Front Page Titles (by Subject) PART I: ADMONITIONS, RULES, ETC - The Writings of Saint Francis of Assisi
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PART I: ADMONITIONS, RULES, ETC - Saint Francis of Assisi, The Writings of Saint Francis of Assisi 
The Writings of Saint Francis of Assisi, newly translated into English with an Introduction and Notes by Father Paschal Robinson (Philadelphia: The Dolphin Press, 1906).
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ADMONITIONS, RULES, ETC
Words of Admonition of our Holy Father St. Francis.
UNDER this title a precious series of spiritual counsels on the religious life has come down to us from the pen of St Francis The early Legends afford no indication of the time or circumstances of the composition of these Admonitions; nor is it possible to determine by whom they were collected. But they accord so completely with the Saint’s genuine works and are so redolent of his spirit that their authenticity is admitted by all.1 Moreover, the various codices in which these Admonitions may be found are unanimous in attributing them to St. Francis, while the number of the Admonitions2 and the order in which they are given in the different codices are almost the same as in the Laurentian codex at Florence, dating from the thirteenth century.
Codices containing the Admonitions of St. Francis are to be found at the following places 1. Assist (Munic. lib. cod. 338, fol. 18),—2. Berlin (Royal lib. cod. lat. 196, fol. 101);—3. Florence (Laurentian lib. cod. X. Plut XIX dextr., fol. 448),—4. Florence (cod. of the Convent of Ognissanti, fol. 5);—5. St. Floriano (monast lib. cod XI 148, fol 38);—6. Foligno (cod. of Capuchin Conv., fol. 21),—7. Lemberg (Univ. lib. cod. 131, fol 331),—8 Liegnitz1 (lib. of SS Peter and Paul cod. 12, fol 131),—9. Luttich (Munic. lib. cod. 343, fol. 154),—10. Munich (Royal lib. cod. lat. 11354, fol 25, number 1 only);—11. Naples (Nation lib. cod XII. F. 32, folio antepaen. numbers 6-27),—12 Oxford2 (Bodl. lib. cod. Canon miscell. 525, fol. 93);—13 Paris (Nat. lib. cod 18327, fol. 154),—14, 15. Paris (Mazarin lib. cod 1743, fol. 134, and cod. 989, fol 191),—16. Paris (codex at lib. of the Prot. theol faculty, fol. 86);—17. Prague (Metrop. lib. cod B XC., fol. 244),—18. Rome (codex at St. Antony’s Coll.,3 fol. 77),—19, 20. Rome (archiv. of St Isidore’s College, cod. 1/25, fol. 14, and cod. 1/78, fol 11);—21, 22. Rome (Vatic. lib. cod. 4354, fol. 39, and cod. 7650, fol. 10);—23. Toledo (capit. lib. cod. Cai. 25, no. 11, fol. 65) and—24 Volterra (Guarnacci lib. cod 225, fol. 141).
Of the foregoing codices that in the Laurentian Library at Florence dates from the thirteenth century; those at Ognissanti, Florence, at Assisi, Berlin, St Floriano, Oxford, Rome (St. Antony’s, St. Isidore’s, and the Vatican codex 4354), Toledo, and Volterra date from the fourteenth, and the others from the fifteenth century.
For the Quaracchi edition of the Admonitions, upon which the present translation is based, the two oldest of all these codices, to wit, those of the Laurentian Library at Florence and of the Municipal Library at Assisi,1 have been used Those at St Isidore’s, Rome, and Ognissanti, Florence, have also been consulted, besides the editions of the Admonitions found in the Monumenta Ordinis Minorum (Salamanca, 1511, tract. 11, fol. 276 r), the Firmamenta Trium Ordinum2 (Paris, 1512, P. I, fol. 19 r), and the Liber Conformitatum of Bartholomew of Pisa (Milan, 1510, fruct. XII, P. 11). But for the titles and paragraphing, which differ more or less in different codices, the Laurentian codex has been followed3
So much by way of preface to the
Of the Lord’s Body.
The Lord Jesus said to His disciples: “I am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life. No man cometh to the Father, but by Me. If you had known Me you would, without doubt, have known My Father also: and from henceforth you shall know Him, and you have seen Him. Philip saith to Him: Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us. Jesus saith to him: Have I been so long a time with you and have you not known Me? Philip, he that seeth Me seeth [My] Father also. How sayest thou, Shew us the Father?”1 The Father “inhabiteth light inaccessible,”2 and “God is a spirit,”3 and “no man hath seen God at any time.”4 Because God is a spirit, therefore it is only by the spirit He can be seen, for “it is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing.”5 For neither is the Son, inasmuch as He is equal to the Father, seen by any one other than by the Father, other than by the Holy Ghost. Wherefore, all those who saw the Lord Jesus Christ according to humanity and did not see and believe according to the Spirit and the Divinity, that He was the Son of God, were condemned. In like manner, all those who behold the Sacrament of the Body of Christ which is sanctified by the word of the Lord upon the altar by the hands of the priest in the form of bread and wine, and who do not see and believe according to the Spirit and Divinity that It is really the most holy Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, are condemned, He the Most High having declared it when He said, “This is My Body, and the Blood of the New Testament,”6 and “he that eateth My Flesh and drinketh My Blood hath everlasting life.”1
Wherefore [he who has]2 the Spirit of the Lord which dwells in His faithful, he it is who receives the most holy Body and Blood of the Lord: all others who do not have this same Spirit and who presume to receive Him, eat and drink judgment to themselves.3 Wherefore, “O ye sons of men, how long will you be dull of heart?”4 Why will you not know the truth and “believe in the Son of God?”5 Behold daily He humbles Himself as when from His “royal throne”6 He came into the womb of the Virgin; daily He Himself comes to us with like humility; daily He descends from the bosom of His Father upon the altar in the hands of the priest. And as He appeared in true flesh to the Holy Apostles, so now He shows Himself to us in the sacred Bread; and as they by means of their fleshly eyes saw only His flesh, yet contemplating Him with their spiritual eyes, believed Him to be God, so we, seeing bread and wine with bodily eyes, see and firmly believe it to be His most holy Body and true and living Blood And in this way our Lord is ever with His faithful, as He Himself says: “Behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world.”7
The Evil of Self-will.
The Lord God said to Adam: “Of every tree of paradise thou shalt eat. But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat.”1 Adam therefore might eat of every tree of paradise and so long as he did not offend against obedience he did not sin. For one eats of the tree of knowledge of good who appropriates to himself his own will2 and prides himself upon the goods which the Lord publishes and works in him and thus, through the suggestion of the devil and transgression of the commandment, he finds the apple of the knowledge of evil; wherefore, it behooves that he suffer punishment.
