panormitanus (Niccolò Tedeschi, 1386–1445, Italian canonist), Consilia iurisque responsa ac quaestiones, Lyons, 1586; Prima [secunda] pars super primo, prima [secunda, tertia] pars super secundo, super tertio, super quarto et quinto Decretalium, Lyons, 1516–17.
- Papa, see Guido Papa.
- Pareus: David Pareus (1548–1622, German Reformed theologian), Indivinam ad Romanos S. Pauli apostoli epistolam commentarius, Heidelberg, 1620.
- Paruta: Paolo Paruta (1540–98, Italian humanist), Historia Vinetiana, Venice, 1605.
- Paschalius: Carolus Paschalius (1547–1625, Italian historian), Legatus, Paris, 1612.
- Paulinus Gothus: L. Paulinus Gothus (1565–1646, Swedish historian), Historiae Arctoae libri tres, Strängnas (Sweden), 1636.
- Paulus Aemilius, see Aemilius.
- Paulus Castrensis: Paulus Castrensis (d. ca. 1441, Italian jurist), Consiliorum sive responsorum volumen primum [secundum, tertium], Venice, 1571; In primam [secundam] Codicis partem commentaria, Venice, 1582; In primam [secundam] Digesti veteris partem commentaria, Venice, 1582.
- Paulus Diaconus: Paulus Warnefridus, Diaconus Foroiuliensis (ca. 720-ca. 798, Lombard historian), De gestis Langobardorum libri VI, Leiden, 1595.
- Paulus Venetus, see Sarpi.
- Paulus Warnafredus, see Paulus Diaconus.
- Peregrinus: Antonius Peregrinus (d. 1616, Italian jurist), De iuribus et privilegiis fisci libri VII, Cologne, 1588.
- Petra: Petrus Antonius de Petra (fl. 1600, Italian jurist), De iure quaesito non tollendo per principem tractatus, in quo de potestate principis et inferiorum abeo, Frankfurt, 1610.
- Petrinus Belli, see Belli.
- Petrus Blesensis: Petrus Blesensis (d. 1200, French theologian), Liber de amicitia (attributed to M. Aurelius Cassiodorus in Cassiodorus, Opera omnia quae extant, Geneva, 1637); Epistolae, in Petrus Blesensis, Opera, [Paris, 1519].
- Petrus Damianus: Petrus Damianus (ca. 1006–72, Italian theologian), Epistolarum libri octo, Paris, 1610.
- Petrus de Ancharano: Petrus de Ancharano (ca. 1330–1416, Italian canonist), Lectura super Sexto Decretalium, [Lyons, 1517].
- Petrus de Navarra: Petrus a Navarra (fl. 1594, Spanish theologian), De ablatorum restitutione in foro conscientiae, Lyons, 1593.
- Petrus Martyr: Petrus Martyr Vermilius (1500–1562, Italian Protestant theologian), In librum Iudicum commentarii, Zurich, 1561.
- Philippe de Commynes, see Philippus Cominaeus.
- Philippus Cominaeus: Philippus Cominaeus (1445–1509, Flemish historian), De rebus gestis a Ludovico XI et Carolo VIII, in Tres Gallicarum rerum scriptores, a Ioanne Sleidano e Gallico in Latinum sermonem conversi, Frankfurt on Main, 1578.
- Philippus Francus: Philippus Francus (Franchi) (d. 1471, Italian canonist), Lectura super Sexto Decretalium, Lyons, 1522.
- Piccolomineus: Franciscus Piccolomineus (1520–1604), Universa philosophia de moribus, Venice, 1594.
- Piscina: Franciscus Piscina, Disputatio an statuta feminarum exclusiva porrigantur ad bona forensia, Mondori, 1570.
- Pontanus: Ioh. Isacius Pontanus (ca. 1570–1639, Danish historian), Discussionum historicarum libri duo, Hardervici Gelrorum, 1637; Rerum Danicarum Historia, Amsterdam, 1631.
- Prierias, see Sylvester Prierias.
- Radevicus: Radevicus Frisingensis canonicus (twelfth-century German historian), Appendicis ad Ottonem, De rebus gestis Friderici, libri II, in Otto Frisingensis (q.v.).
- Raphael Fulgosius: Raphael Fulgosius (1367–1427, Italian jurist), In Codicem commentariorum tomus primus [secundus], Lyons, 1547; In primam Pandectarum partem commentariorum tomus primus [secundus], Lyons, 1544.
- Raynerius: Raynerius de Forolivio (d. 1358, Italian jurist), no work specified.
- Regino Prumiensis: Regino Prumiensis (d. 915, German historian), Annales, [Maintz, 1521].
- Regius: Aegidius de Coninck sive Regius (1571–1633, Flemish Jesuit), De moralitate, natura et effectibus actuum super naturalium, Antwerp, 1623.
- Reidanus: Everardus Reidanus (1550–1602, Dutch historian), Belgarum aliarumque gentium annales, Leiden, 1633.
- Reinkingk: Theodorus Reinkingk (d. 1664, German jurist), Tractatus de regimine seculari et ecclesiastico, editio tertia, Marburg, 1641.
- Rhedanus, see Reidanus.
- Ripa: Ioannes Franciscus a Ripa (d. 1534, Italian jurist), Commentaria ad ius civile, Turin, 1574.
- Rochus de Curte: Rochus Curtius (fl. 1515, Italian canonist), Enarrationes in capitulo Cum tanto, De consuetudine, in Tractatus universi iuris (q.v.).
- Rodericus Santius: Rodericus Santius, Episcopus Palentinus (1404–70, Spanish historian), Historiae hispanicae partes quatuor, in Hispania illustrata (q.v.).
- Rodericus Toletanus: Rodericus Ximenez, Archiepiscopus Toletanus (ca. 1170-ca. 1245, Spanish historian), Rerum in Hispania gestarum libri IX, opera et studio Andreae Schotti, in Hispania illustrata (q.v.); Historia Arabum, in ibid.
- Romanus, see Ludovicus Romanus.
- Rosate, see Albericus de Rosate.
- Rosellis, see Baptista Trovamala.
- Rosenthalius: Henricus a Rosentall (seventeenth-century German jurist), Tractatus et synopsis totius iuris feudalis, Geneva, 1610.
- Rugerius: Bonifacius Rugerius (d. 1591, Italian jurist), Consiliorum seu responsorum volumen primum, Venice, 1593.
- Rupertus Abbas, see Rupertus Tuitensis.
- Rupertus Tuitensis (d. 1135, German theologian), no work specified.
- Sachsenspiegel: Sachsenspiegel auffs newe iibersehen, durch Christoff Zobel, Leipzig, 1582.
- Sainct-Yon: Les edicts et ordonnances des rays, coutumes des provinces, reglements, arrests et iugemens notables des eaues et forets, recueillis par [Louis] de Sainct-Yon, Paris, 1610 (cited as “Sanction des eaux et forets”).
- Salmasius: Claudius Salmasius (1588–1653, French humanist), Plinianaeexer-citation in Caii Iulii Solini Polyhistora, Paris, 1629.
- Salycetus, see Bartholomaeus de Salyceto.
- Sanchez, see Rodericus Santius and Sanctius.
- Sanction des eaux et forets, see Sainct-Yon.
- Sanctius: Thomas Sanchez (1550–1610, Spanish Jesuit), Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento tomi tres, Antwerp, 1626.
- Sandeus, see Felinus Sandeus.
- Santius, see Rodericus Santius.
- Sarisberiensis, see Johannes Sarisberiensis.
- Sarpi: Petrus Sarpi (1552–1623, Italian philosopher and historian), De iureasylorum liber singularis, Leiden, 1622.
- Saxo Grammaticus: Saxo Grammaticus (d. ca. 1184, Danish historian), Danica historia libris XVI conscripta, Frankfurt on Main, 1576.
- Sayrus: Gregorius Sayrus (1570–1602, English Catholic theologian), Clavis regia sacerdotum casuum conscientiae sive theologiae moralis thesauri locos omnes aperiens, Douai, 1619.
- Scafnaburgensis, see Lambertus Scafnaburgensis.
- Scaliger: Josephus Justus Scaliger (1540–1609, French humanist), In Sex. Pompei Festi libros de verborum significatione castigationes, Paris, 1576.
- Schottus, see Hispania illustrata.
- Schutzius: Caspar Schütz (fl. 1561, German historian), Historia rerum Prussicarum—Warhaffe und eigentliche Beschreibung der Lande Preussen, [Leipzig], 1599.
- Scotus, see Duns Scotus.
- Seisellus, see Seyssel.
