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military papers - Alexander Hamilton, The Works of Alexander Hamilton, (Federal Edition), vol. 6 
The Works of Alexander Hamilton, ed. Henry Cabot Lodge (Federal Edition) (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1904). In 12 vols. Vol. 6.
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military peace establishment1
Before any plan can, with propriety, be determined or a military peace establishment, it is necessary to ascertain what powers exist, for that purpose, in the Confederation.
In the fifth clause of the ninth article, the United States, in Congress assembled, are empowered (without any mention of peace or war) “to build and equip a navy, to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in each State; which requisition shall be binding; and thereupon, the Legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them, in a soldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men, so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.
By the fourth clause in the same article, the United States are empowered “to appoint all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers; to appoint all officers of the naval forces; and to commission all officers whatever, in the service of the United States, making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.”
By the fourth clause of the sixth article, it is declared, that “no vessels of war shall be kept up by any State in time of peace, except such number only as shall be deemed necessary by the United States, in Congress assembled, for the defence of such State or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State, in time of peace, except such number only as in the judgment of the United States, in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such State.”
The committee apprehend, that the terms of the last clause, being rather permissive than directory, do not interfere with the positive power vested in the United States by the preceding clauses; and that they have a discretion in the choice of the mode of providing for the general safety in time of peace as well as in time of war.
If this interpretation is just, the committee are of opinion there are conclusive reasons in favor of a continental, in preference to separate State establishments; and that, at all events, there must be some continental establishment.
Firstly.—There are objects which cannot fall within the purview of separate State establishments: posts within districts, the jurisdiction and property of which are covered by opposite and interfering claims, the possession of which for the security of the western country is of great importance, and for which provision cannot with propriety be made by any particular State; a tract of territory ceded to the United States, by the late treaty with Great Britain, which is not within the original claims of any of the States, the safety of which must depend on continental provisions; the navigation of the Mississippi, in which all the States are more or less interested, and the security of which ought to be provided for by their joint forces, as well naval as land; the fisheries, the rights respecting which are in no particular States, but in the Union at large, and therefore call for the protection of the Union; the general commerce of the United States, the rights of which, founded upon the laws of nations and the treaties of the United States with foreign countries, also claim the joint protection of the Confederacy, and cannot, with propriety, be left to the care of State establishments. A distinction that, in time of war it is to be protected by the Union, in time of peace by each State, would involve, besides other inconveniences, this capital one: That the United States, when a Federal navy should become necessary to assert the Federal rights, would be obliged to begin to create, at the moment they would have occasion to employ, a fleet.
Secondly.—The fortifications to be established for the security of the States ought to be constructed with relation to each other on some general and well-digested plan; and the provisions for their defence should be made on the same principles. This is equally important in the double view of safety and economy. If this is not done under the direction of the United States, each State following a disjointed and partial plan, it will be found that the posts will have no mutual dependence or support; that they will be improperly distributed, and more numerous than is necessary, as well as less efficacious. Hence they will be more easily reduced; and there will be a greater expense, both in the construction and defence.
Thirdly.—It happens that from local circumstances particular States, if left to take care of their own defence, would be in possession of the chief part of the standing forces and of the principal fortified places of the Union; a circumstance inconvenient on various accounts. It tends to impose a heavy exclusive burthen on them in a matter the benefit of which will be immediately shared by their neighbors, and, ultimately, by the Union in general. It trusts the care of the safety of the whole to a part, which will naturally be unwilling, as well as unable, to make such effectual provisions at its particular expense as the common welfare requires. A single State, from its local situation, will, in a great degree, keep the keys of the United States. A considerable force in the hands of a few States may have an unfriendly aspect on the mutual confidence and harmony which ought carefully to be maintained between the whole.
Fourthly.—It is probable that a continental provision of the forces, which will be necessary to be kept up, will be made upon a more systematic and economical plan than a provision by the States separately; especially as it will be of great importance that, as soon as the situation of affairs will permit, public manufactories of arms, powder, etc., should be established; and a part of the troops, employed in this way, will furnish those necessary articles to the United States, and defray a considerable part of the expense of supporting themselves.
Fifthly.—There must be a corps of artillery and engineers, which, being a scientific corps, and requiring institutions for the instruction and formation of the officers, cannot exist upon separate establishments without enormous expense.