Of Perfect and Imperfect Obedience.
The Lord says in the Gospel: he “that doth not renounce all that he possesseth cannot be” a “disciple”3 and “he that will save his life, shall lose it.”4 That man leaves all he possesses and loses his body and his soul who abandons himself wholly to obedience in the hands of his superior, and whatever he does and says—provided he himself knows that what he does is good and not contrary to his [the superior’s] will—is true obedience. And if at times a subject sees things which would be better or more useful to his soul than those which the superior commands him, let him sacrifice his will to God, let him strive to fulfil the work enjoined by the superior. This is true and charitable obedience which is pleasing to God and to one’s neighbor.
If, however, a superior command anything to a subject that is against his soul it is permissible for him to disobey, but he must not leave him [the superior], and if in consequence he suffer persecution from some, he should love them the more for God’s sake. For he who would rather suffer persecution than wish to be separated from his brethren, truly abides in perfect obedience because he lays down his life for his brothers.1 For there are many religious who, under pretext of seeing better things than those which their superiors command, look back2 and return to the vomit of their own will.3 These are homicides and by their bad example cause the loss of many souls.
That no one should take Superiorship upon himself.
I did “not come to be ministered unto, but to minister,” says the Lord.4 Let those who are set above others glory in this superiority only as much as if they had been deputed to wash the feet of the brothers; and if they are more perturbed by the loss of their superiorship than they would be by losing the office of washing feet, so much the more do they lay up treasures to the peril of their own soul.
That no one should glory save in the Cross of the Lord.
Consider, O man, how great the excellence in which the Lord has placed you because He has created and formed you to the image of His beloved Son according to the body and to His own likeness according to the spirit.1 And all the creatures that are under heaven serve and know and obey their Creator in their own way better than you And even the demons did not crucify Him, but you together with them crucified Him and still crucify Him by taking delight in vices and sins. Wherefore then can you glory? For if you were so clever and wise that you possessed all science, and if you knew how to interpret every form of language and to investigate heavenly things minutely, you could not glory in all this, because one demon has known more of heavenly things and still knows more of earthly things than all men, although there may be some man who has received from the Lord a special knowledge of sovereign wisdom. In like manner, if you were handsomer and richer than all others, and even if you could work wonders and put the demons to flight, all these things are hurtful to you and in nowise belong to you, and in them you cannot glory; that, however, in which we may glory is in our infirmities,2 and in bearing daily the holy cross of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Of the Imitation of the Lord.
Let us all, brothers, consider the Good Shepherd who to save His sheep bore the suffering of the Cross. The sheep of the Lord followed Him in tribulation and persecution and shame, in hunger and thirst, in infirmity and temptations and in all other ways;1 and for these things they have received everlasting life from the Lord. Wherefore it is a great shame for us, the servants of God, that, whereas the Saints have practised works, we should expect to receive honor and glory for reading and preaching the same.
That Good Works should accompany Knowledge.
The Apostle says, “the letter killeth, but the spirit quickeneth.”2 They are killed by the letter who seek only to know the words that they may be esteemed more learned among others and that they may acquire great riches to leave to their relations and friends. And those religious are killed by the letter who will not follow the spirit of the Holy Scriptures, but who seek rather to know the words only and to interpret them to others. And they are quickened by the spirit of the Holy Scriptures who do not interpret materially every text they know or wish to know, but who by word and example give them back to God from whom is all good.
Of avoiding the Sin of Envy.
The Apostle affirms that “no man can say the Lord Jesus but by the Holy Ghost,”1 and “there is none that doth good, no not one.”2 Whosoever, therefore, envies his brother on account of the good which the Lord says or does in him, commits a sin akin to blasphemy, because he envies the Most High Himself who says and does all that is good.
The Lord says in the Gospel, “Love your enemies,” etc.3 He truly loves his enemy who does not grieve because of the wrong done to himself, but who is afflicted for love of God because of the sin on his [brother’s] soul and who shows his love by his works.
Of Bodily Mortification.
There are many who if they commit sin or suffer wrong often blame their enemy or their neighbor. But this is not right, for each one has his enemy in his power,—to wit, the body by which he sins. Wherefore blessed is that servant who always holds captive the enemy thus given into his power and wisely guards himself from it, for so long as he acts thus no other enemy visible or invisible can do him harm.
That one must not be seduced by Bad Crample.1
To the servant of God nothing should be displeasing save sin. And no matter in what way any one may sin, if the servant of God is troubled or angered—except this be through charity—he treasures up guilt to himself.2 The servant of God who does not trouble himself or get angry about anything lives uprightly and without sin. And blessed is he who keeps nothing for himself, rendering “to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar’s and to God the things that are God’s.”3
Of Knowing the Spirit of God.
Thus may the servant of God know if he has the Spirit of God: if when the Lord works some good through him, his body—since it is ever at variance with all that is good—is not therefore puffed up; but if he rather becomes viler in his own sight and if he esteems himself less than other men.4
How much interior patience and humility a servant of God may have cannot be known so long as he is contented1 But when the time comes that those who ought to please him go against him, as much patience and humility as he then shows, so much has he and no more.
Of Poverty of Spirit.
“Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven”2 Many apply themselves to prayers and offices, and practise much abstinence and bodily mortification, but because of a single word which seems to be hurtful to their bodies or because of something being taken from them, they are forthwith scandalized and troubled. These are not poor in spirit: for he who is truly poor in spirit, hates himself and loves those who strike him on the cheek.3
“Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.”4 They are truly peacemakers who amidst all they suffer in this world maintain peace in soul and body for the love of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Of Cleanness of Heart.
“Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see God.”1 They are clean of heart who despise earthly things and always seek those of heaven, and who never cease to adore and contemplate the Lord God Living and True, with a pure heart and mind.
Of the Humble Servant of God.
Blessed is that servant who is not more puffed up because of the good the Lord says and works through him than because of that which He says and works through others. A man sins who wishes to receive more from his neighbor than he is himself willing to give to the Lord God.
Of Compassion toward one’s Neighbor.
Blessed is the man who bears with his neighbor according to the frailty of his nature as much as he would wish to be borne with by him if he should be in a like case.
Of the Happy and Unhappy Servant.
Blessed is the servant who gives up all his goods to the Lord God, for he who retains anything for himself hides “his Lord’s money,”2 and that “which he thinketh he hath shall be taken away from him.”3
Of the Good and Humble Religious.