- Seldenus: Ioannes Seldenus (1584–1654, English jurist), Mare clausum seu de dominio maris libri duo, [Leiden], 1636.
- Serranus, see Serres.
- Serres: Iean de Serres (ca. 1540–98, French historian), Inventaire general de l’histoire de France depuis Pharamond... jusques à présent... Augmenté en ceste impression dernière, de ce qui s’est passè en ces dernières annèes jusques á l’an 1627, Paris, 1627.
- Servinus: Louis Servin (1555–1626, French jurist), Actions notables et plaidoyez, Paris, 1639.
- Seyssel: Claude de Seyssel (ca. 1450–1520, French historian), La grand monarchie de France, Paris, 1541.
- Siete Partidas: Las Siete Partidas del rey Alonso el nono, glosadas por Gregorio Lopez, Salamanca, 1555.
- Sigebertus Gemblacensis: Sigebertus Gemblacensis (ca. 1035–1112, Flemish historian), Chronicon ab anno 381 ad 1113, [Paris, 1513].
- Silvester Prierias, see Sylvester Prierias.
- Simlerus: Iosia Simlerus (1530–76, Swiss Protestant historian), De Helvetiorum republica, Paris, 1577.
- Sirmondus: Jacobus Sirmondus (1559–1651, French Jesuit), Appendix Codicis Theodosiani novis constitutionibus cumulatior, cum epistolis aliquot veterum conciliorum et pontificum Romanorum, opera et studio Iacobi Sirmondi, Paris, 1631. See als
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS REFERRED TO IN JEAN BARBEYRAC’S NOTES
This bibliography lists works cited by Barbeyrac but not by Grotius. For works referred to by both of them, see the earlier “Bibliography of Postclassical Works Referred to by Grotius.”
- Alciatus: Andreas Alciatus (1492–1550, Italian humanist jurist), Παρέργων juris libri tres, Lyons, 1538.
- Amyraut, Moses (1596–1664, French Protestant theologian), Considerations sur les droits par lesquels la nature a reiglé les mariages, Saumur, 1648; La morale Chrestienne, Saumur, 1652–60.
- Anastasius: Anastasius Bibliothecarius (ninth-century Italian historian), Historia ecclesiastica, sive chronologia tripartita, ed. Charles-Annibal Fabrot (q.v.), Paris, 1649.
- Anselm: An error for Adelmus (tenth-century French chronicler), Adelmi Benedictini, vel secundum alios Ademari Monachi Annales Francorum regum... in M. Freher ed., Corpus Francicae historiae, Hanover, 1613.
- Anthony Tesauro, see Tesauro, Antonio.
- Arnisaeus: Henning Arnisaeus (d. 1636, German Protestant jurist), De auctoritate principum in populum semper inviolabili, Frankfurt, 1612; De jure majestatis, Frankfurt, 1610; De subjectione et exemptione clericorum, Frankfurt, 1612; De Republica, seu Relectionis politicae libri duo, Argentorati, 1636; Opera politica, Strasbourg, 1648.
- Averani: Joseph Averani (1662–1738, Tuscan jurist), Disputatio de Jure Belli ac Pacis, Florence, 1703.
- Bachovius, Reinhart Bachovius (1575-after 1635, German jurist), Notae et animadversiones ad disputationes H. Treutleri, Heidelberg, 1617–19; Exercitationes Richardi Bachovii Echtii... ad partem posteriorem Chiliades Antonii Fabri, quam de erroribus interpretum falsi inscripsit, Frankfurt, 1624; Commentarii in primam partem Pandectarum, Speyer, 1630; Tractatus de pignoribus et hypothecis absolutissimus, Frankfurt and Rostock, 1656.
- Barbeyrac: Jean Barbeyrac (1674–1729, French Protestant jurist), Traité du jeu, où l’on examine les principals questions de droit naturel et de morale qui ont du rapport à cette matière, Amsterdam, 1709; trans., John Tillotson, Sermons sur diverses matières importantes, Amsterdam, 1708–16; “Lettre de Mr. Barbeyrac...á Mr. **** sur un article des Memoires de Trevoux du mois d’Avril 1712. concernant le Traité du Jeu,” Journal des Sçavans LII, Amsterdam, 1712, pp. 404–17; “Premiere & Derniere Replique de M. Barbeyrac álaréponse précedente de M. du Tremblai,” Journal des Sçavans LV, Amsterdam, 1714, pp. 168–83, 243–53; Discours sur la permission des loix: où l’on fait voir que ce qui est permis par les loix n’est pas toujours juste & honnête: prononcé aux promotions publiques du Collège de Lausanne, le 8 de mai MDCCXV, Geneva, 1715; Discours sur le bénéfice des loix, où l’on fait voir qu’un honnête homme ne peut pas toujours se prévaloir des droits et des privilèges que les loix donnent, prononcé aux promotions publiques du Collège de Lausanne, Geneva, 1716; ed. and trans., Samuel Pufendorf, Les devoirs de l’homme et du citoien... 4e edition... augmenté d’un grand nombre de notes du traducteur; de ses deux discours sur la permission et le bénéfice des loix et du jugement de M. de Leibniz sur cet ouvrage, Amsterdam, 1718. See also Pufendorf.
- Barnes: Joshua Barnes (1654–1712, English classicist), Homeri opera, Cambridge, 1710; Euripidis quae extant omnia, Cambridge, 1694.
- Battier: Johannes Jacobus Battier (1664–1720, Swiss jurist), Quaestiones juris controversae, Basel, 1706.
- Baudouin: Franciscus Balduinus (1520–73, French Protestant jurist), Commentarius de jurisprudentia Muciana, Basel, 1558.
- Bayle: Pierre Bayle (1647–1706, French Protestant philosopher), Commentaire philosophique sur ces paroles de Jésus-Christ, Contrain-les d’entrer, ou Traité de la tolérance universelle, Rotterdam, 1713; Dictionnaire historique et critique, Rotterdam, 1697; Critique générale de l’Histoire du calvinisme de Mr. Maimbourg, Villefranche, 1682; Nouvelles lettres de l’auteur de la Critique générale de l’Histoire du calvinisme de Mr. Maimbourg, Villefranche, 1685.
- Bentley: Richard Bentley (1661–1742, English classicist), A dissertation upon the epistles of Phalaris, with an answer to the objections of... Charles Boyle, London, 1699.
- Berglerus: Stephanus Berglerus (1680–1746?, Transylvanian classicist), ed., Homer, Opera quae exstant omnia, Amsterdam (ex officina Wetsteniana), 1707.
- Bernard: Jacques Bernard (1658–1718, French Protestant theologian), De l’excellence de la religion, à quoi on a joint quatre discours..., Amsterdam, 1714.
- Berneger: Matthias Bernegger (1582–1640, Austrian historian), Observationes miscellae, Strasbourg, 1669; Justinus, cum notis... variorum, Berneggeri, Bongarsii, Vossii..., ed. C. Schrevelius, Amsterdam, 1659.
- Bibliotheca Germanica: M. Hertzius, ed., Bibliotheca Germanica, [Erfurt, 1679].
- Bibliotheque Choisie, see “Extrait des Actes.” Bignon: Jerome Bignon (1589–1656, French royal tutor and librarian), ed., Marculfi monachi formularum libri duo, Paris, 1613.
- Blondus: Flavius Blondus (Flavio Biondo), (1388–1463, Italian humanist), Historiarum ab inclinatione Romani imperii ad annum 1440, Venice, 1483.
- Bochart: Samuel Bochart (1599–1667, French Protestant theologian), Geographia sacra, Part I, Phaleg, Caen, 1646, and Frankfurt, 1674; Part II, Chanaan, Caen, 1646.
- Boecler: Johann-Heinrich Boecler (1611–92, German Catholic jurist), Ad Grotium De Jure Belli ac Pacis, Strasbourg, 1663; Dissertationes Academicae, Strasbourg, 1701–12; ed. Velleius Paterculus, Hist. rom. ad M. Vinicium cos. libri duo, Strasbourg, 1642.
- Boehmer: Justus-Henning Boehmer (1674–1749, German Protestant jurist), Introductio in jus publicum universale, Halle, 1710.
- Bongras: Jacobus Bongarsius (1554–1612, French Protestant humanist), Justinus, cum notis... variorum, Berneggeri, Bongarsii, Vossii..., ed. C. Schrevelius, Amsterdam, 1659.
- Boulanger: Julius Caesar Boulenger (1558–1628, French Jesuit), Liber de spoliis bellicis, trophaeis, arcibus triumphalibus et pompa triumphi, Paris, 1601.
