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IX.: Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War. - A. Pearce Higgins, The Hague Peace Conferences and Other International Conferences concerning the Laws and Usages of War 
The Hague Peace Conferences and Other International Conferences concerning the Laws and Usages of War. Texts of Conventions with Commentaries, by A. Pearce Higgins, LL.D. (Cambridge University Press, 1909).
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Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War.
Convention concernant le Bombardement par des Forces Navales en Temps de Guerre.
Sa Majesté l’Empereur d’Allemagne, Roi de Prusse, &c.1
Animés du désir de réaliser le vœu exprimé par la Première Conférence de la Paix, concernant le bombardement, par des forces navales, de ports, villes, et villages, non défendus;
Considérant qu’il importe de soumettre les bombardements par des forces navales à des dispositions générales qui garantissent les droits des habitants et assurent la conservation des principaux édifices, en étendant à cette opération de guerre, dans la mesure du possible, les principes du Règlement de 1899 sur les Lois et Coutumes de la Guerre sur Terre;
S’inspirant ainsi du désir de servir les intérêts de l’humanité et de diminuer les rigueurs et les désastres de la guerre;
Ont résolu de conclure une Convention à cet effet et ont, en conséquence, nommé pour leurs Plénipotentiaires, savoir:
[Dénomination des Plénipotentiaires.]
Lesquels, après avoir déposé leurs pleins pouvoirs, trouvés en bonne et due forme, sont convenus des dispositions suivantes:—
Convention respecting Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War.
His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, &c.1
Animated by the desire to realise the wish expressed by the First Peace Conference respecting the bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, and villages;
Deeming it expedient that bombardments by naval forces should be subject to rules of general application which would safeguard the rights of the inhabitants and assure the preservation of the more important buildings, by applying as far as possible to this operation of war the principles of the Regulations of 1899 respecting the Laws and Customs of Land War;
Actuated, accordingly, by the desire to serve the interests of humanity and to diminish the severity and disasters of war;
Have resolved to conclude a Convention to this effect, and have, for this purpose, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
[Names of Plenipotentiaries.]
Who, after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions:—
Du Bombardement des Ports, Villes, Villages, Habitations ou Bâtiments non défendus.
Il est interdit de bombarder, par des forces navales, des ports, villes, villages, habitations ou bâtiments qui ne sont pas défendus.
Une localité ne peut pas être bombardée à raison du seul fait que, devant son port, se trouvent mouillées des mines sous-marines automatiques de contact.
Bombardment of Undefended Ports, Towns, Villages, Dwellings, or Buildings.
The bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings is forbidden.
(Cp. 4 H. C. 1907 (Regulations), Art. 25.)
A place cannot be bombarded solely because automatic submarine contact mines are anchored off the harbour.
Toutefois, ne sont pas compris dans cette interdiction les ouvrages militaires, établissements militaires ou navals, dépôts d’armes ou de matériel de guerre, ateliers et installations propres à être utilisés pour les besoins de la flotte ou de l’armée ennemies, et les navires de guerre se trouvant dans le port. Le commandant d’une force navale pourra, après sommation avec délai raisonnable, les détruire par le canon, si tout autre moyen est impossible et lorsque les autorités locales n’auront pas procédé à cette destruction dans le délai fixé.
Il n’encourt aucune responsabilité dans ce cas pour les dommages involontaires qui pourraient être occasionnés par le bombardement.
Si des nécessités militaires exigeant une action immédiate, ne permettaient pas d’accorder de délai, il reste entendu que l’interdiction de bombarder la ville non défendue subsiste comme dans le cas énoncé dans l’alinéa 1er, et que le commandant prendra toutes les dispositions voulues pour qu’il en résulte pour cette ville le moins d’inconvénients possible.
Military works, military or naval establishments, depôts of arms or war material, workshops or plant which could be utilized for the needs of the hostile fleet or army, and ships of war in the harbour, are not, however, included in this prohibition. The commander of a naval force may destroy them with artillery, after a summons followed by a reasonable interval of time, if all other means are impossible, and when the local authorities have not themselves destroyed them within the time fixed.