Blessed is the servant who does not regard himself as better when he is esteemed and extolled by men than when he is reputed as mean, simple, and despicable: for what a man is in the sight of God, so much he is, and no more.1 Woe to that religious who is elevated in dignity by others, and who of his own will is not ready to descend. And blessed is that servant who is raised in dignity not by his own will and who always desires to be beneath the feet of others.
Of the Happy and the Vain Religious.
Blessed is that religious who feels no pleasure or joy save in most holy conversation and the works of the Lord, and who by these means leads men2 to the love of God in joy and gladness. And woe to that religious who takes delight in idle and vain words and by this means provokes men to laughter.
Of the Frivolous and Talkative Religious.3
Blessed is that servant who does not speak through hope of reward and who does not manifest everything and is not “hasty to speak,”4 but who wisely foresees what he ought to say and answer. Woe to that religious who not concealing in his heart the good things which the Lord has disclosed to him and who not manifesting them to others by his work, seeks rather through hope of reward to make them known to men by words: for now he receives his recompense and his hearers bear away little fruit.
Of True Correction.
Blessed is the servant who bears discipline, accusation, and blame from others as patiently as if they came from himself. Blessed is the servant who, when reproved, mildly submits, modestly obeys, humbly confesses, and willingly satisfies. Blessed is the servant who is not prompt to excuse himself and who humbly bears shame and reproof for sin when he is without fault.
Of True Humility.1
Blessed is he2 who shall be found as humble among his subjects as if he were among his masters. Blessed is the servant who always continues under the rod of correction. He is “a faithful and wise servant”3 who does not delay to punish himself for all his offences, interiorly by contrition and exteriorly by confession and by works of satisfaction.
Of True Love.
Blessed is that brother who would love his brother as much when he is ill and not able to assist him as he loves him when he is well and able to assist him. Blessed is the brother who would love and fear his brother as much when he is far from him as he would when with him, and who would not say anything about him behind his back that he could not with charity say in his presence.
That the Servants of God should honor Clerics.
Blessed is the servant of God who exhibits confidence in clerics who live uprightly according to the form of the holy Roman Church. And woe to those who despise them: for even though they [the clerics] may be sinners, nevertheless no one ought to judge them, because the Lord Himself reserves to Himself alone the right of judging them. For as the administration with which they are charged, to wit, of the most holy Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which they receive and which they alone administer to others—is greater than all others, even so the sin of those who offend against them is greater than any against all the other men in this world.
Of the Virtues putting Vices to flight.
Where there is charity and wisdom there is neither fear nor ignorance Where there is patience and humility there is neither anger nor worry.1 Where there is poverty and joy there is neither cupidity nor avarice. Where there is quiet and meditation there is neither solicitude nor dissipation. Where there is the fear of the Lord to guard the house the enemy cannot find a way to enter. Where there is mercy and discretion there is neither superfluity nor hard-heartedness.
Of hiding Good lest it be lost.
Blessed is the servant who treasures up in heaven2 the good things which the Lord shows him and who does not wish to manifest them to men through the hope of reward, for the Most High will Himself manifest his works to whomsoever He may please. Blessed is the servant who keeps the secrets of the Lord in his heart.3
Salutation of the Virtues.
Thomas of Celano, St. Francis’ earliest biographer, bears witness to the authenticity of this exquisite Salutation in his Second Life, written about 12471 It is found in the codices of Assisi, Berlin, Florence (Ognissanti MS.), Foligno, Liegnitz, Naples, Paris (Mazarin MSS. and MS. of Prot. theol. fac.), and Rome (Vatican MSS.), above mentioned,2 as well as at Düsseldorf (Royal arch. cod B. 132), and is given by Bartholomew of Pisa in his Liber Conformitatum3 (fruct. XII, P. 11, Cap. 38). This Salutation was also published in the Speculum Vitae B. Francisci et Sociorum Ejus (fol. 126 v)4 and by Wadding,5 who followed the Assisian codex. This codex, which is the oldest one containing the Salutation, has been used for the Quaracchi edition, which I have here followed, as well as the Ognissanti MS. and the version given in the Conformities.
Now follows the
SALUTATION OF THE VIRTUES.6
Hail,7 queen wisdom! May the Lord save thee with thy sister holy pure simplicity! O Lady, holy poverty, may the Lord save thee with thy sister holy humility! O Lady, holy charity, may the Lord save thee with thy sister holy obedience! O all ye most holy virtues, may the Lord, from whom you proceed and come, save you! There is absolutely no man in the whole world who can possess one among you unless he first die. He who possesses one and does not offend the others, possesses all; and he who offends one, possesses none and offends all; and every one [of them] confounds vices and sins. Holy wisdom confounds Satan and all his wickednesses. Pure holy simplicity confounds all the wisdom of this world and the wisdom of the flesh. Holy poverty confounds cupidity and avarice and the cares of this world. Holy humility confounds pride and all the men of this world and all things that are in the world Holy charity confounds all diabolical and fleshly temptations and all fleshly fears. Holy obedience confounds all bodily and fleshly desires and keeps the body mortified to the obedience of the spirit and to the obedience of one’s brother and makes a man subject to all the men of this world and not to men alone, but also to all beasts and wild animals, so that they may do with him whatsoever they will, in so far as it may be granted to them from above by the Lord.
On Reverence for the Lord’s Body and on the Cleanliness of the Altar.
The arguments already adduced to establish the authenticity of the Admonitions may also be used in behalf of this instruction addressed “to all clerics.” It is found in eight of the codices above mentioned—to wit, those of Assisi, Liegnitz, Paris (both Mazarin MSS. and at lib of Prot. theol. fac), Rome (St. Antony’s and St. Isidore’s MS. 1/73), and Dusseldorf. In Wadding’s edition of the Opuscula this instruction on the Blessed Sacrament is placed among the letters of St. Francis1 (No. XIII), but the early codices do not give it in an epistolary form,2 but rather as it is printed here without address or salutation. For the present edition the Assisian codex3 has been used as well as the codices of St. Antony’s and St. Isidore’s at Rome. The text is as follows
ON REVERENCE FOR THE LORD’S BODY AND ON THE CLEANLINESS OF THE ALTAR.
Let us all consider, O clerics, the great sin and ignorance of which some are guilty regarding the most holy Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ and His most holy Name and the written words of consecration. For we know that the Body cannot exist until after these words of consecration. For we have nothing and we see nothing of the Most High Himself in this world except [His] Body and Blood, names and words by which we have been created and redeemed from death to life.
But let all those who administer such most holy mysteries, especially those who do so indifferently, consider among themselves how poor the chalices, corporals, and linens may be where the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ is sacrificed. And by many It is left in wretched places and carried by the way disrespectfully, received unworthily and administered to others indiscriminately. Again His Names and written words are sometimes trampled under foot, for the sensual man perceiveth not these things that are of God.1 Shall we not by all these things be moved with a sense of duty when the good Lord Himself places Himself in our hands and we handle Him and receive Him daily? Are we unmindful that we must needs fall into His hands?