- Bourdieu, John du, see Dubourdieu.
- Bovin: Jean Boivin (1663–1726, French classicist), “Dissertation sur un fragment de Diodore de Sicile,” Memoires de Literature tirez des registres de l’Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres II, Paris, 1717, pp. 84–113 (Barbeyrac cites the Amsterdam edition).
- Brisson: Barnabas Brisson (executed 1591, French jurist), Lexicon juris, sive de verborum quae ad jus pertinent significatione libri XIX, Frankfurt, 1587; Selectarum ex jure civili antiquitate libri duo, Paris, 1556; De formulis & sollemnibus populi Romani verbis libri VIII, Frankfurt, 1592; De solutionibus et liberationibus in Johann Gottfried Freyer, Tractatus de solutionibus, in quo de personis solventibus et solutum recipientis... agitur, Erfurt, 1660; ed., Livy, Historicorum omnium Romanorum libri omnes quotquot ad nos pervenere, Frankfurt, 1588; Deregio Persarum principatu libritres, ed. Friedrich Sylburg, Strasbourg, 1710.
- Brummerus: Fridericus Brummerus (1642–61, German Protestant jurist), Commentarius in Legem Cinciam, Paris, 1668.
- Buddeus: Johann Franz Buddeus (1667–1729, German Lutheran theologian), Historia juris naturae et synopsis juris naturae et gentium iuxta disciplinam Hebraeorum, Jena, 1695; Dissertatio de jure Zelotarum in gente Ebraea..., Halle, 1699; Selecta juris naturae et gentium, Halle, 1704; Jurisprudentiae historicae specimen in Philippus Reinhardus Vitriarius, Institutiones juris naturae et gentium... ad methodum Hugonis Grotii conscriptae, Leiden, 1734.
- Burmann: Petrus Burmann (1668–1741, Dutch humanist), ed., Ovid, Opera, Amsterdam, 1727; ed., Quintilian, De institutione oratoria libri XII, Leiden, 1720.
- Burnet: Gilbert Burnet (1643–1715, British theologian and historian), The Bishop of Salisbury his speech in the House of Lords, on the first article of the impeachment of Dr. H. Sacheverell, London, 1710.
- Bussieres: Jean de Bussiéres (1607–78, French Catholic humanist), Historia francisa ab initio monarchiae ad annum 1670, Lyons, 1671.
- Buxtorf: Johannes Buxtorfius (senior) (1564–1629, German Hebraist), Synagoga judaica, hoc est Schola Judaeorum, Hanover, 1604; Johannes Buxtorfius (junior) (1599–1664, German Hebraist and theologian), Florilegium hebraicum, continens elegantes sententias..., Basel, 1648.
- Bynckershoek: Cornelis van Bynckershoek (1673–1743, Dutch jurist), Observationes juris Romani libri quatuor, Leiden, 1710; Ad L. lecta XL. Dig. de reb. cred.... et Dissertatio de pactis juris stricti contractibus incontinenti adjectis..., Leiden, 1699; Ad L. Ἀξιῴσις IX. de lege Rhodia de jactu liber singularis et de Dominio maris dissertatio, The Hague, 1703.
- Carmichael: Gershom Carmichael (1682–1738, Scottish philosopher), ed., Samuel Pufendorf, De officio hominis et civis... supplementis et observationibus... auxit, Edinburgh, 1724 (Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment, ed. James Moore and Michael Silverthorne, trans. Michael Silverthorne, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002).
- Casaubon: Isaac Casaubon (1559–1614, French Protestant humanist), ed., Historiae Augustae scriptores sex, Paris, 1603; trans. Polybius, Historiarum libri qui supersunt, Paris, 1609.
- Catrou: François Catrou (1659–1737, French Jesuit historian), trans., Virgil, Les Oeuvres... traduction nouvelle, avec des notes critiques et historiques, Paris, 1716.
- Cedrenus: George Cedrenus (eleventh-century Byzantine monk), Compendium historiarum..., Paris, 1647.
- Ceillier: Rémy Ceillier (1688–1761, French Catholic theologian), Apologie de la morale des Pères de l’Eglise contre les accusations de Jean Barbeyrac, Paris, 1718.
- Cellarius: Christopher Cellarius (1638–1707, German Protestant humanist), Notitia orbis antiqui, Leipzig, 1701; Dissertationes academicae varii argumenti..., Leipzig, 1712; ed., Silius Italicus, De Bello Punico Secundo libri XVII, Leipzig, 1695.
- Chalcondyl: Laonicus Chalcondylus (ca. 1423–90, Byzantine historian), Historiarum libri X, ed. Conradus Clauserius, Paris, 1650.
- Chokier: Jean de Chokier de Surlet (1571–1656, Netherlands jurist), ed. Onosander, Strategicus, sive de Imperatoris institutione notis sive dissertationibus... illustratus, Rome, 1610.
- Chomedy: Jérôme Chomedy (fl. 1567, French translator), trans., F. Guicciardini, Histoire des Guerres d’Italie, Geneva, 1593.
- Ciacconius: Petrus Ciacconius (sixteenth-century Italian classicist), C. Julii Caesaris quae exstant omnia, ex recensione Joannis Davisii... cum ejusdem animadversionibus ac notis Pet. Ciacconii, Fr. Hotmanni, Joan. Brantii, Dionys. Vossii, et aliorum, Cambridge, 1706.
- Cleonardus: Nicholas Cleynaerts (Clenardus) (ca. 1493–1542, Netherlands humanist), Institutiones ac meditationes in graecam linguam...cumscholiis P. Antesignani..., ed. Friedrich Sylburg, Frankfurt, 1580–83.
- Cocceius: Heinrich von Cocceius (1644–1717, German Protestant jurist, father of Samuel, q.v.), Juris publici prudentia, Frankfurt on Oder, 1695; De vero debitore sententia absoluta, Frankfurt on Oder, 1708; Autonomia juris gentium, ubi natum inde inter gentes discrimen civitatis mediatae et immediatae, liberae et non liberae..., Frankfurt on Oder, 1719; presided at following thesis defenses cited by Barbeyrac under his name (all Frankfurt on Oder unless otherwise stated): Johann Wehling, Disputatio de jure victoriae diviso a jure belli, Heidelberg, 1685; Johann Friedrich Hornig, Dissertatio de postliminio in pace et amnestia, 1691; Johann Pieter Thiele, De iure seminis... anno 1693, in Cocceius, Exercitationum curiosarum, Palatinarum, Trajectinarum et Viadrinarum, Lemgo, 1722; Levinus Christianus, Disputatio de lege morganatica... 1695, in ibid.; Philip Sylvester von Danckelmann, Disputatio de jure belli in amicos, 1697; Johann Herman Mayer, De iure circa actus imperfectos, Heidelberg, 1699; Johannes Gothofredus Cocceius, Disputatio de testamentis principum, 1699; Carl Friedrich Golbeck, Dissertatio de contraventionibus feudorum, Halle, 1701; Friedrich von Stephani, Disputatio...de officio et jure mediatorum pacis, 1702; Johann Philipp Kopff, Disputatio de jure poenitandi in contractibus, 1704; Friedrich von Danckelmann, Dissertatio de evocatione sacrorum, 1711; Friedrich Wilhelm von Lüderitz, Dissertatio de legato sancto, non impune, 1715.
- Cocceius jun.: Samuel von Cocceius (1679–1755, German Protestant jurist, son of Heinrich, q.v.), Jus civile controversum... ad illustrationem Compendii Lauterbachiani, Frankfurt, 1713–18.
- Columna: Hieronymus Colonna (1534–86, Italian humanist), ed., Ennius, Quae supersunt fragmenta, Naples, 1590.
- Conring: Herman Conring, (1606–81, German Protestant jurist), De Germanorum Imperio Romano liber unus, Helmstadt, 1644.
- Constantine: Robertus Constantinus (fl. 1555–73, Scottish humanist), Lexicon graecolatinum, Lyons, 1566.
- Contius, Anthony, see Leconte.
- Costa, Janus a, see Lacoste.
- Coste: Pierre Coste, (1668–1747, French Protestant translator and editor), trans., Xenophon, Hieron ou portrait de la condition des rois, Amsterdam, 1711.
- Cotta, Janus a, see Lacoste.
- Courtin: Antoine de Courtin (1622–85, French diplomat), trans., Hugo Grotius, Le Droit de la guerre et de la paix..., Paris, 1687.
- Cragius: Nicholas Craig, (1576–1602, Danish humanist), De republica Lacedemoniarum, Heidelberg, 1593.
