Front Page Titles (by Subject) Hayek\'s Voluntaristic Traditionalism: A Market in Traditions - Literature of Liberty, Winter 1982, vol. 5, No. 4
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Hayek's Voluntaristic Traditionalism: A Market in Traditions - Leonard P. Liggio, Literature of Liberty, Winter 1982, vol. 5, No. 4 
Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought was published first by the Cato Institute (1978-1979) and later by the Institute for Humane Studies (1980-1982) under the editorial direction of Leonard P. Liggio.
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Hayek's Voluntaristic Traditionalism: A Market in Traditions
There is in Hayek's work an argument for voluntaristic traditionalism which goes some way toward answering this question. Hayek sees that the principal cause of the erosion of definitive moral traditions in advanced societies is not so much the market itself, but rather interventionist policies sponsored by governments. Often with the support of business, governments have contributed to the erosion of moral traditions by their educational, housing, and welfare policies. Hayek's argument for a voluntaristic traditionalism distinguishes him from neo-conservatives, firstly in that he would argue that it is government interventionism which causes much of the contemporary moral malaise and because he would not seek to use government power to prop up faltering traditions. Rather, he seeks to establish something like a market in traditions, in the hope that the traditions which would emerge from an unhampered social life would be most congenial to the stability of the market order itself. In his argument for a competitive and voluntaristic traditionalism, Hayek plainly treats particular traditional communities as filter devices for social practices of the sort Robert Nozick discusses in his fascinating and profound account of the framework of utopia.99
It cannot be said unequivocably that Hayek's libertarian traditionalism answers the most profoundly disturbing doubts of the neo-conservatives. In particular, Hayek's advocacy of procedural justice, with the role of chance in distributing incomes being recognized clearly,100 confronts the difficulty that the moral defense of capitalism has chiefly been conducted by reference to the notion of desert. By comparison with this traditional defense, Hayek's apologia for the market order may be, as Kristol observes, “nihilistic.”101
Against this criticism Hayek may justifiably maintain that there is a sheer conflict between traditional sentiments of desert and merit and any clear-sighted defense of the market order—a conflict which the neo-conservative endorsement of the market order does nothing to resolve.
Kristol's criticism of Hayek has other, and perhaps profounder aspects, however. Hayek recognizes that contemporary moral sentiment is by no means uniformly, or even generally, favorable to the market order, and, both in his writings on Mandeville102 and elsewhere, Hayek has implicitly acknowledged that the spontaneous growth of moral norms may not, in fact, yield results congenial to a stable market order. At the same time, Hayek continues to advocate a strong form of moral conventionalism, resisting the claims of those who see modern morality as in need of radical reform. There is thus a tension, perhaps irresolvable in terms of Hayek's system, between his Mandevillian moral iconoclasm and his moral conservatism.
Conclusion: Hayek's Research Program & Classical Liberalism
In his argument for a voluntaristic traditionalism, Hayek (as we have seen) answers some of the concerns of contemporary conservatives. His argument for a market in traditions may be vulnerable to criticism, inasmuch as the growth of anti-market ethics over the past centuries seems to belie his expectation that natural selection of moral traditions will filter out those unfriendly to the market process. In recognition of this, Hayek would in consistency be compelled to adopt, in respect of moral convention, a more “rationalist” stance than he usually recommends. He would need to undertake a systematic criticism of modern morality in regard to its viability as part of an ongoing market order. In so doing, he would be resuming the task undertaken by those moderate rationalists, Bernard Mandeville and David Hume, whom Hayek rightly sees as the fountainheads of classical liberalism. Even if his own system of ideas should prove unstable, it recalls to us the insights of the great classical liberals, and intimates the most powerful research program in classical liberal political philosophy. And, in recalling that intellectual tradition from what had sometimes seemed an irrecoverable oblivion, Hayek's work is a hopeful augury for an uncertain future.103
For full citations of books and articles mentioned in these notes, see the following bibliography. References to Hayek's works are cited by title or by alphabetic letter followed by numbers to identify books (B-), articles (A-), edited works (E-), and pamphlets (P-). See the following Hayek bibliography for more information. References to books or articles about Hayek and related matters are found in the last section of the bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FRIEDRICH A. HAYEK
The following bibliography of the writings by and about Friedrich A. Hayek was compiled near the end of 1982 by John Cody assisted by Nancy Ostrem. We gratefully acknowledge the helpful suggestions of Kurt R. Leube (Editor-in-chief of the International Carl Menger Library, Vienna), Prof. Albert H. Zlabinger of Jacksonville University (and co-editor with Kurt Leube of Philosophia Verlag), Prof. Paul Michelson of Huntington College, Paul Varnell of Chicago, and members of the Institute for Humane Studies staff, including Leonard P. Liggio, Walter Grinder, and John Blundell.