He incurs no responsibility for any unavoidable damage which may be caused by a bombardment under such circumstances.
If for military reasons, immediate action is necessary, and no delay can be allowed to the enemy, it is nevertheless understood that the prohibition to bombard the undefended town holds good, as in the case given in the first paragraph, and that the commander shall take all due measures in order that the town may suffer as little harm as possible.
Il peut, après notification expresse, être procédé au bombardement des ports, villes, villages, habitations ou bâtiments non défendus, si les autorités locales, mises en demeure par une sommation formelle, refusent d’obtempérer à des réquisitions de vivres ou d’approvisionnements nécessaires au besoin présent de la force navale qui se trouve devant la localité.
Ces réquisitions seront en rapport avec les ressources de la localité. Elles ne seront réclamées qu’avec l’autorisation du commandant de la dite force navale et elles seront, autant que possible, payées au comptant; sinon elles seront constatées par des reçus.
After due notice has been given, the bombardment of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings may be commenced, if the local authorities, on a formal summons being made to them, decline to comply with requisitions for provisions or supplies necessary for the immediate use of the naval force before the place in question.
These requisitions shall be proportional to the resources of the place. They shall only be demanded in the name of the commander of the said naval force, and they shall, as far as possible, be paid for in ready money; if not, their receipt shall be acknowledged.
(Cp. 4 H. C. 1907 (Regulations), Art. 52.)
Est interdit le bombardement, pour le non-paiement des contributions en argent, des ports, villes, villages, habitations ou bâtiments non défendus.
The bombardment of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings, for the non-payment of money contributions, is forbidden.
Dans le bombardement par des forces navales, toutes les mesures nécessaires doivent être prises par le commandant pour épargner, autant que possible, les édifices consacrés aux cultes, aux arts, aux sciences, et à la bienfaisance, les monuments historiques, les hôpitaux et les lieux de rassemblement de malades ou de blessés, à condition qu’ils ne soient pas employés en même temps à un but militaire.
Le devoir des habitants est de désigner ces monuments, ces édifices ou lieux de rassemblement, par des signes visibles, qui consisteront en grands panneaux rectangulaires rigides, partagés, suivant une des diagonales, en deux triangles de couleur, noire en haut et blanche en bas.
In bombardments by naval forces all necessary steps should be taken by the commander to spare as far as possible, buildings devoted to public worship, art, science or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals and places where the sick or wounded are collected, provided they are not used at the time for military purposes.
It is the duty of the inhabitants to indicate such monuments, edifices, or places by visible signs, which shall consist of large stiff rectangular panels divided diagonally into two coloured triangular portions, the upper portion black, the lower portion white.
(Cp. 4 H. C. 1907 (Regulations), Art. 27.)
Sauf le cas où les exigences militaires ne le permettraient pas, le commandant de la force navale assaillante doit, avant d’entreprendre le bombardement, faire tout ce qui dépend de lui pour avertir les autorités.
Unless military exigencies render it impossible, the commander of an attacking naval force must, before commencing the bombardment, do all in his power to warn the authorities.
(Cp. 4 H. C. 1907 (Regulations), Art. 26.)
Il est interdit de livrer au pillage une ville ou localité même prise d’assaut.
The giving over to pillage of a town or place, even when taken by assault, is forbidden.
(Cp. 4 H. C. 1907 (Regulations), Art. 28.)
Les dispositions de la présente Convention ne sont applicables qu’entre les Puissances contractantes et seulement si les belligérants sont tous parties à la Convention.
The provisions of the present Convention are only applicable between Contracting Powers, and only if all the belligerents are parties to the Convention.
La présente Convention sera ratifiée aussitôt que possible.
Les ratifications seront déposées à La Haye.
Le premier dépôt de ratifications sera constaté par un procès-verbal signé par les Représentants des Puissances qui y prennent part et par le Ministre des Affaires Étrangères des Pays-Bas.
Les dépôts ultérieurs de ratifications se feront au moyen d’une notification écrite, adressée au Gouvernement des Pays-Bas et accompagnée de l’instrument de ratification.