Let us then at once and resolutely correct these faults and others; and wheresoever the most holy Body of our Lord Jesus Christ may be improperly reserved and abandoned, let It be removed thence and let It be put and enclosed in a precious place In like manner wheresoever the Names and written words of the Lord may be found in unclean places they ought to be collected and put away in a decent place. And we know that we are bound above all to observe all these things by the commandments of the Lord and the constitutions of holy Mother Church And let him who does not act thus know that he shall have to render an account therefor before our Lord Jesus Christ on the day of judgment. And let him who may cause copies of this writing to be made, to the end that it may be the better observed, know that he is blessed by the Lord.
Rules of the Friars Minor.
The early history of the Seraphic legislation, to wit, the Rules of the Friars Minor, the Poor Ladies and the Brothers and Sisters of Penance, is intricate beyond measure, as those at all conversant with the subject are but too well aware. Withal, as regards the Rule of the Friars Minor, with which we are now more particularly concerned, St Francis seems, on the whole, to have written it twice. We have the formal testimony of St Bonaventure and other trustworthy authorities to this effect Suffice it to say that in the third year after he underwent the great spiritual crisis we call conversion, “the servant of Christ, seeing that the number of his Friars was gradually increasing, wrote for himself and for them a form of life in simple words, laying as its irremovable foundation the observance of the holy Gospel and adding a few other things which seemed necessary for uniformity of life.”1 It was this “form of life,” which has become known as the first Rule, that Innocent III approved viva voce, April 23, 1209.2 Some fourteen years later on, when the Order had greatly increased, Francis “desiring to bring into a shorter form the Rule handed down in which the words of the Gospel were scattered somewhat diffusely . . . caused a Rule to be written. . . . And this Rule. he committed to the keeping of his Vicar, who, after a few days had elapsed, declared that he had carelessly lost it. Once more the holy man . . . rewrote the Rule as at the first . . . and by Pope Honorius obtained its confirmation”1 on November 29, 1223. Such in briefest outline is the genesis of the first and second Rules written by St. Francis for the Friars Minor.
To these two Rules Prof Karl Muller2 and M Paul Sabatier3 would fain add a third, written, as they aver, in 1221 Their opinion, however, seems to rest upon a misconception, for the Rule which they describe as dating from 1221, is not a new one, but the same that Innocent III approved, not indeed in its original form, which has not come down to us,4 but rather in the form it had assumed in the course of twelve years, as a consequence of many changes and additions.5
Early expositors of the Rule, such as Hugo de Digne1 and Angelo Clareno,2 in their works always represent the Rule of which we are now speaking as the first and original one Moreover, none of the thirteenth century writers make mention of any third rule; they speak only of the changes and accretions which the first Rule suffered between 1209 and 1223.3
For example Jordan a Giano tells us that St. Francis chose Brother Cæsar of Spires, a profound student of Scripture and a devoted friend, to assist him in putting this Rule into shape,1 and Jacques de Vitry, writing about 1217, relates that the Friars “meet once a year . . . and then with the help of good men adopt and promulgate holy institutions approved by the Pope”2 One of these institutions has been recorded for us by Thomas of Celano in his Second Life. It appears that “on account of a general commotion in a certain chapter, St. Francis caused these words to be written ‘Let the friars take care not to appear gloomy and sad like hypocrites, but let them be jovial and merry, showing that they rejoice in the Lord, and becomingly courteous,’ ”3 words which may be found in the seventh chapter of the first Rule.4 Honorius III, on September 22, 1220, issued a decree forbidding the Friars to leave the Order after having made profession, or to roam about “beyond the bounds of obedience,” and this ordinance was added to the second chapter of the Rule.5
All permanent and powerful rules grow, as a recent writer6 has justly remarked, and it was thuswise that the first Rule of the Friars Minor received constant additions in the form of constitutions enacted at the Chapters held at Portiuncula after 1212 or otherwise—it is necessary to insist on this point1 —during the fourteen years it was in force. It is not hard therefore to understand why the texts we have of this Rule do not always agree, since these changes and additions did not come to the knowledge of all through the same channel. For example, in the tenth chapter, which deals with “the sick brothers,” we have two different readings the one followed in the present translation is that found in the majority of the codices;2 the other, which has been incorporated by Celano in his Second Life,3 has been used by Hugo de Digne in his exposition of the Rule4 So too in the twelfth chapter, which prescribes that the friars should avoid the company of women, we find the following addition in the exposition of Angelo Clareno5 and the Speculum Vitae B Francisci.6 “Let no one walk abroad with them alone or eat out of the same plate with them at table,”—words not to be found in the more common form of the Rule
It remains to say a word about the relation of this first Rule to the second and definitive one approved in 1223. In treating of the difference between these two Rules, M. Sabatier errs still more strangely They had little in common, he avers, except the name, the second being the very antithesis of the first, which alone was truly Franciscan.7 To say the truth this assertion is less conformable to reality than it is to the theories and prejudices of the French writer. In so far as the first and second Rules written by St. Francis for the Friars Minor may be said to differ, the difference lies in this that the second Rule is shorter, more precise, and more orderly;1 but essentially and in substance it is clearly and truly the same as the first Rule. Indeed, the very wording of the second Rule already exists in great part in the first one, as any one must observe who makes an unbiassed comparison of the two So true is this agreement between the two Rules that they are often regarded as one and the same. Thus Pope Honorius III himself in his bull of 1223 confirming the second Rule makes no distinction between the two. “We confirm,” he says, “the Rule of your Order approved by Pope Innocent, our predecessor, of happy memory.”2 And Brother Elias, in a letter addressed to the friars “living near Valenciennes,” exhorts them to observe purely, inviolably, unweariedly the “holy Rule approved by Pope Innocent and confirmed by Pope Honorius.”3 Rightly then does Hugo de Digne (“spiritualis homo ultra modum”) describe the difference between the two Rules in his Exposition,4 when he says: “Some things were afterwards omitted for the sake of brevity from the Rule approved by Pope Innocent before it was confirmed by the bull of Pope Honorius.”1
For the rest, M Sabatier’s assertion that the “Spiritual” friars at the beginning of the fourteenth century did not dream of using the first Rule2 can hardly be admitted. To refute it, it suffices to cite Angelo Clareno, the leader of the “Spiritual” friars, who so very often mentions the first Rule in his exposition and whose citations prove that in the first quarter of the fourteenth century there was no memory of any other Rule, even in the camp of the rigorists. In a word, “the opposition which the distinguished French critic would fain set up between the two Rules, does not exist, and Chapter XV of his Life of St. Francis is not at all consonant with history.” Such is the assertion of the Quaracchi editors. Its truth will be best demonstrated by an examination of the text of both Rules, which now follow:
FIRST RULE OF THE FRIARS MINOR
|An||Codex at St Antony’s College.|
|Is.||Codex at St Isidore’s College.|
|Mon.||Version of the Monumenta|
|Firm.||Version of the Firmamenta.|
|Pis.||Version given by Bartholomew of Pisa in his Conformities.|
[1 ]John 14. 6-9
[2 ]I Tim 6. 16.