The committee, upon these principles, submit the following
The Military peace establishment of the United States to consist of four regiments of infantry, one regiment of dragoons, one regiment of artillery incorporated in a corps of engineers, with the denomination of the Corps of Engineers.
Each regiment of infantry to consist, when complete, of two battalions; each battalion of four companies; and each company of one hundred and twenty-eight rank and file, with the following commissioned and non-commissioned officers:
One colonel; two majors, one to each battalion; eight captains, one to each company; nineteen lieutenants, two to each company; or twenty-one lieutenants, eleven first and ten second lieutenants, including one paymaster, one quartermaster, one adjutant, and two ensigns, one ensign to each battalion; chaplain, surgeon, and mate; two sergeant-majors, one to each battalion; two quarter-master-sergeants, one to each battalion; two drum-and-fife majors, one to each battalion; sixteen drums and fifes, two to each company; thirty-two sergeants, four to each company; one hundred and twenty-eight corporals, included in the rank and file—that is, sixteen corporals and one hundred and twelve private men to a company.
The regiment of dragoons to consist, when complete, of two cohorts, each cohort of two squadrons, each squadron of two troops, and each troop of thirty-two dragoons, rank and file, with the following commissioned and non-commissioned officers:
One colonel; two majors; eight captains; nineteen lieutenants, including paymaster, quartermaster, and adjutant; chaplain; one surgeon and one mate; two sergeant-majors; two quartermaster-sergeants; two trumpet-majors; eight trumpeters; eight farriers; sixteen saddlers; two riding-masters: thirty-two sergeants; sixty-four corporals, included in the rank and file—that is, to each troop eight corporals and twenty-four private dragoons.
The corps of engineers to be composed as follows:
One major or brigadier-general commandant; one colonel; two lieutenant-colonels; two majors; twenty captains; forty-five lieutenants (including paymaster, quartermaster, and adjutant), twenty first and twenty-three second lieutenants; chaplain, surgeon, and two mates; one professor of mathematics; one professor of chemistry; professor of natural philosophy; professor of civil architecture; two sergeant-majors; two quarter-master-sergeants; two drum-and-fife-majors; twenty drums and fifes; forty sergeants; thirty-two bombardiers; eight corporals of sappers and miners; three hundred and eighty-four matrosses; ninety-six sappers and miners; one hundred and eighty-eight artificers of different kinds, to be distributed in the following manner:
Two battalions of artillery, each consisting of four companies, commanded by a field officer; each company consisting of one captain, four lieutenants, four sergeants, four bombardiers, and forty-eight matrosses.
Two companies of sappers and miners; each company consisting of one captain, four lieutenants, four sergeants, and forty-eight sappers and miners.
A corps of artificers, commanded by one captain of the corps, and consisting of:
Artificers of the First Class
Of the Second Class
Four founders in brass and iron; four armorers; two cutlers; two blacksmiths; two carpenters; two wheel-wrights; two masons; two saddlers; two manufacturers of cartridge-boxes, etc.
Of the Third Class
Four founders in brass and iron; twenty armorers; twelve cutlers; [powder-makers?] thirty blacksmiths; thirty carpenters; twenty wheelwrights; twelve masons; six saddlers; six manufacturers of cartridge-boxes, etc.; two turners; two tinmen; two brickmakers; two potters; one glazier; two cabinet-makers; one lock-smith; one spur-maker; one tanner; one currier.
That the pay of a regiment of Infantry shall be as follows:
The pay of a regiment of dragoons, as follows:
The pay of the corps of artillery and engineers, to be as follows:
That a ration of provisions shall consist of one pound of bread, or flour; half a pound of salt, or three-fourths of a pound of fresh beef or pork; a pint of peas, or other vegetables equivalent; one gill of vinegar, and a half gill of salt.
Each officer and soldier to be entitled to draw one ration per day; the officer at his option to receive the estimated value in money; and the soldier to be paid at the rates annexed to each article, for whatever it may not be possible to furnish him.
That there be an allowance of——soap per——to each commissioned officer; and——to every non-commissioned officer and soldier.