Copie certifiée conforme du procès-verbal relatif au premier dépôt de ratifications, des notifications mentionnées à l’alinéa précédent, ainsi que des instruments de ratification, sera immédiatement remise, par les soins du Gouvernement des Pays-Bas et par la voie diplomatique, aux Puissances conviées à la Deuxième Conférence de la Paix, ainsi qu’aux autres Puissances qui auront adhéré à la Convention. Dans les cas visés par l’alinéa précédent, le dit Gouvernement leur fera connaître en même temps la date à laquelle il a reçu la notification.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible.
The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague.
The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a procès-verbal signed by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a written notification addressed to the Netherland Government and accompanied by the instrument of ratification.
A duly certified copy of the procès-verbal relating to the first deposit of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding paragraph, and of the instruments of ratification, shall be immediately sent by the Netherland Government, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, as well as to the other Powers which have acceded to the Convention. In the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, the said Government shall inform them at the same time of the date on which it received the notification.
Les Puissances non-signataires sont admises à adhérer à la présente Convention.
La Puissance qui désire adhérer notifie par écrit son intention au Gouvernement des Pays-Bas en lui transmettant l’acte d’adhésion, qui sera déposé dans les archives du dit Gouvernement.
Ce Gouvernement transmettra immédiatement à toutes les autres Puissances copie certifiée conforme de la notification ainsi que de l’acte d’adhésion, en indiquant la date à laquelle il a reçu la notification.
Non-Signatory Powers may accede to the present Convention.
A Power which desires to accede notifies its intention in writing to the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of accession, which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government.
The said Government shall immediately forward to all the other Powers a duly certified copy of the notification, as well as of the act of accession, mentioning the date on which it received the notification.
La présente Convention produira effet pour les Puissances qui auront participé au premier dépôt de ratifications, soixante jours après la date du procès-verbal de ce dépôt et, pour les Puissances qui ratifieront ultérieurement ou qui adhéreront, soixante jours après que la notification de leur ratification ou de leur adhésion aura été reçue par le Gouvernement des Pays-Bas.
The present Convention shall take effect, in the case of the Powers which were parties to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after the date of the procès-verbal recording such deposit, and in the case of the Powers which shall ratify subsequently or which shall accede, sixty days after the notification of their ratification or of their accession has been received by the Netherland Government.
S’il arrivait qu’une des Puissances contractantes voulût dénoncer la présente Convention, la dénonciation sera notifiée par écrit au Gouvernement des Pays-Bas, qui communiquera immédiatement copie certifiée conforme de la notification à toutes les autres Puissances en leur faisant savoir la date à laquelle il l’a reçue.
La dénonciation ne produira ses effets qu’à l’égard de la Puissance qui l’aura notifiée et un an après que la notification en sera parvenue au Gouvernement des Pays-Bas.
In the event of one of the Contracting Powers wishing to denounce the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Netherland Government, which shall immediately communicate a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers informing them of the date on which it was received.
The denunciation shall only affect the notifying Power, and only on the expiry of one year after the notification has reached the Netherland Government.
Un registre tenu par le Ministère des Affaires Étrangères des Pays-Bas indiquera la date du dépôt de ratifications effectué en vertu de l’Article 9, alinéas 3 et 4, ainsi que la date à laquelle auront été reçues les notifications d’adhésion (article 10, alinéa 2) ou de dénonciation (article 12, alinéa 1).
Chaque Puissance contractante est admise à prendre connaissance de ce registre et à en demander des extraits certifiés conformes.
En foi de quoi les Plénipotentiaires ont revêtu la présente Convention de leurs signatures.
Fait à La Haye, le 18 Octobre, 1907, en un seul exemplaire, qui restera déposé dans les archives du Gouvernement des Pays-Bas, et dont des copies, certifiées conformes, seront remises par la voie diplomatique aux Puissances qui ont été conviées à la Deuxième Conférence de la Paix.
A register kept by the Netherland Ministry for Foreign Affairs shall record the date of the deposit of ratifications effected in virtue of Article 9, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the notifications of accession (Article 10, paragraph 2) or of denunciation (Article 12, paragraph 1) have been received.
Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it.