- Creech: Thomas Creech (1659–1700, English poet), trans., The Odes, Satyrs, and Epistles of Horace. Done into English..., London, 1684.
- Cruquius: Jacobus Cruquius (1584?–1628?, Flemish classicist), ed., Q. Horatius Flaccus, Antwerp, 1578.
- Cunaeus: Petrus Cunaeus, (1586–1638, Dutch humanist), De republica Hebraeorum, Leiden, 1617.
- Cuper: Gisbert Cuper (1644–1716, Dutch historian), Notae in Lactantii tractatu de morbibus persecutorum, Abo, 1684; Observationum libri tres, Utrecht, 1670.
- Dacier, Madame: Anne Lefevre, Madame Dacier (ca. 1651–1720, French translator and editor), trans., Homer, L’Iliade, Paris, 1699; L’Odyssée, Paris, 1708.
- Dacier, Mr.: Dacier, André (1651–1722, French translator), trans., Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Reflexions morales... avec les remarques..., Amsterdam, 1691; trans., Plutarch, Les vies des hommes illustres, Paris, 1721.
- Daniel (G.): Gabriel Daniel (1649–1728, French Catholic theologian and historian), Histoire de France, Paris, 1713.
- Daniel (P.): Pierre Daniel (1530–1603, French humanist), ed., Petronius, Satyricon... noviter recensente Jo. Petro Lotichio, Frankfurt on Main, 1629.
- Davies: John Davies (1679–1732, English classicist), ed., Maximus Tyrius, Λόγοι, Cambridge, 1703; Gaius Julius Caesar, Quae exstant omnia, Cambridge, 1706; Minucius Felix, Octavius, Cambridge, 1707; Marcus Tullius Cicero, Tusculanarum disputationum libri V, Cambridge, 1709.
- Davis, see Davies.
- Descriptio Daniae, see Kolding, Jon Jensen.
- Dodwell: Henry Dodwell (1641–1711, English classicist and nonjuror), Dissertationes Cyprianicae, Oxford, 1682.
- Dominis: Marco Antonio De Dominis (1560–1624, Dalmatian philosopher), De Republica Ecclesiastica libri X, London, 1617.
- Drakenberg: Arnoldus Drakenborchius (1684–1748, Dutch classicist), ed., Silius Italicus, Punicorum libri septemdecim..., Utrecht, 1717.
- Dryden: John Dryden (1631–1700, English poet), trans., The Works of Virgil: containing his pastorals, Georgics and Aenis. Translated into English verse by Mr. Dryden, London, 1697.
- Dubourdieu: Jean-Armand Dubourdieu (1652–1720, French Protestant theologian), An Historical Dissertation upon the Thebean Legion, London, 1696.
- Ducange: Charles du Fresne du Cange (1610–88, French Catholic historian), Histoire de l’empire de Constantinople sous les empereurs françois, Paris, 1657; ed., Histoire de St. Louis... par Jean, sieur de Joinville, Paris, 1688; Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis, Lyons, 1688; Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis, Paris, 1678.
- Du Faure, Peter, see Faber (P.).
- Du Fresne, see Ducange.
- Duker: Charles André Duker (1670–1752, Dutch classicist), Opuscula varia de Latinitate Juriscons. vet., Leiden, 1711.
- Du Pin: Louis Ellies Dupin (1657–1719, French Catholic theologian), Nouvelle bibliotheque des auteurs ecclésiastiques. Contenant l’histoire de leur vie..., Paris, 1690–1723; Dissertation préliminaire ou prelegomènes sur la Bible, Amsterdam, 1701.
- Du Plessis Mornay: Philippe du Plessis Mornay (1549–1623, French Protestant leader), Le Mystère d’iniquité, c’est à dire, l’histoire de la papauté, Saumur, 1611.
- Du Puy: Pierre Dupuy (1582–1651, French Catholic historian), Traitez touchant les droits du roy très chrestien sur plusieurs estats et seigneuries possédées par divers princes voisins..., Paris, 1655; for the manuscript of Tertullian owned by Dupuy and his brother (I.IV.5), see L. Dorez, Catalogue de la Collection Dupuy (Bibliotheque Nationale), Paris, 1899.
- Eisenschmid: Johann Gaspard Eisenschmid (1656–1712, German classicist), De ponderibus et mensuris veterum Romanorum, Graecorum, Hebraeorum, Strasbourg, 1708.
- Entretiens, dans lesquels on trait des Enterprises de l’Espagne, see Saint-Hyacinthe, Thémiseuil de.
- Erasmus: Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (1466–1536, Flemish humanist), Adagiorum opera, Basel, 1528.
- “Extrait des Actes publics d’Angleterre,” Bibliotheque Choisie, pour servir de suite à la Bibliotheque Universelle, Vol. XXVI, Part I, Amsterdam, 1713, pp. 1–64.
- Faber (A.): Antonius Faber (1557–1624, French jurist), Jurisprudentiae Papinianeae scientia, Cologne, 1631; De erroribus pragmaticorum in his Opera juridica, Lyons, 1658–61.
- Faber (P.): Petrus Faber (1540–1600, French jurist), Agonisticon, sive de re athletica ludisque veterum gymnicis, musicis atque circensibus spicilegiorum tractatus, Lyons, 1595.
- Fabricius: Johannes Albertus Fabricius (1668–1736, German Protestant classicist), Bibliotheca Graeca, sive Notitia scriptorum veterum graecorum..., Leipzig, 1718; ed., Sextus Empiricus, Opera, graece et Latine, Leipzig, 1718.
- Fabrius, Antonius, see Faber (A.).
- Fabrot: Charles-Annibal Fabrot (1580–1659, French jurist), ed., Jacobus Cujas, Opera omnia, Paris, 1658; ed., Anastasius (q.v.), Historia ecclesiastica, sive chronologia tripartita, Paris, 1649.
- Faure, Anthony, see Faber (A.).
- Feith: Everhard Feith, (ca. 1585-ca. 1625, Dutch humanist), Antiquitatum Homericum lib. IV... nunc primum in lucem prodeunt, Leiden, 1677.
- Felden: Johannes a Felden (d. 1668, German philosopher and jurist), Annotata in H. Grotium De Iure Belli et Pacis, Amsterdam, 1653; Annotata in H. Grotium De Iure Belli et Pacis, quibus immixtae sunt responsiones ad stricturas Graswinckelii, Jena, 1663.
- Fell: John Fell (1625–86, English theologian), ed., Sancti Caecilii Cypriani opera, Oxford, 1682.
- Flechier: Esprit Fléchier (1632–1710, French ecclesiastic), Histoire de Théodose le Grand, Paris, 1679.
- Fogerolles: Francis de Fougerolles (ca. 1560–1626, French medical writer), trans., Porphyry, Περὶ ἀποχη̂ς ἐμψύχων βιβλία τἐσσαρα ... De non necandis ad epulandum animantibus libri IIII, Lyons, 1620.
- Freinsheim: Johann Freinsheim (1608–56, German Catholic classicist), Supplementum Livianorum ad Christinam Reginam decas, Stockholm, 1649; ed., Lucius Annaeus Florus, Rerum Romanorum, editio nova, Strasbourg, 1636.
- Gamma: Antonius da Gama (1520–1604, Portuguese jurist), Decisionum supremi senatus Lusitaniae centuriae IV, Antwerp, 1650.
- Garcillasso de La Vega (1530–68, Inca historian), Histoire des Yncas, rois du Perou... traduit de l’Espagnol de l’Ynca Garcillasso de la Vega, par J. Baudoin, Amsterdam, 1704; Histoire des guerres civiles des Espagnols, dans les Indes... traduit de l’Espagnol de l’Ynca Garcillasso de la Vega, par J. Baudoin, Amsterdam, 1706.
- Gataker: Thomas Gataker (1574–1654, English theologian), Opera critica, Utrecht, 1668; Of the nature and use of lots; a treatise historicall and theologicall, London, 1649.
- Gelenius: Sigismondus Gelenius (1478–1555, Bohemian theologian), ed., Philo, Lucubrationes, Lyons, 1555.
- Gifanius, see Giphanius.
- Giphanius: Hubert Giphanius (Hubert van Giffen) (1534–1604, Flemish jurist), Commentarii in Politicorum opus Aristotelis, Frankfurt, 1608; Antinomiae juris feudalis, Frankfurt, 1606; In quatuor libros Institutionum iuris civilis Iustiniani principis commentarius absolutissimus, Strasbourg, 1629.
- Glassius: Salomonius Glassius (1593–1656, German Protestant theologian), Philologiae sacrae libri duo, Jena, 1623.