The allowance of forage to officers whose duty is to be performed on horseback, shall be as follows:
To a major-general, four rations; brigadier, three; field officers of every corps, each, two; chaplain, surgeon, quartermaster, paymaster, adjutant, of every corps, each, one; captains, and other officers of dragoons, each, one; captains of engineers, each, one.
A ration of forage to consist of the following articles:
* * * * * *
When officers are absent from their corps on duty, and cannot draw forage, they shall be paid for it at the rate of——for each ration.
That the allowance of clothing to each non-commissioned officer, and private soldier, shall be as follows:
One cloth coat, jacket, and overall, every second year; one hat, one linen frock, three pair overalls, six pair shoes, two leather stocks, annually; one blanket every——year. And if it shall be found necessary to supply any non-commissioned officer or soldier, with any articles beyond the quantity above specified, the value thereof shall be deducted from his pay, according to the rates annexed to each.
If the idea of the Confederation is adhered to, the number of troops to be raised must be distributed in the best manner the nature of the case will admit, to the several States, according to the proportion of their respective populations; and each must appoint regimental officers in proportion to the number of men it furnishes; but as no State will have to furnish a complete regiment, this apportionment of the officers, especially, will become extremely difficult, if not impracticable, on any satisfactory plan, and the filling up vacancies as they arise will produce endless perplexity. It would be much to be preferred, if the States could be induced to transfer this right to Congress; and indeed, without it, there can never be regularity in the military system. It would also be much the best, that the men should be enlisted under continental direction, which will be a more certain and more economical mode; for, as it now stands, the United States are obliged to pay for all mismanagement or extravagance which may happen.
The next object to be attended to, is that of fortifications. These are of two kinds, land and naval: the first for internal security, the last for the protection of the future fleets of the United States.
As to the first kind, there are many posts of importance already existing, several of which it will be essential to occupy and guard, till more permanent measures can be taken on a general plan. For this, Congress have already made provision by their resolution of the——
The committee are of opinion, that the principles laid down in the memorial from Major-General Du Portail, Chief Engineer, accompanying this report, so far as they respect the article of fortifications, are, in general, sound and just; and that it will be expedient for Congress, as soon as they have determined on the establishment of the corps of engineers, to instruct the head of that corps to make a general survey of the points necessary to be fortified, and to lay a general plan before Congress for their consideration.
With respect to maritime fortifications, the committee are of opinion, that this object, though of the highest importance, cannot be immediately undertaken; but that it will be advisable for Congress to appoint an Agent of Marine, to make all the inquiries, obtain all the lights, and prepare, in proportion as the public finances will admit, all the means previously requisite towards the establishment of posts and the formation of a navy.
The committee apprehend, that even if the resources of the United States were at this time equal to the undertaking of constructing and equipping a navy, it would be ineligible to enter upon it, till a plan, deliberately combined in all its parts, had been digested and approved for that purpose. As the preparatory steps will require a considerable length of time before such a plan could be matured for execution, it will, therefore, be proper, in the judgment of the committee, to make the appointment suggested as speedily as it can conveniently be done.
The committee are further of opinion, that it will be proper for Congress to keep constantly on foot, magazines and arsenals, in different parts of the United States, equal to the complete equipment of twenty thousand men, in every thing necessary for the field or for a siege, calculating on a three years’ supply; and that, in this view, it will be expedient to establish arsenals and magazines at the following places: * * * * * * * and to deposit all the artillery and military stores, in possession of the United States, in those several places, in equal proportions; and as soon as may be, to make up any deficiencies which may be found in the quantity proposed; so that each deposit may suffice for five thousand men.
With respect to the establishment of military academies, as proposed in the letter of the Secretary at War, the committee are of opinion, that the benefits of such institutions rarely compensate for the expense; and that, by having the three professors proposed to be attached to the corps of engineers, all the utility to be expected from academies may be substantially obtained: that, at all events, such institutions can only be the object of future consideration.
The committee are of opinion, that as soon as the situation of public affairs will permit, it ought to be made a serious object of policy, to be able to supply ourselves with all the articles of first necessity in war; and in this view, to establish foundries, manufactories of arms, powder, etc.