In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have appended their signatures to the present Convention.
Done at The Hague, the 18th October, 1907, in a single original, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Government, and of which duly certified copies shall be sent, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference.
Convention No. 9. Respecting bombardment by naval forces in time of war1 .
The first Conference expressed the “Wish” that the proposal to settle the question of the bombardment of ports, towns and villages by a naval force might be referred to a subsequent Conference for consideration. The subject was embodied in the Circular of Count Benckendorff and was dealt with by the Third Committee of the Conference of 1907, presided over by M. Hagerup (Norway), Professor G. Streit (Greece) acting as Reporter.
Coast warfare continued to be conducted with great brutality long after many of the excesses of land warfare had been modified and an attack on undefended commercial coast towns was recommended by the Prince de Joinville in 1844 in case of war with England. The Duke of Wellington rejected such a method of conducting hostilities as one which had been “disclaimed by the civilised portions of mankind.”
In 1882 Admiral Aube wrote an article in the Revue des deux Mondes1 expressing the opinion that “armoured fleets in possession of the sea will turn their powers of attack and destruction against the coast towns of the enemy...and will burn them and lay them in ruins, or at the very least will hold them mercilessly to ransom.” The question was again reopened in 1888 on the occasion of the manœuvres executed by the British fleet, the enemy part of which feigned to hold to ransom, under the threat of bombardment, great commercial towns, such as Liverpool, and to cause unnecessary devastation to pleasure towns and bathing-places, such as Folkestone, by means of throwing bombs. Professor Holland addressed a series of letters to the Times contending that such proceedings were contrary to the modern rules of international law, and that the bombardment of an open town ought only to be allowed for the purpose of obtaining requisitions in kind necessary for the enemy fleet and contributions instead of requisitions, further by way of reprisals, and in case the town defends itself against occupation by enemy troops approaching on land2 . A similar view was expressed by Mr Hall. “An undefended town may fairly be summoned by a vessel or squadron to pay a contribution: if it refuses a force must be landed; and if it still refuses, like measures may be taken with those which are taken by armies in the field....A levy of money made in any other manner than this is not properly a contribution at all. It is a ransom from destruction. If it is permissible, it is permissible because there is a right to devastate, and because ransom is a mitigation of that right3 .”
The subject was examined by the Institut de Droit International in 1896, and a set of rules was formulated by it. These rules started from the principle that bombardment of all undefended towns is prohibited and added some special rules required by the exigencies of naval warfare4 . The United States Naval War Code of 1900 adopted in the main the recommendations of the Institut and laid down that “the bombardment by a naval force, of unfortified and undefended towns, villages or buildings is forbidden, except when such bombardment is incidental to the destruction of military or naval establishments, public depôts of munitions of war, or vessels of war in ports, or unless reasonable requisitions for provisions and supplies essential, at the same time, to such naval vessel or vessels are forcibly withheld, in which case due notice of bombardment shall be given. The bombardment of unfortified and undefended towns and places for the non-payment of ransom is forbidden” (Article 4).
Discussions at the Hague.Such was the position of the question when the Conference of 1907 took it into consideration. Propositions were handed in to the Third Committee by the delegates of the United States, Spain, Italy, Holland and Russia. These proposals were embodied by their authors in a draft of seven Articles which was issued for the deliberations of the Committee1 .
The draft dealt with two separate matters, the first part relating to the bombardment of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings or buildings, the second laying down general rules applicable to bombardments by naval forces. The Convention follows this order.
Chapter i. Article 1.The first paragraph of the first Article is based on Article 25 of 2 H. C. 1899 (Regulations), and does not contain the words “by any means whatever” added in 1907. The meaning of the term “undefended” engaged the attention of the Committee but owing to the difficulty of distinguishing between the defence of a coast and of a town near the coast no definition was attempted2 . The second paragraph, however, treats as undefended towns, those before which automatic submarine contact mines are anchored. This paragraph was strongly opposed by Captain Ottley who was supported by the delegates of Germany, France, China, Japan and Spain. Mines, it was pointed out, being a general danger to navigation, and far more destructive than guns, it was illogical to render inviolable a town defended by mines and to refuse inviolability to one defended by guns. Moreover, if undefended towns are free from bombardment, what is the need of laying mines on the sea front? A belligerent who has undertaken not to bombard an undefended coast town is entitled to make use of the coast without expecting to run the danger of destruction on approaching it3 . This argument is sound and unanswerable. A town which has mines moored before its harbour has taken most effective steps to defend itself against occupation, and “the price of immunity from bombardment is that the place shall be left open to the enemy to enter4 .” Captain Ottley, however, failed to convince the Committee and the paragraph was retained by 21 votes to 5, 11 delegates not voting.