While aiming to be the most comprehensive, accurate, and up-to-date listing of Hayekian scholarship yet assembled, this bibliography–owing to the prolific and dispersed nature of the materials involved—must unavoidably contain errors, incomplete citations, and omissions. Among the omissions are a great many of Hayek's voluminous letters-to-editors, short notes or comments, interviews (including tape recordings, video-cassettes, and films), and book reviews. Such journals as the Schriften des Vereins für Sozialpolitik, Jährbucher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Sozialpolitik (after 1927 superseded by Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie), and Economica contain many items not listed in this edition of the bibliography. Many additional bibliographical items by or about Hayek came to our attention only after our typesetting deadline precluded further citations. To remedy our omissions and to emend our in-accuracies for a possible subsequent publication of an enlarged Hayek bibliography we welcome our readers’ comments and assistance.
Earlier bibliographical orientations to Hayek's writings that proved helpful in creating the present Bibliography are:
Erich Streissler, Gottfried Haberler, Friedrich A. Lutz, and Fritz Machlup, eds. “Bibliography of the Writings of Friedrich A. von Hayek,” in Roads to Freedom: Essays in Honour of Friedrich A. von Hayek. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969, pp. 309–315.
Walter Eucken Institut. “Bibliographie der Schriften von F.A. von Hayek.” [“Bibliography of the Writings of F.A. von Hayek.”] in Freiburger Studien. Gesammelte Aufsätze von F.A. Hayek. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr/Paul Siebeck (Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche und wirtschaftsrechtliche Untersuchungen 5), 1969, pp. 279–284.
Fritz Machlup, “Friedrich von Hayek's Contribution to Economics.” The Swedish Journal of Economics 76 (December 1974): 498–531.
———. “Hayek's Contribution to Economics,” in Essays on Hayek. Edited by Fritz Machlup. Foreward by Milton Friedman. New York: New York University Press, 1976, pp. 13–39. [Machlup's 1974 and his updated 1976 bibliographical essays are indispensable guides to Hayek's writings through the mid-1970s. Adhering to the fourfold classification system of Hayek's writings laid out in the Streissler 1969 Roads to Freedom, Hayek “Bibliography,” Machlup devised an alphabetical and numerical identification code for easy reference to Hayek's books (B-), pamphlets (P-), edited or introduced books (E-), and articles in learned journals or collections of essays (A-).]
———. Würdigung der Werke von Friedrich August von Hayek. Translated by Kurt R. Leube. Tübingen: Walter Eucken Institut (Vorträge und Aufsätze 62), 1977, pp. 63–75. [This “Assessment of the Works of Friedrich August von Hayek is the German translation of the preceding Machlup Bibliography of Hayek.]
Leube, Kurt R. “Anhang: Bibliographie der Schriften von F.A. von Hayek,” [“Appendix: Bibliography of the Writings of F.A. von Hayek”] in: F.A. von Hayek. Geldtheorie und Konjunkturtheorie. Reprint of the first edition (Vienna, 1929; see B-1). Salzburg: Philosophia Verlag, 1976. pp. 148–160. This is identical to Leube's Hayek Bibliography in: Friedrich A. von Hayek. Individualismus und wirtschaftliche Ordnung. Reprint of the first German edition (Erlenbach-Zurich, 1952; see B-7). Salzburg: Philosophia Verlag, 1976, pp. 345–357.
———. “Ausgewählte Bibliographie der Arbeiten F.A. Hayeks zu verwandten Problemkreisen” [“Selected Bibliography of the Works of F.A. Hayek to Related Problem Areas”], in the German reprint of the first edition (Vienna, 1931; see B-2) of Preise und Produktion. Vienna: Philosophia Verlag, 1976, pp. 13–18.
[99.] See Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Part Three.
[100.] See Hayek's Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. II, Chapter Ten, for the clearest acknowledgement of the role of chance in the alembic of catallaxy.
[101.] See Irving Kristol, Two Cheers for Capitalism, New York, 1978, Chapter 7, “Capitalism, Socialism and Nihilism.”
[102.] See Hayek's “Dr. Bernard Mandeville,” New Studies, pp. 249-266; and his remarks on contemporary morality in the Epilogue to vol. III of Law, Legislation and Liberty, pp. 165-166.
[103.] For their detailed comments on an earlier draft of this article, I am indebted to James M. Buchanan, Jeremy Shearmur, David Gordon, and Lester Hunt. I am also indebted to Michael Oakeshott and Robert Nozick for illuminating conversation on the themes addressed in this article.