There are two reasons which appear to them conclusive for this. The first is, that every country ought to have within itself all the essential means of defence, for to depend on foreign supplies is to render its security precarious; the second, that as it will be indispensable to keep up a corps of artillery, and some other troops, the labor of a part of these, bestowed upon the manufactories, will enable the public to supply itself on better terms than by importation. The committee propose that the Secretary at War be directed to lay before Congress a plan, in detail, for this purpose; designating the places where those foundries and manufactories can be erected with advantage, the means to be employed, and the expense to be incurred in the execution of the plan.
The committee are of opinion, that a general staff is unnecessary in time of peace, as all the objects of it may be answered by the War Department, by the regimental officers, and by contracts. They would only recommend to have a major-general to command all the troops; a general officer to command the corps of engineers and artillery; and an inspector-general to preserve uniformity in the regulations and service of the troops.
The pay of these officers may be:
In time of war, it will be necessary to appoint a brigadier- general to each brigade consisting of two regiments of infantry; but during peace, as the service of the regiments will be detached, this may be dispensed with.
It will be necessary to establish a general hospital for the reception of invalids of the army and navy. For the present, only the following officers will be requisite:
To be entitled to draw a ration per day each, and no other subsistence or allowance.
The invalids to be allowed no pay; but the clothing and rations specified for soldiers during life.
The gross expense of this establishment, if complete, as will appear by the annexed estimate, will be .$—
From this may be deducted the value of the product of the manufactories, when established by the estimate also annexed …… —
Balance, an annual charge upon the United States …… $—
If Congress should think it inexpedient immediately to incur so considerable an expense, the following method may be taken to diminish it.
The companies of infantry may, for the present, be recruited only to sixty-four men each.
Only four troops of the dragoons may be raised, and only one troop mounted. It would be inexpedient to neglect this arm altogether; for it will always, in case of war, be of great importance in the Southern States; and the knowledge of its principles and uses ought to be cultivated.
The companies of sappers and miners, and the company of artificers, except the master-founders and the armorers, may be deferred till the means of the United States will admit of carrying into execution the plan of foundries and manufactories.
Yet it would be proper that these establishments should be adopted as proposed; and the execution, in these instances, suspended.
The savings of expense, by these deductions, would amount to—;which, taken out of the aggregate expense of the whole establishment, will leave a residue of annual expense, of—.
The committee are of opinion that this expense is unavoidable, and that the only question is, whether it shall be borne by the United States or by particular States; in which last case it is probable it will be greatly increased, for want of being conducted on a systematic plan; and it is to be observed that the resources of the States, jointly or severally, are confined within certain bounds; and that if any States contribute an extra portion in one way, they must contribute less than their proportion in another. The superior national considerations already stated, leave no doubt as to the manner in which the question ought to be decided.
The committee are also of opinion, that in considering the means of national defence, Congress ought not to overlook that of a well-regulated militia; that as the keeping up of such a militia, and proper arsenals and magazines, by each State, is made a part of the Confederation, the attention of Congress to this object will be a constitutional duty; that as great advantages would result from uniformity in this article, in every State, and from the militia establishment being as similar as the nature of the case will admit, to the continental military establishment, it will be proper for Congress to adopt and recommend a general plan for that purpose.
The committee submit the following outlines of such a plan; which may, if thought necessary, be digested and improved.
All the free male inhabitants in each State, from twenty years old to fifty, except such as the laws of each State shall think it proper to exempt, to be divided into two general classes; one class consisting of married, and the other class consisting of single, men.
Each class to be formed into corps of infantry and dragoons, organized in the same manner as has been proposed for the continental troops.
Those who are willing to be at the expense of equipping themselves for the dragoon service, to be permitted to enter into that corps. The residue to be formed into infantry. This will consult the convenience and inclinations of different classes of citizens.
Each officer and private of the dragoons, to provide himself with a horse, saddle, etc., pistols and sabre; and each non-commissioned officer and private, with a carbine and cartouch-box, with twelve rounds for his carbine and six rounds for each pistol.
Each officer of the infantry to have a sword and esponton; and each non-commissioned officer and private, a musket, bayonet, and cartouch-box containing always twelve rounds of powder and ball.
That the corps of single men be obliged to assemble in companies once a month, and once in three months regimentally, to be inspected and exercised, subject to a penalty to be assigned for that purpose.