Article 2.The first Article having laid down the rule of non-bombardment of undefended coast towns, the second and third Articles proceed to make exceptions. These exceptions were considered necessary owing to the special character of naval warfare. Military works, military or naval establishments, depôts of arms or war material, workshops or plant which can be utilised for the needs of the hostile fleet or army, as well as ships of war in the harbour, are not included in the prohibition against bombardment. Considerable difficulty was experienced in framing the first paragraph. The word “installations” was adopted to cover such works as are not solely for warlike purposes. An undefended coast town may be an important railway centre, or have floating-docks of great value for the repair of vessels; these are intended to be included under “installations.” The word “provisions” was inserted in one of the drafts but “matériel de guerre,” an extremely wide term, was ultimately substituted. This Article might, and probably will, be held to confer a right on a commander to destroy by bombardment railway stations, bridges, entrepôts, coal stacks, whether belonging to public authorities or private persons. The commander of a naval force may destroy the military works, etc. with artillery, if the local authorities after due warning do not destroy them, and where military necessity demands they may be destroyed with artillery without any warning. The commander incurs no liability for unavoidable damage caused by such bombardments; he must, however, take measures in order that the town may suffer as little harm as possible.
Article 3.Article 3 provides the second exception to the prohibition of Article 1. Bombardment is allowed if, after formal demand, the authorities of an undefended coast town do not furnish provisions and supplies necessary for the immediate use of the naval force, but the requisitions must be in proportion to the resources of the place. The requisitions demanded can only be for the supply of the naval force before the place.
This Article adopts the principles of Article 4 of the Draft Regulations of the Institut de Droit International, but these are in excess of the measures allowed for land warfare. In case of undefended towns if requisitions are not forthcoming, the army proceeds to take them. Mr Hall was of opinion that where a naval force demanded requisitions they should send a landing party and follow a similar course1 . In land warfare, the General can usually from observations on the spot form an accurate estimate of the capacity of a place to provide the requisitions demanded, but in the case of a naval commander this will in many cases prove an impossibility. Under this Article, if after due notice, the amount of requisitions which the naval commander deems to be within the resources of the locality are not provided, he can at once open fire as a punishment for the refusal. The punishment appears excessive. A naval commander may have largely over-estimated the capabilities of a town, which may already be in a state of want, but on failure to comply with his demands the inhabitants will find themselves not only faced by hunger but by the further terror of a naval bombardment.
Article 4.Article 4 corresponds to one which was contained in the original proposition of the United States, and forbade the bombardment of a town on account of the non-payment of a ransom. The Committee preferred to suppress the word, as to forbid it in this connection might have led to the inference that the demand of a ransom was not prohibited in principle.
Chapter ii. Articles 5, 6 and 7.Articles 5, 6 and 7, which refer to naval bombardments generally and not only to cases allowed by the preceding Articles, correspond, with modifications to suit naval warfare, to Articles 26-28 of the Regulations on the laws and customs of war on land. The distinctive sign to be affixed to buildings devoted to religion, art, science, etc. is expressly described in this case, whereas in land warfare the sign is to be notified beforehand by the besieged to the besiegers. An objection was made by the delegates of the United States and Japan on the grounds of the difficulty of providing a distinctive mark which would be suitable under all circumstances, and of the possibility of its being abused. The sign described in Article 5 was devised by a Committee of three naval officers, Admiral Arago (France), Captain Castiglia (Italy) and Captain Behr (Russia)1 .