- Gnodal: Petrus Gnodalius (fl. 1525, German historian), Seditio repentina vulgi, praecipue rusticorum, anno 1525 tempore verno per universam fere Germaniam exorta..., Basel, 1570.
- Godefroy (D.): Denis Godefroy (1549–1622, French jurist), Codicis Dn. Justiniani... repetitae praelectionis libri XII, commentaris Dionys. Gothofredi illustratae [sic], Lyons, 1585.
- Godefroy (J.): Jacques Godefroy (1587–1652, Genevan jurist), Fragmenta Duodecim Tabularum, Heidelberg, 1616; Opuscula historica, politica, juridica, Geneva, 1641; Codex Theodosianus, opus posthumum, Lyons, 1665.
- Godfrey (J.), see Godefroy (J.).
- Godfrey the Monk: Godefridus of Viterbo (d. ca. 1197, Italian historian), Pantheon, sive universitatis libri, qui Chronici appellantur, XX, Basel, 1559.
- Goes, see Goesius.
- Goesius, Wilhelmus (1611–86, Dutch jurist), Vindiciae pro recepta de mutui alienatione sententia, Leiden, 1646; Rei agrariae auctores legesque variae, Amsterdam, 1674 (incl. Hyginus).
- Graswinckel: Theodor Graswinckel (1600–1666, Dutch jurist), Stricturae ad censuram Joannis à Felden... ad libros Hugoni Grotii De iure belli ac pacis, Amsterdam, 1654.
- Gravina: Johannes Vincentius Gravina (1664–1718, Neapolitan humanist), Opere, Leipzig, 1737.
- Grew: Nehemiah Grew (1628–1711, English doctor and naturalist), Cosmographia sacra, London, 1701.
- Gribner: Michael Heinrich Gribner (1682–1734, German jurist), Principiorum jurisprudentiae naturalis libri IV, Wittemberg, 1727.
- Groenwegen: Simon van Groenewegen (1613–52, Dutch jurist), Tractatus de legibus abrogatis et inusitatis in Hollandia vicinisque regionibus, Nijmegen, 1664.
- Gronovius: Johannes Fridericus Gronovius (1611–71, German Protestant jurist), ed., Hugo Grotius, De jure belli ac pacis, The Hague, 1680; Ad T. Livii... libros superstites notae, Leiden, 1645.
- Grotius: Hugo Grotius, In-leydingh tot de hollandtsche rechtgeleertheyt, Rotterdam, 1631 (“Jurisprudence of Holland”); Annotationes in Novum Testamentum, Amsterdam, 1641–50; Florum sparsio adius Iustinianeum, Paris, 1642; Annotationes ad vetus Testamentum, Paris, 1644; De imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra, commentarius posthumus, Paris, 1647; Epistolae quotquot reperiri potuerunt, Amsterdam, 1687.
- Gruter: Janus Gruterus (d. 1652, German Protestant classicist), De insulis, Frankfurt, 1624; Varii discursus, ad aliquot insigniora loca Taciti atque Onosandri, Heidelberg, 1604–5.
- Gundling: Nicolaus Hieronymus Gundling (1671–1729, German jurist and historian), Via ad Veritatem, Halle, 1713–15.
- Guthier: Jacobus Gutherius (1568–1638, French jurist and humanist), De jure manium, seu de ritu, more et legibus prisci funeris, libri III, Paris, 1615.
- Hammond: Henry Hammond (1605–60, English theologian), Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, ex versione Vulgata, cum paraphrasi & adnotationibus H. Hammondi, ed. Jean Le Clerc (q.v.), Amsterdam, 1698–99.
- Heinsius (D.): Daniel Heinsius (ca. 1580–1655, Dutch humanist), ed., Aristotle, Πολιτικω̂ν βιβ. θ’, Leiden, 1621.
- Heinsius (N.): Nicholas Heinsius (1620–81, Dutch classicist), ed., Silius Italicus, Punicorum libri septemdecim..., Utrecht, 1717.
- Hemsterhuis: Tiberius Hemsterhuis (1685–1766, Dutch classicist), ed., Julius Pollux, Onomasticum, Amsterdam, 1706.
- Henniges: Henricus Henniges (1645–1711, German Protestant jurist), In Hugonis Grotii De jure belli et pacis libri III observationes politicae et morales, Sulzbach, 1673; Justini Presbeuta [pseud.], Discursus de jure legationis statuum imperii, “Eleutheropolis,” 1700.
- Herald: Didier Hérauld (1579–1649, French Protestant jurist), Quaestionum quotidianorum tractatus, Paris, 1650.
- Hertius: Johannes Nicholas Hertius (1652–1710, German Protestant jurist), ed., Pufendorf, De iure naturali et gentium, Frankfurt, 1706; Commentationum atque opusculorum... tomi tres, Frankfurt, 1700–1713 (incl. Paroemiarum juris Germanicarum libri tres).
- Hist Critiq Tom: Histoire critique de la république des lettres, ed. Samuel Masson, Utrecht.
- Hochsteter: Andreas Adam Hochsteter (1668–1717, German Protestant theologian), Collegium Pufendorfiam, super Pufendorfii lib. De Officio Hominis et Civis, Tübingen, 1710.
- Huber: Ulric Huber (1636–94, Dutch jurist), De jure civitatis, Franeker, 1694; De jure popularis, optimatuum & regalis imperii, Franeker, 1689; Institutionum historiae civilis tomi tres, Franeker, 1692–93; Praelectionum juris civilis tomi tres, Franeker, 1689–90.
- Hudson: John Hudson (1662–1719, English humanist), Geographiae veteres scriptores graeci minores, Oxford, 1698–1712; ed., Dionysius of Hallicarnassus, Opera omnia, Oxford, 1704.
- Hyde: Thomas Hyde (1636–1703, English Orientalist), Historia religionis veterum Persarum, eorumque Magorum..., Oxford, 1700.
- Jens: Johannes Jensius (1671–1755, Dutch humanist), Ferculum literarium, Leiden, 1717 (incl. De Fetialibus Populi Romani).
- Journal Literaire, see “Lettre à M. ****.”
- Jovius: Paulus Paulo Giovio (1483–1552, Italian humanist), Opera omnia, Basle, 1578.
- Kolding: Jon Jensen Kolding (d. 1609, Danish topographer), Daniae Descriptio, in Stephanus Stephanius, ed., De Regno Daniae et Norvegiae... tractatus varii, Leiden, 1629.
- Kulpis: Johannes Georgius Kulpis (1652–98, German Protestant jurist), Collegium Grotianum super jura belli ac pacis in Academia Giessensi XV exercitationibus institutum, Frankfurt on Main, 1682.
- La Bruyere: Jean de La Bruyère (1644–96, French writer), Les caracteres de Theophraste traduits du grec. Avec les caracteres ou les moeurs de ce siecle, Brussells, 1697.
- Lacoste: Janus a Costa, (1560–1637, French jurist), Institutionum... libri quattuor. In eosdem Iani a Costa... commentarius, Paris, 1659.
- La Placette (1639–1718, French Protestant theologian), Traités des matières de conscience, Amsterdam, 1698.
- Lauterbach: Wolfgang Adam Lauterbach (1618–78, German Protestant jurist), Compendium juris... e lectionibus... collectum, ed. Johannes Jacobus Schützius, Tübingen and Frankfurt, n.d.
- Le Clerc (D.): David Le Clerc (1591–1665, Genevan theologian, father of John, q.v.), Quaestiones sacrae in quibus multa Scripturae loca, variaque linguae S. idiomata explicantur, Amsterdam, 1685.
- Le Clerc (J.): Jean Le Clerc (1657–1736, born Geneva, lived in Amsterdam, nephew of David, q.v.), Sentimens de quelques théologiens de Hollande sur l’Histoire critique de Vieux Testament, composée par... R. Simon, Amsterdam, 1685; ed., Bibliothèque universelle et historique, Amsterdam, 1687–1718; trans. and ed., Thomas Stanley, Historia philosophiae Orientalis, Amsterdam, 1690; Ontologia et pneumatologia, Amsterdam, 1692; ed., Pentateuchus, Amsterdam, 1696; Ars critica in qua ad studia Linguarum Latinae, Graecae et Hebraicae munitur, Amsterdam, 1697; Compendium historiae universalis, ab initio Mundi ad tempora Caroli Magni Imp., Amsterdam, 1698; ed., Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, exversione Vulgata, cum paraphrasi & adnotationibus H. Hammondi (q.v.), Amsterdam, 1698–99; Parrhasiana, ou Pensées diverses, Amsterdam, 1699–1701; Quaestiones Hieronymianae, in quibus expenditur Hieronymi nupera editio parisina, Amsterdam, 1700; Harmonia Evangelica: cui subjecta est historia Christi ex quatuor Evangeliis concinnata. Accesserunt tres dissertationes de annis Christi, deque concordia et auctoritate Evangeliorum, Amsterdam, 1700; ed., Bibliotheque Choisie, pour servir de suite à la Bibliotheque Universelle, Amsterdam, 1703–18; ed., Menandri et Philemonis Reliquiae, Amsterdam, 1709; Historia ecclesiastica duorum primorum a Christo nato saeculorum, Amsterdam, 1716; ed., Hugo Grotius, De veritate religionis Christianae, The Hague, 1718 (postscript dated 1717).