[3 ]John 4 24.
[4 ]John 1 18
[5 ]John 6 64.
[6 ]Mark 14. 22-24.
[1 ]John 6. 55.
[2 ]These words are added in the text given by Pis. and Wadd.
[3 ]See I Cor. 11 29
[4 ]Ps 4 3.
[5 ]John 9. 35.
[6 ]Wis. 18. 15.
[7 ]Matt. 28 20.
[1 ]Gen. 2. 16-17.
[2 ]To which, namely, he has no right after religious profession, having relinquished his will by the vow of obedience.
[3 ]Luke 14 33.
[4 ]Matt. 16 25.
[1 ]See John 15. 13.
[2 ]See Luke 9. 62
[3 ]See Prov. 26 11.
[4 ]Matt. 20 28.
[1 ]See Gen. 1. 26.
[2 ]See II Cor. 12. 5.
[1 ]See John 10. 11, Heb. 12. 2, John 10 4, Rom. 8 35
[2 ]II Cor. 3. 6
[1 ]I Cor. 12 3.
[2 ]Ps 52 4
[3 ]Matt 5. 44.
[1 ]This Admonition is wanting in codex An., but is found in the Speculum Perfectionis, ed Lemmens. See Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. II, p. 84
[2 ]See Rom. 2. 5
[3 ]Matt. 22: 21.
[4 ]Cod O and Is. read “If therefore his body is puffed up, he has not the Spirit of God. If, however, he becomes rather viler in his own sight, then he truly has the Spirit of God.”
[1 ]Cod O. reads “so long as he enjoys everything according to his wish and necessity.”
[2 ]Matt 5. 3
[3 ]See Matt. 5. 39
[4 ]Matt. 5. 9.
[1 ]Matt. 5 8.
[2 ]See Matt 25 18
[3 ]Luke 8 18.
[1 ]See Bonav Leg Maj, VI, 1. “And he had these words continually in his mouth ‘what a man is in the eyes of God, so much he is, and no more’ ” See also Imitation of Christ, Bk III, Chap L, where the same saying of St Francis is quoted
[2 ]See Speculum Perfectionis, ed. Sabatier, p 189
[3 ]This Admonition (like No 11) is wanting in Cod An, but is found in the Speculum Perfectionis, ed Lemmens See Doc Ant. Franc, P II, p 84.
[4 ]Prov 29 20
[1 ]In Cod. O. numbers 23 and 24 are not divided
[2 ]Cod An reads “Blessed is that superior . . . ”
[3 ]Matt 24 45.
[1 ]Cod. O omits this sentence.
[2 ]See Matt 6 20
[3 ]St Francis would often say to his brethren “When a servant of God receives any divine inspiration in prayer, he ought to say, ‘This consolation, O Lord, Thou hast sent from heaven to me, a most unworthy sinner, and I commit it to Thy care, for I know that I should be but a thief of Thy treasure.’ And when he returns to prayer, he ought to bear himself as a little one and a sinner, as if he had received no new grace from God”—St Bonaventure, Leg Maj., X, 4
[1 ]“Wherefore,” he writes of St. Francis, “in the praises of the virtues which he composed he says ‘Hall! queen wisdom, God save Thee with Thy sister pure, holy simplicity’ ” See 2 Cel 3, 119, for this Incipit
[2 ]See page 3.
[3 ]In the text of the Conformities (which for the most part agrees with that of the Ognissanti MS.) the Salutation is preceded by No 27 of the Admonitions and begins with the words “There is absolutely no man,” etc.
[4 ]Ed of Venice, 1504, and of Metz, 1509.
[5 ]Opuscula, Antwerp, 1623.
[6 ]In the Assisi codex (as in that of Liegnitz) the title reads “Of the virtues with which the Blessed Virgin Mary was adorned and with which a holy soul ought also to be adorned,” whereas in the Ognissanti codex and others of the same class, the title is “Salutation of the Virtues and of their efficacy in confounding Vice.” (See Introduction.)
[7 ]Cod. As omits “Hail.”
[1 ]Wadding, following Mariano of Florence, prefaces the letter with the following Salutation “To my reverend masters in Christ, to all the clerics who are in the world and live conformably to the rules of the Catholic faith brother Francis, their least one and unworthy servant, sends greeting with the greatest respect and kissing their feet. Since I am become the servant of all, but cannot, on account of my infirmities, address you personally and viva voce, I beg you to receive, with all love and charity, this remembrance of me and exhortation which I write briefly” Wadding also (p 45) adds at the end of this instruction the following words “May our Lord Jesus Christ fill all my masters with His holy grace and comfort them”
[2 ]Father Ubald d’Alençon (Opuscules de Saint François, p 21) is inclined, with M Sabatier, to regard this instruction as a kind of postscript to St Francis’ letter to the General Chapter and to all the Friars (See Speculum Perfections, ed. Sabatier, p clxvi)
[3 ]Mgr. Faloci has edited the Instruction after this codex, see Misc Francescana, t VI, p 95.
[1 ]See I Cor. 2 14.
[1 ]See Bonav Leg Maj, III, 8 See also 1 Cel. 1, 5, and the Vita S Francisci, by Julian of Spires, cap iv.
[2 ]Although M Sabatier (Vie de S François, p 100), following Wadding (Annales ad an 1210, n 220 seq.), fixes this event in the summer of 1210, it is far more probable that the approbation of the Rule took place on April 23, 1209, the date given by the Bollandists and the Seraphic Breviary This latter date is not only more conformable to the ancient tradition of the Order (see Anal Franciscana, t. III, p 713) but involves no historic difficulties (see Appunti critici sulla cronologia della Vita di S Francesco, by Father Leo Patrem, O F M, in the Oriente Serafico, Assisi, 1895, Vol. vii, nn. 4-12.