That the corps of married men be obliged to assemble once in three months by companies, and once in six months regimentally, for the same purpose as above mentioned.
That when the State is invaded, the corps of either class, indifferently, shall be obliged to take the field for its defence, and to remain in service one year, unless sooner relieved by special order.
That when another State is attacked, and it is necessary to march to its succor, one half of the corps of single men shall be obliged to take their turn first, and to serve for the same period; to be afterwards relieved by one half of the corps of the married men; and so on alternately.
That in addition to these two classes, there shall be a third class, under a particular denomination, as fencibles, fusiliers, train-bands, or whatever else may be judged expedient; with the same organization as the other classes, but composed in the following manner:
Of all such of either of the two other classes as will voluntarily engage to serve for the term of eight years, provided they shall not exceed the proportion of one to fifty of all the enrolled militia of the State; and provided that, if a war breaks out, they shall be bound to serve three years after they are called into service, and to march wherever the service may require.
The conditions on the part of the public to be these: That they shall be furnished with a musket, bayonet, cartouch-box, and twenty-four rounds of powder and ball; and once every two years with a suit of uniform, to consist of a coat, jacket, and overall of cloth; the arms and accoutrements to become their property at the end of their time of service.
These corps to be obliged to assemble by companies once a week, and by regiments monthly, for exercise and inspection; and to encamp at a general rendezvous twenty days in each year, to be paid at the rate of sixpence per day to each non-commissioned officer and private. Whenever any of the militia are called into service, they shall be entitled to the same emoluments with the regular troops.
The committee are of opinion that, with a view to these establishments, it will be proper to direct the Commander-in-Chief to appoint a Board, consisting of not more than five officers, of which the Inspector-General, Commandant of Artillery, and Chief Engineer, to be members, to revise the system of regulations for the army of the United States; and to digest, for the consideration of Congress, a general ordinance for the service of the troops of the United States, as well as the corps of engineers and of horse, as of infantry: also an ordinance to be recommended to the several States for the service of the militia.
All promotions to be made regimentally to the rank of colonel, according to seniority; and from the rank of colonel upwards, the officers of dragoons and infantry shall roll together, and be promoted according to seniority, without distinction of corps.
The rule of promotion in the corps of engineers, to be, in all respects, distinct, and according to seniority in that corps.
Provided that no officer, of whatsoever corps, shall consider it as a violation of his rights, if any other who has been fortunate enough to have an opportunity of distinguishing himself in a particular manner, receives an extra promotion in the corps, on account of brilliant services or peculiar talents.
And in order that such extra promotion may not be produced by misrepresentation, it shall not be made, but on the recommendation of the commander of the army, accompanied by an authenticated state of the facts and reasons upon which the recommendation is founded; together with the opinion of the officer commanding the corps in which the promotion is to be made; all which shall be reported to Congress by the Secretary at War, with his sentiments thereupon.
The officers to command the different corps in the first instance, to be appointed out of such of those, now in service, as are willing to continue in the military line; provided that those who are retained, shall not be entitled to the half pay for their services during the war.
The men to be enlisted for six years.
Women to each company.
Notes to be recollected1
An absurdity, that Congress are empowered to build and equip a navy; and yet, in time of peace, the States are to keep up one for their own defence.
There must be a navy formed in time of peace; it ought to be proportioned to our defence; and will then be all in the hands of certain States.
Congress, constituted as they are, can’t have time for usurpation. Usurpation in such an extensive empire requires long previous preparation, etc.
A people seldom reform with moderation. Men, accustomed to read of usurpation suddenly effected in small cities, look upon such a thing as a work of a day.
The weak side of democracies, is danger of foreign corruption. No individual has sufficient interest in the State, to be proof against the seduction.
The want of an army lost the liberty of Athens—vide Demosthenes.
hamilton to mchenry
Philadelphia, July 28, 1798.
Sir:—I last evening had the honor of receiving your letter of the 25th inst., announcing to me my appointment as Inspector and Major-General.1 At a crisis like the present, I esteem it my duty to obey the call of the government. Feeling, too, as I ought, the value of the high confidence which is reposed in me, I beg you to convey to the President my most cordial acknowledgments, and the assurance of my best endeavor to merit it.
With great respect and esteem, I am, sir, etc.
hamilton to mchenry
Philadelphia, July 30, 1798.