The form of the sixth Article is due to Captain Ottley’s representation, in which he received the support of the Japanese delegate (M. Tsudzuki). The original draft laid down that previous warning of a bombardment should be given to the authorities, but Captain Ottley pointed out that it was frequently of the greatest importance to attack and destroy as speedily as possible a fortress or arsenal of the enemy or war-ships in port. Notice would in many cases be fatal to the success of an attack. A fleet, for instance, arrives before a fortress or naval port without having been observed by the enemy; to give warning of the bombardment would nullify the effect of the manœuvre2 . Under the Article as it now stands, the commander of the attacking force must, except where military exigencies do not permit it, do his utmost to warn the authorities before commencing the bombardment. This exception brings the Article into harmony with the corresponding Article in 4 H. C. 1907, Regulations (Art. 26).
Article 7 by the transposition of the word “even” emphasises the prohibition against pillage contained in 4 H. C. 1907, Regulations (Art. 27).
Signatory Powers and reservations.The Convention has been signed by all the Powers represented at the Conference except China, Spain and Nicaragua. Great Britain, France, Germany and Japan made reservations of the second paragraph of Article 1, which provides that a place cannot be bombarded for the sole fact that automatic submarine contact mines are moored before its port. Chili made a reservation of Article 3.
The value of this Convention will depend greatly on the spirit in which it is executed by naval commanders. Like most of the other Conventions of the Conference it is tentative. The bold and categorical prohibition of Article 1 is weakened by the two following Articles. Towns which are undefended can avoid bombardment if after due notice they carry out the destruction of the military works, etc. mentioned in Article 2, paragraph 1, but “military necessities” may not always allow of this notice being given, and then the towns where such military works, etc. exist will find themselves without any warning, and although “undefended,” subjected to bombardment; not directly, it is true, for the guns of the attacking fleet will be turned on the military works, etc., but some parts of the town cannot escape destruction.
Undefended coast towns are still in many cases left to be dealt with as the “necessities of war” require, but it cannot be denied that it is a distinct gain to have obtained a definite agreement prohibiting the attack or bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, villages, habitations and buildings, and to have the prohibition made applicable in cases of non-payment of a money contribution.
[1 ]List of States as in Final Act, 1907.
[1 ]Parl. Papers, Misc. No. 4 (1908), pp. 27, 113-119; La Deux. Confér. T. i. pp. 111-119; T. iii. pp. 341-364, 518, 538-550, 655-9; Livre Jaune, p. 86; Weissbuch, p. 10; Annuaire de l’Institut de Droit International, Vol. xv. p. 313; Sir T. Barclay, Problems, etc. p. 51; Bonfils-Fanchille, Droit international (5th ed.), § 1277; T. E. Holland, Studies in International Law, p. 96; W. E. Hall, Int. Law, pp. 433, 537; C. Dupuis, Le droit de la guerre maritime, §§ 67-72; T. J. Lawrence, International Problems, etc. p. 119; Idem, Int. Law, p. 443; E. Lémonon, La seconde Conférence, etc. pp. 503-525; L. Oppenheim, Int. Law, Vol. ii. § 213; J. W. Scott, Bombardment by Naval Forces, Am. Journ. of Int. Law, Vol. ii. p. 285; H. Taylor, Int. Law, p. 499; J. Westlake, War, pp. 76, 315.
[1 ]Vol. l. p. 331.
[2 ]Studies in International Law, p. 96.
[3 ]International Law, p. 436.
[4 ]See Annuaire, Vol. xv. (1896), pp. 145, 148.
[1 ]La Deux. Confér. T. iii. pp. 655-9.
[2 ]The question of the bombardment of the Hague from the sea was mentioned during the discussion, by General den Beer Poortugael (La Deux. Confér. T. iii. p. 546). Professor Holland’s opinion on the subject given in 1890 may be referred to in this connection, Studies, etc. p. 105.
[3 ]La Deux. Confér. T. iii. p. 343.
[4 ]J. Westlake, War, p. 315.
[1 ]See ante, p. 353.
[1 ]La Deux. Confér. T. i. p. 117; T. iii. p. 352.
[2 ]Ibid. T. iii. p. 542.