[1 ]See Bonav Leg Maj, IV, 11
[2 ]Muller Anfange des Minoriten-Ordens und der Bussbruderschaften (Freiburg, 1885), p 4, seq
[3 ]Sabatier Vie de S François d’Assise (Paris, 1894), p 288, seq
[4 ]More than a century ago—in 1768—Fr Suyskens demonstrated that the lengthy Rule of twenty-three chapters could not have been presented to Pope Innocent by St Francis in its present form (See Acta S. S, t ii, Oct) All agree that the first Rule in its original form was, very short and simple
[5 ]Prof Müller was therefore right in attempting to reconstruct the Rule in its original form out of this longer one He has almost conclusively demonstrated that the opening words of this original Rule were. “Regula et vita istorum fratrum haec est” (See Anfange, pp 14-25, 185-188.) Prof Boehmer has also attempted to reconstruct it from various writings See his Analekten, p 27 See also 2 Cel. 3, 110, Speculum Perfectionis (ed. Sabatier), c. 4, n 42
[1 ]His exposition of the Rule may be found in the Monumenta Ordinis Minorum (Salamanca, 1511, tract 11, fol 46 v) and in the Firmamenta (Paris, 1512, p iv, fol 34 v) In chapter 6 (Mon, fol 67v, Firm, fol 48r) he says “This he lays down at greater length in the original rule as follows ‘When it may be necessary let the friars go for alms,’ ” etc (see below, p 43) On Hugo de Digne see Sbaralea, Supplemenium, p 360; also Salimbene, Chron Parmensis, 1857, passim
[2 ]His exposition of the Rule has never been published, although a critical edition is promised by Fr Van Ortroy, S.J (See Anal Bolland, t xxi, p 441 seq) Meanwhile it may be found at St Isidore’s, Rome, in the codex 1/92, at the Vatican lib, in cod Ottob 522 (in part only) and Ottob 666, and at the Royal lib of Munich in cod 23648. In this exposition Clareno says (cod Ottob 666, fol 50 v) “In the Rule which Pope Innocent conceded to him and approved . . . it was written thus ‘The Lord commands in the Gospel,’ ” etc (see below, p. 41) Clareno died in 1337 On his writings see Fr Ehrle, S J, in the Archiv, vol I (1885), pp 509-69
[3 ]To be sure, the traditional Legend of the Three Companions says of St Francis “He made many rules and tried them, before he made that which at the last he left to the brothers” (See Legenda III Sociorum, n 35.) But unless these words are understood as referring to different versions of the same Rule, they only raise a new difficulty against the authenticity of this Legend
[1 ]“And the Blessed Francis seeing Brother Cæsar learned in the Scriptures commissioned him to embellish with evangelical language the Rule which he himself had put together in simple words.” Chron Fr Jordani a Jano Analecta Franc, t I, page 6, n 15 Brother Jordan also notes “that according to the first Rule the Friars fasted on Wednesday and Friday” (L. c, p. 4, n 11)
[2 ]See Speculum Perfectionis (ed Sabatier), Appendix, p 300, also Les Nouveaux mémoires de l’Académie de Bruxelles, t XXIII, pp 29-33 Jacques de Vitry died as Cardinal Bishop of Frascati in 1244, leaving a number of writings in which St Francis figures prominently
[3 ]2 Cel, 3, 90
[4 ]See below, p 41
[5 ]See below, p 34
[6 ]Canon Knox Little. St. Francis of Assisi (1904), Appendix, p. 321.
[1 ]See Van Ortroy, S J, Annal Bolland, t. xxiv, fasc iii, 1905, p 413.
[2 ]See below, p 44
[3 ]See 2 Cel, 3, 110
[4 ]See Mon, fol 68 v, Firm, fol 49 r.
[5 ]See Cod Ottob 666, fol. 99 v.
[6 ]See Speculum, fol. 193 v.
[7 ]“Celle de 1210 et celle qui fut approuvée par le pape le 29 Novembre, 1223,” he writes, “n’avaient guère de commun que le nom” . . . “Celle de 1210 seule est vraiment franciscaine Celle de 1223 est indirectement l’œuvre de l’Église”—Vie de S François, p 289
[1 ]See Le Monnier. History of St Francis, p 337
[2 ]See Seraphicæ Legislationis Textus Originales (Quarachi, 1897), p 35
[3 ]This letter, which is dated “in the tenth year of the Pontificate of Pope Honorius,” may be found in the Annalibus Hannoniæ Fr Jacobi de Guisia, lib. XXI, cap. xvii; see Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Scriptores, t. XXX, P. I, p 294
[4 ]See Mon, fol 46 v, Firm, fol 34 v.
[1 ]See Ehrle “Controversen uber die Anfange des Minoritenordens” in the Zeitschrift fur Katholische Theologie, t XI, p 725, seq
[2 ]“À partir de Bonaventure,” he writes, “la règle primitive tombe dans l’oubli Les Franciscaines Spirituels du commencement du XIV siècle ne songèrent pas à l’en tirer” See Spec Perf. (ed Sab), p ix
[3 ]In preparing the Quaracchi text, which is the one I translate here, the codices at St Antony’s and St Isidore’s, and the Florentine codex at Ognissanti were used, besides the versions of this Rule found in the Speculum, Minorum, Monumenta, and Firmamenta (see Introduction for description of these codices and editions) The expositions of the Rule by Hugo de Digne and Angelo Clareno, already mentioned, have often been consulted, as well as the Conformities of Bartholomew of Pisa The text of the first Rule, given in part in the Conformities, often agrees with the MSS of Ognissanti and St Isidore’s
[1 ]This last sentence is omitted in Mon. and Firm, also by Wadding
[2 ]Matt 19 21
[3 ]Matt. 16 24.
[1 ]Luke 14. 26.
[2 ]See Matt. 19. 29.
[1 ]From the Latin caparo. See Du Cange, Glossar latin
[2 ]See the bull Cum secundum of Honorius III, dated September 22, 1220 (Bullarium Franciscanum, t 1, p 6)
[3 ]Luke 9: 62
[4 ]See Matt. 11 8, Luke 7. 25
[1 ]See Mark 9. 28.
[2 ]Matt 6 16.
[1 ]See Luke 10 8
[2 ]Matt 7 12
[3 ]See Tob 4 6
[4 ]Matt 20 28.
[1 ]Heb 10 31
[1 ]See Matt. 9 12
[2 ]Matt. 20. 25
[3 ]See Matt 23 11
[4 ]See Luke 22 26
[5 ]See Ps 118. 21
[1 ]See Mark 8 36
[1 ]Ps 127 2
[2 ]II Thess 3. 10
[3 ]See I Cor 7. 24.