Scruples of delicacy have occasioned me to hesitate about offering to you certain ideas which it appears to me, on mature reflection, cannot be withheld consistently either with friendship to you or regard to the service.
I observe you plunged in a vast mass of details. I know from experience, that it is impossible for any man, whatever be his talents or diligence, to wade through such a mass, without neglecting the most material things, and attaching to his operations a feebleness and sloth of execution. It is essential to the success of the minister of a great department, that he subdivide the objects of his care, distribute them among competent assistants, and content himself with a general but vigilant superintendence. This course is particularly necessary when an unforeseen emergency has suddenly accumulated a number of new objects to be provided for and executed.
Hence you will give me leave, in all the frankness of friendship, to express to you an opinion that you will do well to call effectually to your aid the Inspector-General, spector-General, and likewise Major-General Knox, and to charge them with the management of particular branches of the service.
You already contemplate, and very properly, that the Inspector-General shall occupy himself in preparing a system of tactics and discipline. But will it not be expedient and natural to charge him also with superintending the recruiting service? and may he not be made useful in other ways to the business of the department? General Knox, if he can be drawn to the seat of government, may be rendered extensively useful, especially in whatever relates to the artillery branch.
But you will perceive that ideas of this sort presuppose an abandonment of the plan of suspending the emoluments of these officers. They cannot afford to give their time and attention without compensation. As to myself, I must be free to confess that this is utterly impossible. I have the less embarrassment in making the declaration, because it must be obvious that the plan is against my pecuniary interest. Serious occupation in my military office must involve the relinquishment substantially of my profession; and the exchange of from three to four thousand pounds for the compensation of Inspector-General, is evidently but a sorry bargain.
Yours truly, etc.
hamilton to mchenry
New York, October 19, 1798.
Sir:—I was yesterday honored with your letter transmitting my commission as Inspector and Major-General.
Agreeably to your desire, I hold myself prepared to attend you within the period you assign. But as the object appears to embrace a concert of advice and assistance with General Knox (who cannot be expected in much less than the utmost limit of the time prescribed), I shall permit myself to defer my journey so as to reach you about the first of November, unless I am told that an anticipation of that day is deemed requisite.
I cannot but observe with satisfaction the conclusion of your letter as to the relative rank of the three major-generals.
I received at the same time your letter of the 11th instant, having been absent from the city for five days past.
I shall to-day confer with Major Hoops and Colonel Stevens on the subject of it, chiefly to ascertain the actual state of things, and by to-morrow’s post will communicate my opinion.
hamilton to washington
New York, October 29, 1798.
DearSir:—Some ill health in my family, now at an end, as I hope, interfered with an earlier acknowledgment of your favor of the 21st instant. The contents cannot but be gratifying to me. It is my intention, if not prevented by further ill health in my family, to proceed on the first of November to Trenton. My aid to the Secretary, to the full extent of what he shall permit me to afford, will not be withheld. But every day brings fresh room to apprehend that, whatever may be the props, the administration of the War Department cannot prosper in the present very well disposed but very unqualified hands.
Most respectfully, etc.
hamilton to jay
November 19, 1798.
Sir:—Your letter of the 5th of November has recently reached me at this place, and found me amongst avocations that scarcely leave me a moment to spare.
You will probably have learned from General Clarkson that the survey of the port has been completed.
But I do not recollect that I have had any answer to a suggestion in one of my letters respecting the employment of engineers to assist in forming the desired plan.
This appears to me an essential preliminary. It is very possible the contrary may have been said to you by persons of whose intelligence you may have a good opinion. Self-sufficiency and a contempt of the science and experience of others are too prevailing traits of character in this country.
But as far as I am to be concerned, auxiliary lights are a sine qua non.
I do not feel myself adequate to the complicated task of an engineer, unaided by men of more technical knowledge than myself.
end of vol. vi.
[1.]A report to the Congress of the Confederation, with a plan not likely to be adopted, as indeed it was not.
[1.]These notes were apparently for a speech sustaining the report—speech and report alike vain in the then anarchic weakness.
[1.]War with France impending, measures were taken to raise an army. The nominal commander of the forces was Washington, the real one Hamilton, who ranked Inspector and First Major-General.