- Leconte: Antoine Leconte (ca. 1520–86, French jurist), Opera omnia, Paris, 1616.
- Lentulus: Cyriacus Lentulus (ca. 1620-ca. 1700, German classicist), Augustus, sive de covertenda in monarchia respublica, juxta ductum et mentem Taciti..., Amsterdam, 1645.
- Lery: Jean de Lery (1534–1611, French Protestant explorer), Histoire d’un voyage fait en terre du Brésil, autrement dite Amerique, Rouen, 1578.
- Les Droits de l’Empire sur l’Estat Ecclesiastique, see Muratori.
- “Lettre à M. **** sur le mensonge,” Journal Literairede Novembre & Decembre M.DCC.XIV, Vol. 50, Part II, The Hague, 1735, pp. 254–70 (a reprint of the original series).
- Lipsius: Justus Lipsius (1547–1606, Flemish humanist), ed., Tacitus, Opera omnia quae exstant, Antwerp, 1581; Politicorum sive Civilis doctrinae libri sex, Leiden, 1589.
- Locke: John Locke (1632–1704, English philosopher), An essay concerning humane understanding, in four books, London 1690; Essai philosophique concernent l’entendement humain... traduit de l’anglois de Mr. Locke, par Pierre Coste, sur la 4e edition, Amsterdam, 1700; De intellectu humano, in quatuor libris, authore Johanne Locke... Editio quarta aucta et emendata et nunc primum in Latine reddita, London, 1701.
- Lopez de Gomara: Francisco Lopez de Gomara (ca. 1511-ca. 1565, Spanish humanist), Primera, segunda, y tercera parte de la historia general de las Indias, Antwerp, 1554.
- Lycklama: Marcus Lycklama a Neijholt (1570–1625, Dutch jurist), Membranorum libri septem, in quibus ad constitutiones Codicis et Novellarum plurimus... commentarii breves et solidi, Franeker, 1608.
- Mabillon: Jean Mabillon (1632–1707, French scholar), De re diplomatica libri VI, Paris, 1681.
- Maimbourg: Louis Maimbourg (1620–86, French Jesuit), Histoire de l’arianisme depuis sa naissance jusqu’à sa fin, avec l’origine et le progrès de l’heresie des sociniens, Paris, 1673; “Histoire des Croisades... par le P. Louis Maimbourg,” Journal des Sçavans, De l’An M.DC.LXXVI, Amsterdam, 1677, pp. 29–32 and 172–76; Histoire du calvinisme, Paris, 1682.
- Marcilly: Theodore Marcile (1548–1617, Flemish/French humanist), Leges XII Tabulorum collecta, Paris, 1600; De XII Caesaribus libri VIII, Paris, 1610; Justiniani Institutionum Quatuor nova interpretatio et methodus, Paris, 1610.
- Marsham: John Marsham (1602–83, English historian), Chronicus canon aegyptiacus, ebraïcus, graecus, et Disquisitiones, London, 1662.
- Matthaeus: Antonius Matthaeus (junior) (1601–54, German Protestant jurist), De Crimininibus, ad lib. XLVII et XLVIII Dig. commentarius, Wesel, 1672.
- Menage: Gilles Menage (1613–92, French humanist), Dictionnaire étymologique, ou Origines de la langue française, Paris, 1650; Juris civilis amoenitates, Paris, 1664; ed., Diogenes Laertius, De vitis, dogmatibus et apophthegmatibus clarorum philosophorum libri X, Amsterdam, 1692.
- Menkenius: Luderus Menckenius (1658–1726, German Protestant jurist), Huber Praelectionum Juris Civilis tomi tres... cura L. Menckenii, Leipzig, 1707.
- Menochius: Jacobus Menochius (1532–1607, Italian jurist), De arbitrariis judicum quaestionibus et causis libri duo..., Lyons, 1606.
- Mercier: Josias Mercerus (d. 1626, French classicist), ed., Nonius Marcellinus, Janua Linguae Latinae... primum a Nonio Marcello edita, et jam a J. Mercero... expurgata et... restituta, Paris, 1626.
- Merula: Paulus Merula (1558–1607, Dutch historian), Opera varia posthuma, Leiden, 1684.
- Meteren: Emanuel van Meteren (1535–1612, Dutch historian), Histoire des Pays-Bas, trans. Jean de la Haye, The Hague, 1618.
- Meursius: Joannes Meursius (1579–1639, Dutch historian), Themis Attica, sive de legibus Atticis, Utrecht, 1685; Miscellanea Laconica, sive Variarum antiquitatum laconicarum libri IV, nunc primum edita cura Samuelis Pufendorfii, Amsterdam, 1661.
- Meziriac: Claude-Gaspar Bachet de Meziriac (1581–1638, French humanist), Epitres d’Ovide, traduites en vers françois, avec des commentaires, Bourg en Bresse, 1626.
- Mills: John Mill (1645–1707, English theologian), ed., Novum Testamentum, Oxford, 1707.
- Milton: John Milton (1608–1674, English poet and humanist), Pro populo anglicano defensio contra Claudii Anonymi, alias Salmasii, defensionem regiam, London, 1651.
- Moebius: Georgius Moebius (1616–97, German Protestant theologian), Tractatus philologico-theologicus de oraculorum ethnicorum origine, propagatione et duratione..., Leipzig, 1660.
- Montfaucon: Bernard de Montfaucon (1655–1741, French theologian and historian), Antiquité expliquée et représentée en figures, Paris, 1719–24.
- Muncher: Thomas Munckerus (1639–80, Dutch humanist), Hyginus quae hodie extent... Accedunt et Thomae Munckeri in fabulas Hygini annotationes, Hamburg, 1674.
- Muratori: Lodovico Antonio Muratori (1672–1750, Italian philosopher), Les Droits de l’Empire sur l’Estat Ecclesiastique, recherchez et plainement eclaircis a l’occasion de la dispute de Comacchio, et des droits particuliers de la Maison d’Este sur cette vill... Le tout traduit de l’italien, Utrecht, 1713 (first published in Italian Modena, 1712).
- Muret: Marcus Antonius Muretus (1526–85, French humanist), Commentarii in Aristotelis X libros Ethicorum ad Nicomachum..., Ingoldstadt, 1602.
- Noodt: Gerardus Noodt (1647–1725, Dutch jurist), Opera omnia, Leiden, 1713; De foenore et usuris libri tres, Leiden, 1698; Julius Paulus, sive de Partus expositione et nece apud veteres liber singularis, Leiden, 1700; De forma emendandi doli mali in contrahendis negoriis admissi apud veteres liber, Leiden, 1709; Probabilium juris libri quatuor, quibus accessit De jurisdictione et imperio libri duo et Ad legem Aquiliam liber singularis, Leiden, 1691; Du pouvoir des souverains et de la liberté de conscience, en deux discours traduits du latin... par Jean Barbeyrac, Amsterdam, 1707.
- Obrecht: Fredericus Ulricus Obrecht (1646–1701, German classicist), ed., Hugo Grotius, De jure belli et pacis libri tres, cum annotatis ipsius auctoris, & clarissimi Gronovii; tum noviter accuratis commentariis perpetuis Joh. Tesmari JCti celeberrimi... Ad calcem operis accessere Ulrici Obrechti JCti excellentissimi, observationes ad eosdem libros, Frankfurt, 1696; ed., Dictys of Crete, De Bello Trojano, Strasbourg, 1691; ed., Quintilian, Declamationes and De institutione oratoriae libri duodecim, Strasbourg, 1698; ed., Historiae Augusti scriptores sex, Strasbourg, 1677; Academica in unum volumen collecti dissertationes, orationes, programmata... complexum (ed. J. C. Kuhnius), Strasbourg, 1704.
- Olaus, Ericus: Ericus Olai (fifteenth-century Swedish historian), Historia Suecorum Gothorumque, ed. J. Messenius, Stockholm, 1615.