[4 ]St Jerome says “Semper facito aliquid boni operis, ut diabolus te inveniat occupatum.” Epis. 125 (alias 4), n. 11.
[5 ]St Anselm says, “Otiositas inimica est animae.” Epist. 49.
[1 ]See I Peter 4 9.
[2 ]See above, page 28.
[3 ]See Luke 12. 15, and 21. 34
[4 ]See Leg III Soc., n 35.
[5 ]Eccle 1 2
[1 ]O, Is and Pis read “money for alms,” Clar and Spec read “alms of money,” An, Mon and Wadding read “money or alms”
[2 ]I Tim 6. 8
[1 ]Is 50. 7.
[1 ]Rom. 14 3
[2 ]Mark 2 26
[3 ]Luke 21 34-35.
[1 ]See Acts 13. 48
[2 ]Apoc 3 19
[3 ]See 2 Cel 3, 110, also Hugo de Digne, l [Editor: illegible word] fol 68 v and Spec Perf (ed Sabatier), chap 42
[4 ]See II Tim 2. 14
[5 ]Luke 17 10
[6 ]Matt 5 22
[1 ]John 15 12
[2 ]Jas 2 18
[3 ]I John 3 18
[4 ]Tit 3 2
[5 ]Rom 1 29-30
[6 ]Tit 3 2
[7 ]Is 38 15
[8 ]Luke 13 24
[9 ]Matt 7 14
[10 ]See above, p 29
[1 ]This prohibition refers to a vow of obedience made by a woman to her spiritual director, as Fr Van Ortroy points out See Anal Boll, t xxiv, fasc iv, p 523
[2 ]Matt 5 28
[3 ]See Luke 9. 3, 10 4-8
[4 ]See Matt. 5. 39.
[1 ]See Luke 6: 29-30.
[2 ]Matt 10. 16.
[1 ]I Pet 2 13
[2 ]John 3 5
[3 ]Matt 10 32
[4 ]Luke 9 26
[5 ]Mark 8 35, Luke 9 24
[1 ]Matt 5 10
[2 ]John 15 20
[3 ]See Matt 10 23
[4 ]Matt 5 11-12
[5 ]Luke 6 23
[6 ]Luke 12. 4
[7 ]Matt 24 6
[8 ]Luke 21 19
[9 ]Matt 10 22
[10 ]See I John 4 8
[1 ]Luke 10 20
[2 ]James 1 2
[3 ]Matt 6 2
[1 ]See Luke 18 19
[1 ]James 5. 16
[1 ]John 6 55
[2 ]Luke 22 19
[3 ]I Thess 5 18
[4 ]Matt 3 2
[5 ]Luke 3 8
[6 ]Luke 6 38.
[7 ]Luke 6 37
[8 ]See Mark 11. 26.
[9 ]See James 5 16
[10 ]See John 8. 44
[1 ]Matt 5: 44
[2 ]See I Peter 2 21.
[3 ]See Matt. 26. 50
[4 ]See Matt 15 19, and Mark 7 21-22
[1 ]See Matt 13 19-23, Mark 4 15-20, Luke 8 11-15.
[2 ]Matt 8 22.
[1 ]Matt 12 43-45; see Luke 11. 24-26.
[2 ]See I John 4 16
[1 ]Luke 21 36
[2 ]See Mark 11 25.
[3 ]Luke 18 1
[4 ]John 4. 24
[5 ]I Peter 2 25
[6 ]See John 10 11 and 15.
[7 ]See Matt. 23 8-10.
[8 ]John 15. 7.
[9 ]Matt. 18 20
[10 ]Matt. 28 20.
[11 ]John 6 64.
[12 ]John 14 6.
[1 ]See John 17 6-26.
[2 ]The Speculum Minorum condenses this chapter.
[3 ]See Gen. 1 26; 2 15.
[4 ]See John 17 26.
[5 ]Matt. 25 34.
[1 ]See Matt. 17: 5.
[1 ]See Deut 6. 5; Mark 12: 30 and 33; Luke 10: 27.
[2 ]See Luke 18 19.
[1 ]This is the text of 1223 and represents the Rule at present observed throughout the first Franciscan Order It is here translated according to the text of the original Bull which is preserved at the Sacro Convento in Assisi A duplicate of this document, contained in the Pontifical Register at the Vatican Library, has been consulted for certain passages less legible in the original.
[1 ]See Matt. 19. 21.
[1 ]See above, page 34, note 2.
[2 ]Luke 9. 62.
[3 ]This passage ex quo habere poterunt breviaria, may also be rendered “as soon as they can have breviaries” (See Wadding, Opusc, p 179.) But the latter translation has less foundation.
[1 ]See Matt 4 2.
[2 ]See Tit 3 2 and II Tim 2 14.
[3 ]See Luke 10 5 and 8.
[1 ]See I Peter 2 11
[2 ]See Ps. 141 6 It was this Psalm that St Francis recited at the hour of death
[1 ]See Ps 11 7 and 17 31.
[2 ]See Rom 9. 28.
[1 ]See Luke 12 15
[2 ]Matt 5 44
[1 ]Matt. 5 10.
[2 ]Matt 10 22
[3 ]This is comformable to the original bull, which reads nec hac occasione, but most of the printed texts give ne, “lest scandal arise,” instead of nec.
[1 ]See Col. 1 23
[1 ]“Plura scripta tradidit nobis,” Test B Clarae See Seraphicae Legislationis textus originales, p 276.
[2 ]“When Clare,” he says, “and some other devout women in the Lord chose to serve under the same observance of religion, Blessed Francis gave them a little rule of life” (formulam vitae tradidit) See the bull Angelis gaudium of May 11, 1238 (Bullar Franc., t I, p 242)
[3 ]See Bullar, I, 11 and 13: the letters Prudentibus Virginibus Ann. Min I, 312 Gubernatis, Orb Seraph. II, 603. also Bullar. I, 4, n. (a) The Rule may be found in the bull Cum omnis vera of Gregory IX, of May 24, 1239 See Bullar., t I, p 263
[4 ]See Bullar., t. I, p. 242.
[1 ]See Bullar., t. I, p 315
[2 ]On the origin of the Second Order and the early Rule, see Lemmens “Die Anfange des Clarissenordens” in the Romische Quartalschrift, t XVI, 1902, pp 93-124, which is in the nature of a rejoinder to Dr. Lempp’s article with the same title, published in Brieger’s Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, XIII, 181-245
[3 ]This Rule is contained in the bull Solet annuere, of Innocent IV. See Seraphicae Legislationis textus originales, page 49 seq. See also Bullar, I, 167, Ann. Min., III, 287
[1 ]Forma vivendi. See Seraph. Legislat, p. 62.
[2 ]The biographers place the writing of this fragment in the autumn of 1220, after St. Francis returned from the East.
[3 ]See Seraph. Legislat., p. 63
[4 ]They are numbered IV and V among the Epistolae in his edition of the Opuscula
[5 ]This bull, which had been lost for several centuries, was brought to light early in 1893, after a protracted search in different countries, it was found wrapped within an old mantle of Saint Clare, preserved in the Monastery of Santa Chiara, at Assisi See Seraph. Legislat, pp 2, seq See also G Cozza-Luzi: Un autografo di Innocenzo IV e Memorie di S Chiara, ed 2da, Rome, 1895
[6 ]Some critics regard this fragment as a promise or engagement accompanying the formula vitae or as the beginning of the formula itself, and believe that the text of the latter, now lost, was also inserted originally in the sixth chapter of St Clare’s Rule. Be this as it may, it is certain that this chapter has been completely changed in several editions In the vernacular versions of it, based on Wadding, the two fragments here given do not appear at all See Fr Van Ortroy, S J, in Anal Boll, t xxiv, fasc iii, p 412
[1 ]See 2 Cel. 3, 132
[1 ]Sabatier. Vie de S François, Étude des Sources
[2 ]See also Goetz, l. c, t XXII, pp. 372 seq.
[3 ]See 1 Cel 17, 2 Cel 3, 99
[4 ]See Bonav, Leg. Maj, III, 2
[5 ]It is also expressly cited in the Leg III Soc 11 and 29
[6 ]“Circa ultimum vitae suae,” etc See Bullarium Franc, t I, p 68
[7 ]“À la fin de chacune de ces crises, il faisait de nouveau son testament” Speculum Perf (ed. Sabatier), p. xxxiii, note 2. See also Speculum (ed Lemmens), No. 30.
[1 ]See S Francisci Intentio regulae, nn. 14 and 15, in the Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. I, p 97.
[2 ]See Documenta Antiqua Franciscana, P. II, p 60
[3 ]See page 3.
[1 ]The text of the Testament given by M. Sabatier in his edition of the Speculum Perf. is that of this Assisi MS.
[2 ]It may also be found in the Speculum Minorum (Tract. III, 8 r) and in the Annales of Wadding (ad an. 1226, 35).
[3 ]See 1 Cel. 17, where this passage of the Testament is quoted. See also Bonav. Leg. Maj, II, 6, and Leg III Soc. 11 Some texts instead of “feci misericordiam cum illis” give “feci moram cum illis” “I made a sojourn with them” See Miscell. Franc, III (1888), p 70. It is interesting to note here how St Francis on the eve of his death, casting a backward glance over the ways by which he had been led, dwells on this incident which had marked a new era in his life.
[4 ]Cod. As. reads “talem fidem,” “such faith”
[1 ]Cod As. and O omit “here.” (See 1 Cel 45, and Bonav. Leg. Maj. 43, where this prayer may be found) Cod. An. Firm and Wadd. insert “here.”
[2 ]Order, i e, sacerdotal character.
[3 ]Priests of the world, i. e, secular priests
[1 ]See 2 Cel 3, 99, where this passage of the Testament is quoted, see also Bonav. Epis. de tribus quaestionibus in which it is also referred to (Opera Omnia, t. VIII, p 335.)
[2 ]See Leg. III Soc. 29, for reference to this passage
[3 ]Cod O. reads: eramus “we were content”
[4 ]Cod As omits qui volebant, “by those who wished.”
[5 ]Firm. and Wadd add: “poor and neglected churches”
[1 ]See Bonav Leg Maj, III, 2
[2 ]Cod As. omits “other things,” and O. omits “all other things”
[3 ]See Documenta antiqua Franciscana, P. I, page 98, n. 15, where this passage is cited among the Verba quae scripsit Frater Leo
[4 ]Cod O. omits “by obedience.”
[5 ]Cod An omits this clause.
[6 ]Cod. O omits “either for a church.”
[1 ]Cardinal Ugolino, afterward Gregory IX, was then Bishop of Ostia, and Protector of the Order.
[1 ]Cod As and Mon. for “purely” read “without gloss,” Firm and Wadd add “without gloss”
[2 ]Cod. An and O. read “this” for “these things”
[3 ]Cod. O adds “to him who caused these words to be written, be all honor, all praise and glory forever and ever”
[4 ]See 1 Cel. 38, for the blessing given by St. Francis on his deathbed to Elias and the Order.
[1 ]See Bonav Leg. Maj., XII, 1, where the Saint is represented as discoursing on the relative merits and advantages of the active and contemplative life. Wadding gives this discourse among the Monastic Conferences he attributes to St Francis. See Opuscula, Coll XIV, p 318
[2 ]See Floretum S. Francisci, ed Sabatier, cap 16, p 60 This chapter, which is one of the most interesting from a critical point of view, represents St. Francis as consulting St Clare and Brother Sylvester on the subject of his doubt.
[3 ]See First Rule, chap vii (above, p. 40), also Speculum Perf., ed. Sabatier, pp. 25-26
[4 ]As is most poetically described by the author of the Sacrum Commercium. Show me your cloister, asks the Lady Poverty of the friars And they, leading her to the summit of a hill, showed her the wide world, saying. This is our cloister, O Lady Poverty (See The Lady Poverty, by M. Carmichael, p. 128.)
[1 ]See 1 Cel 1, 17, and Leg. III Soc 55. Such grottoes may still be seen in St Francis’ country, they serve as a shelter for beggars and gypsies.
[2 ]St Francis habitually uses the word locus or place to designate the habitations of the friars (see above, Rule II, chap. vi, p. 68).
[1 ]See “Franciscus in admonitionibus suis” (fruct xii, P. 11, cap 30). It was from this text that Wadding took the Regulation for his edition of the Opuscula in which it figures under the heading Collationes Monasticae III
[2 ]The figure which presents Mary and Martha as types of the contemplative and active life was already a familiar one. See Gregor, VI Moral., c. 37, n 61. “Quid per Mariam, quae verba Domini residens audiebat, nisi contemplativa vita exprimitur? Quid per Martham exterioribus obsequiis occupatam nisi activa vita signatur?”
[3 ]Cod. As. after cloister reads: “in which each one shall have his own cell.”
[4 ]Cod. As. reads. “immediately after sunset”
[1 ]Luke 12 31
[2 ]This is the reading of the Cod As and Is, other texts read the “poorest beggars”
[3 ]Cod O adds. “any woman or person whatsoever.”
[4 ]The text in Cod. As ends here.
[5 ]See 2 Cel 3 113.