- Olearius: Gotfried Olearius (1672–1715, German Protestant classicist), trans., Thomas Stanley, Historia philosophiae, Leipzig, 1711.
- Osiander: Johannes Adamus Osiander (1622–97, German Protestant theologian and humanist), Observationes maximam parte theologicae in libros tres De jure belli ac pacis Hugonis Grotii..., Tübingen, 1671.
- Otto: Everhard Otto (1685–1756, German Protestant jurist), Papinianus, sive de vita, studiis, scriptis, honoribus et morte Papiniani diatriba, Leiden, 1718.
- Oxford, Bishop of, see Fell.
- Pacius: Julius Pacius (1550–1635, Italian jurist), ed., Dn. sacratissimi principis Justiniani [Corpus juris civilis] studio et opera Jul. Pacii, n.p., 1580.
- Pagi: Antoine Pagi (1624–99, French historian), Critica historico-chronologica in Annales Ecclesiasticos Card. Baronii, Antwerp, 1705.
- Palmierius: Jacobus Palmerius (le Paulmier) a Grentesmesnil (1587–1670, French humanist), Exercitationes in optimos auctores graecos, Leiden, 1668.
- Peiresc, see Valois (H.).
- Perizonius: Jacobus Perizonius (1651–1715, Dutch humanist), Animadversiones historicae..., Amsterdam, 1685; ed., Francisco Sanchez (Sanctius), Minerva, sive de causis latinae linguae commentarius, Franeker, 1693; Rerum per Europam saeculo 16 maxime gestarum commentarii historici, Leiden, 1710; Origines Babylonicae et Aegyptiacae tomis II, Leiden, 1711; ed., Aelian, Ποικίλη Ἱστορία ... Varia historia, Leiden, 1731.
- Persona: Christopherus Persona (1416–85, Italian translator), trans., Agathias, De Bello Gothorum, Augsburg, 1519.
- Petau: Denis Petau (1583–1652, French Jesuit), trans., Julian the Apostate, Τὰ Σωξόμενα ... Opera quae supersunt omnia..., Leipzig, 1696.
- Petit: Samuel Petit (1594–1643, French Protestant historian), Leges Atticae, Paris, 1635.
- Picart: Michaelus Piccartus (1574–1620, German classicist), Observationes historico-politicarum 12 decades priores, Nuremberg, 1624; Observationes historico-politicarum decades posthumae, Nuremberg, 1621.
- Pichena: Curtius Pichena (fl. ca. 1600, Italian humanist), Ad Cornelii Taciti opera notae, [Hanover], 1600.
- Pignorius: Laurentius Pignorius (1571–1631, Italian humanist), De servis et eorum apud veteres ministeriis commentarius, Padua, 1656.
- Pithon: François Pithou (1543–1621, French Protestant jurist, brother of Pierre, q.v.), ed., Rutilius Lupus [and other ancient rhetoricians], Paris, 1599.
- Pithou: Pierre Pithou (1539–96, French Protestant jurist, brother of François, q.v.), ed., Mosaycarum et romanarum legum collatio, Basel, 1574; ed., Corpus juris canonici Gregorii XIII... jussu editum, Paris, 1687; ed., Annalium et historiae Francorum ab anno DCCVIII ad annum DCCCCXC scriptores coaetanei XII, Paris, 1588.
- Pitiscus: Samuel Pitiscus (1637–1717, Dutch classicist), ed., Quintus Curtius, De rebus gestis Alexandri Magni, Utrecht, 1685.
- Potter: John Potter (1674–1747, English theologian and classicist), Archaeologia Graeca, sive Veterum Graecorum, praecipue Atheniensium, ritus civiles, religiosi, militares et domestici, Leiden, 1702.
- Presbeuta, see Henniges.
- Price: John Price (1600–1676, English Catholic humanist), ed., Apuleius, Apologia, Paris, 1635; Metamorphoseos libri XI, Gouda, 1650.
- Publick Acts of England, The, see “Extrait des Actes.”
- Pufendorf: Samuel Pufendorf (1632–94, German Protestant philosopher), De jure naturae et gentium, Lund, 1672; 2nd ed., Frankfurt, 1684; 3rd ed., Amsterdam, 1688; trans. Jean Barbeyrac, Le droit de la nature et des gens, Amsterdam, 1706; 2nd. ed., Amsterdam, 1712; trans. Basil Kennet, Of the law of nature and nations, Oxford, 1710, 1716, London, 1717, 1729; De officio hominis et civis, Lund, 1673; trans. Andrew Tooke, The Whole Duty of Man According to the Law of Nature, London, 1698 (ed. Ian Hunter and David Saunders, trans. David Saunders, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2003); trans. Jean Barbeyrac, Les devoirs de l’homme et du citoien, Amsterdam, 1707, Eng. trans. London, 1716. See also Barbeyrac; Carmichael; Hertius; Hochsteter; Meursius; Thomasius, C.; Titius; Treuer.
- Pury: Daniel Pury (1642–1717, jurist of Neufchâtel), Observationes juridicae, Basel, 1714.
- Raevardus: Jacobus Raevardus (1534–68, Flemish jurist), Ad titulum Pand. De diversis regulis juris antiqui commentarius, Antwerp, 1568.
- Ranchin: Guillaume Ranchin (1560–1605, French jurist), Variarum lectionum libri tres, Paris, 1597.
- Raphael Volaterran: Raphaelus Volaterranus (Raffaello Maffei) (d. 1522, Italian humanist), Commentariorum urbanorum... octo et triginta libri, Basel, 1530 (Vol. I is Geographia).
- Reland: Hadrianus Relandus (1676–1718, Dutch Orientalist), Palestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata..., Utrecht, 1714.
- Reynold: Bernhard Heinrich Reinhold (1677–1726, German jurist), Variorum ad ius civile fere pertinentium liber singularis, Bremen, 1708.
- Rigault: Nicholas Rigault (1577–1654, French humanist), ed., Onosander, Στρατηγικός, Paris, 1599; Auctores finium regundorum, Paris, 1614.
- Ritius: Michaelus Ritius (Michaele Riccio) (d. 1515, Italian historian), De regibus Francorum lib. III... De regibus Ungariae lib. II, Basel, 1517.
- Rittersus: Conradus Rittershusius (1560–1613, German Protestant jurist), Differentiarum juris civilis et canonici seu pontificii libri septem..., Strasbourg, 1668.
- Rupert: Christopherus Adamus Rupertus (1612–47, German jurist), Dissertationes mixtae ad Valerii Maximi Exemplorum memorabilium libros IX, Nuremberg, 1663.
- Rycquius: Theodorus Rycquius (1640–90, Dutch classicist), ed., Taciti Opera quae exstant..., Leiden, 1687.
- Rymer: Thomas Rymer (1641–1713, English historian), ed., Foedera, conventiones, iterae, et cujuscumque generis acta publica, London, 1704–35.
- Saint-Hyacinthe: Thémiseuil de Saint-Hyacinthe (1684–1746, French writer), Entretiens dans lesquels on traite des enterprises de l’Espagne, des prétentions de M. le chevalier de S. George. Et de la renonciation de sa majesté catholique, The Hague, 1719.
- Salmasius: Claudius Salmasius (1588–1653, French Protestant humanist), Defensio regia pro Carolo I. ad...regem Carolum II..., n.p., 1649; Pliniae exercitationes in J. Solini Polyhistoria..., Paris, 1629; Miscellae defensiones pro Cl. Salmasio de variis observationibus et emendationibus ad ius Atticum et Romanum pertinentibus, Leiden, 1645; ed., Historiae Augustae scriptores VI..., Paris, 1620 (incl. Vopiscus); De usuris liber, Leiden, 1638.
- Sanctius: Francisco Sanchez (1523–1601, Spanish humanist), Minerva, sive de causis latinae linguae commentarius, [ed. Jacobus Perizonius], Franeker, 1693.
- Saurin: Jacques Saurin (1677–1730, French Protestant theologian), Discours historiques, critiques, theologiques et moraux sur les évènemens les plus mémorables du Vieux et du Nouveau Testament, Amsterdam, 1720–39.
- Schardius: Simon Schardius (1535–73, German Catholic jurist), ed., Eustathius, De varia temporum in jure civili observatione... libellus. Item leges Rhodiorum navales, militares et georgicae Justiniani, Basel, 1561.
- Scheffer: Johannes Gerhardus Scheffer (1621–79, German/Swedish historian), ed., Justin, Historicarum philippicarum Trogi Pompeii epitome, Hamburg, 1678.
- Schelius: Rabod Herman Schelius (1622–62, Dutch miltary writer), Publius Demophilus [pseud.], De jure imperii liber posthumus, ed. Theophilus Hogersius, Amsterdam, 1671; ed., Hygini Gromatici et Polybii Megalopolitani De castris romanis quae extant..., Amsterdam, 1660 (incl. De Praeda).
- Schickard: Gulielmus Schickardus (1592–1635, German Catholic Orientalist), Jus regium Hebraeorum, e tenebris rabbinicis erutum et luci donatum, Strasbourg, 1625.
- Schmink[r]e: Johannes Hermannus Schminke (1684–1743, German Protestant historian), ed., Eginhart, De vita et gestis Caroli Magni, Utrecht, 1711.
- Schotus: Andreas Schottus (1552–1629, Flemish Jesuit), ed., Aurelius Victor, De viris illustribus Romae liber, Douai, 1577.
- Schulting: Antonius Schultingh (1659–1734, Dutch jurist), Jurisprudentia vetus ante-Justineana..., Leiden, 1717; Enarratio partis primae Digestorum seu Pandecatarum... Justiniani, Leiden, 1720; Dissertationes de recusatione judicis..., Franeker, 1708.
- Selden: John Selden (1584–1654, English jurist), De jure naturali et gentium juxta disciplinam Ebraeorum libri septem, London, 1640; De successionibus in bona defuncti, seu jure haereditario, ad leges Ebraeorum, London, 1631; Opera omnia, ed. David Wilkins, London, 1726; translation of A History of Tithes (London, 1617) by Jean Le Clerc (q.v.) at the end of his edition of the Pentateuchus, Amsterdam, 1696.
- Serres: Jean de Serres (1540–98, French Protestant theologian), Inventaire géneral de l’histoire de France, illustré par la conférence de l’Eglise et de l’Empire, Paris, 1597.
- Shaftesbury: Anthony Ashley Cooper, third earl of Shaftesbury (1671–1713, English philosopher), Essai sur l’usage de la raillerie et de l’enjoument dans les conversations qui roulent sur les matiéres les plus importantes. Traduit de l’anglois, n.p. [The Hague], 1710; Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, 4th ed., London, 1727 (Liberty Fund edition, Indianapolis, 2001).
- Sichterman: Gerardus Sichterman (1688–1730, Dutch soldier and classicist), De poenis militaribus Romanorum, dissertatio philologico-juridica, Amsterdam, 1708.
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- Sigonius: Carolus Sigonius (1520–84, Italian humanist), De antiquo jure civium Romanorum, Italiae provinciarum ac romanae jurisprudentiae judiciis libri XI..., Hanover, 1609.
- Simon: Richard Simon (1638–1712, French theologian), Réponse au livre intitulé Sentimens de quelques théologiens de Hollande sur l’Histoire critiquedu Vieux Testament, Rotterdam, 1686. See Le Clerc, Jean.
- Sleidan: Jean Sleidan (1506–56, German Protestant historian), De statu religionis et reipublicae, Carolo quinto Caesare, commentarii, Strasbourg, 1555.
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- Stephanus: Henricus Stephanus (Estienne) (1528–98, French Protestant humanist), Thesaurus graecae linguae, Geneva, 1572–73; Schediasmatum variorum, id est observationum, emendationum, expositionum, disquisitionum libri tres, Geneva, 1578; ed., Plato, Opera quae extant omnia..., Geneva, 1578.
- Stewechius: Godescalus Steewech (1551–86, Dutch humanist), Vegetius, De re militari... cum commentariis aut notis God. Stewechii..., ed. Petrus Scriverius, n.p., 1607.
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- Strauchius: Johannes Strauchius (1612–79, German Protestant jurist), Dissertationes academicae quinque (incl. De imperio maris and De induciis bellicis), Brunswick, 1662.
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- Terrason: Jean Terrason (1670–1750, French classicist), Dissertation critique sur l’Iliade d’Homére..., Paris, 1715.
- Tesauro: Antonio Tesauro (d. 1586, Piedmontese jurist), Novae decisiones sacri senatus Pedemontani, Turin, 1602.
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- Theganus (ninth-century Frankish historian), see Pierre Pithou, Annalium.
- Thomasius (C.): Christian Thomasius (1655–1728, German Protestant philosopher, son of Jacobus, q.v.), Institutiones jurisprudentiae divinae, in positiones succinte contractae, in quibus hypotheses illustris Pufendorfii circa doctrinam juris naturalis apodictice demonstrantur..., Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1688; ed., Ulrich Huber, De iure civitatis libri tres... in usum auditorii Thomasiani, Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1708; presided at the following thesis defenses cited by Barbeyrac under his name: Karl Heinrich Brix von und zu Montzel, De sponsione Romanorum caudina..., Leipzig, 1684; Johann Friedrich Günther, De jure asyli legatorum aedibus competente..., Leipzig, n.d. ; Robert Christian von Hake, De usu actionum poenalium juris Romani in foris Germaniae..., Halle, 1693.
- Thomasius (J.): Jacobus Thomasius (1622–84, German Protestant classicist, father of Christian, q.v.), Dissertationes LXIII, varii argumenti..., ed. Christian Thomasius, Halle, 1693.
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- Titius: Gottlieb Gerhard Titius (1661–1714, German Protestant jurist), Observationes in Samuelis L. B. de Pufendorfi De officio hominis et civis juxta legem naturalem libros duo, Leipzig, 1703; ed., “Severinus de Monzambano” [Samuel Pufendorf], De statu imperii Germanici liber unus, Leipzig, 1708; Observationum ratiocinantium in Compendium juris Lauterbachianum centuriae quindecim, Leipzig, 1717.
- Torrentius: Laevinus Torrentius (1525–95, Flemish humanist), In C. Suetonii Tranquilli XII Caesares commentarii, Antwerp, 1578.
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- Valois (A.): Adrien de Valois (1607–92, French historian, brother of Henry, q.v.), ed., Ammianus Marcellinus, Rerum gestarum... libri XVIII... emendati ab Henrico Valesio... Editio posterior, cui Hadrianus Valesius... observationes et collectanea variarum lectionum adjecit..., Paris, 1681.
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- Van der Goes, see Goesius.
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- Velthuysen: Lambertus Velthusius (1622–85, Dutch philosopher), Epistolica dissertatio de principiis justi et decori, continens apologiam pro tractatu clarissimi Hobbaei De cive..., Amsterdam, 1651.
- Victorius: Petrus Victorius (Vettori) (1499–1585, Italian humanist), Commentarii in tres libros Aristotelis De arte dicendi, Florence, 1548; Variarum lectionum libri XXV, Florence, 1553.
- Vinnius: Arnoldus Vinnius (1588–1657, Dutch jurist), In quatuor libros Instit
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- Δειναὶ γὰρ καὶ κοι̑ται ἀποιχομένοιο λέοντος.
Mr. Barbeyracin his Additions and Corrections says: After this Note was printed I found the Greek Verse by Accident in Plutarch, towards the End of the Life of Marius, p. 432. C. Edit. Wech. Where there are two Words differently placed from the Manner in which our Author here repeats them.
- Δειναὶ γὰρ κοι̑ται καὶ ἀποιχομένοιο λέοντος.
Besides the Word ἀποιχομένοιο is translated absent, and not dying by the Latin Interpreter, and two French Translators; which at first seems to agree very well with the Sequel of the Discourse. So that Grotius’s Application would not be just, or else we must say, that citing by Memory, he had forgot the Sense of the equivocal Word ἀποιχομένοιο in the Place from which he took it. However when I examine well the Circumstances of Marius’s Condition, who is said to have heard some Voice perpetually resounding this Verse in his Ears; our Author seems to have had good Reasons for explaining ἀποιχομένοιο by even dying: Which we should find if we had the antient Poet, from whom this Verse had probably passed into a Proverb. In the Terror and extraordinary Agitation of Mind, in which Marius was, he did not consider Sylla as absent, to whom the ἀποιχομένοιο ought to be applied, according to the Sense commonly given to that Word: On the contrary, he represented that young and vigorous Army, as present, and at the Gates of Rome, from the News he received of his approach. I therefore imagine, that he applied the Greek Verse to himself, and that he took it at the same Time as a Presage of his approaching Death, and an Exhortation to perish like an old Lion, as he was. The Word ἀποιχόμενος is often applied to those who die, especially in the Poets: And I find an Example very like this in an antient Oracle repeated by Lucian, in which a Wolf is spoken of:
- Μιμει̑σθαι χρὴ πότμον ἀποιχομένοιο Λύκοιο.